Primary sclerosing cholangitis

References

Key articles

LaRusso NF, Shneider BL, Black D, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: summary of a workshop. Hepatology. 2006 Sep;44(3):746-64. Abstract

Chapman R, Fevery J, Kalloo A, et al. Diagnosis and management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Hepatology. 2010 Feb;51(2):660-78.Full text  Abstract

Dave M, Elmunzer BJ, Dwamena BA, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of MR cholangiopancreatography. Radiology. 2010 Aug;256(2):387-96.Full text  Abstract

European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of cholestatic liver diseases. J Hepatol. 2009 Aug;51(2):237-67.Full text  Abstract

Poropat G, Giljaca V, Stimac D, et al. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19;(1):CD003626.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. LaRusso NF, Shneider BL, Black D, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: summary of a workshop. Hepatology. 2006 Sep;44(3):746-64. Abstract

2. Kaplan GG, Laupland KB, Butzner D, et al. The burden of large and small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis in adults and children: a population-based analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 May;102(5):1042-9. Abstract

3. Feldstein AE, Perrault J, El-Youssif M, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis in children: a long-term follow-up study. Hepatology. 2003 Jul;38(1):210-7. Abstract

4. Kingham JG, Kochar N, Gravenor MB. Incidence, clinical patterns and outcomes of primary sclerosing cholangitis in South Wales, United Kingdom. Gastroenterology 2004 Jun;126(7):1929-30. Abstract

5. Bambha K, Kim WR, Talwalkar J, et al. Incidence, clinical spectrum, and outcomes of primary sclerosing cholangitis in a United States community. Gastroenterology. 2003 Nov;125(5):1364-9. Abstract

6. Floreani A, Rizzotto ER, Ferrara F, et al. Clinical course and outcome of autoimmune hepatitis/primary sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:1516-1522. Abstract

7. Tischendorf JJ, Hecker H, Kruger M, et al. Characterization, outcome, and prognosis in 273 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: a single center study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jan;102(1):107-14. Abstract

8. Tabibian JH, Ali AH, Lindor KD. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, part 1: epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2018 May;14(5):293-304.Full text  Abstract

9. Liang H, Manne S, Shick J, et al. Incidence, prevalence, and natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis in the United Kingdom. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Jun;96(24):e7116.Full text  Abstract

10. Tanaka A, Takikawa H. Geoepidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis: a critical review. J Autoimmun. 2013 Aug 7;46:35-40. Abstract

11. Bergquist A, Said K, Broome U. Changes over a 20-year period in the clinical presentation of primary sclerosing cholangitis in Sweden. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jan;42(1):88-93. Abstract

12. Angulo P, Maor-Kendler Y, Lindor K. Small-duct primary sclerosing cholangitis: a long-term follow-up study. Hepatology. 2002 Jun;35(6):1494-500. Abstract

13. Karlsen TH, Folseraas T, Thorburn D, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis - a comprehensive review. J Hepatol. 2017 Aug 10;67(6):1298-323.Full text  Abstract

14. Escorsell A, Pares A, Rodes J, et al. Epidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis in Spain. Spanish Association for the Study of the Liver. J Hepatol. 1994 Nov;21(5):787-91. Abstract

15. Takikawa H. Characteristics of primary sclerosing cholangitis in Japan. Hepatol Res. 2007 Oct;37 Suppl 3:S470-3. Abstract

16. Hov JR, Boberg KM, Karlsen TH. Autoantibodies in primary sclerosing cholangitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jun 28;14(24):3781-91. Abstract

17. Saarinen S, Olerup O, Broome U. Increased frequency of autoimmune diseases in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Nov;95(11):3195-9. Abstract

18. Donaldson PT, Norris S. Evaluation of the role of MHC class II alleles, haplotypes and selected amino acid sequences in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Autoimmunity. 2002 Dec;35(8):555-64. Abstract

19. Bergquist A, Montgomery SM, Bahmanyar S, et al. Increased risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis in first-degree relatives of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Aug;6(8):939-43. Abstract

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21. Olsson R, Björnsson E, Bäckman L, et al. Bile duct bacterial isolates in primary sclerosing cholangitis: a study of explanted livers. J Hepatol. 1998 Mar;28(3):426-32. Abstract

22. Katabi N, Albores-Saavedra J. The extrahepatic bile duct lesions in end-stage primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003 Mar;27(3):349-55. Abstract

23. Chapman R, Cullen S. Etiopathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jun 7;14(21):3350-9. Abstract

24. Loftus EV Jr, Harewood GC, Loftus CG, et al. PSC-IBD: a unique form of inflammatory bowel disease associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gut. 2005 Jan;54(1):91-6.Full text  Abstract

25. Abdalian R, Heathcote EJ. Sclerosing cholangitis: a focus on secondary causes. Hepatology. 2006 Nov;44(5):1063-74. Abstract

26. Tung BY, Brentnall T, Kowdley K, et al. Diagnosis and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in patients with sclerosing cholangitis (abstract). Paper presented at: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, 47th annual meeting. Nov 8-12, 1996. Chicago, IL. Hepatology. 1996 Oct;24(4 Pt 2):169A. Abstract

27. Broomé U, Olsson R, Lööf L, et al. Natural history and prognostic factors in 305 Swedish patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gut. 1996 Apr;38(4):610-5.Full text  Abstract

28. Wilschanski M, Chait P, Wade JA, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis in 32 children: clinical, laboratory, and radiographic features, with survival analysis. Hepatology. 1995 Nov;22(5):1415-22. Abstract

29. Afdhal N, McHutchison J, Brown R, et al. Thrombocytopenia associated with chronic liver disease. J Hepatol. 2008 Jun;48(6):1000-7.Full text  Abstract

30. Boberg KM, Aadland E, Jahnsen J, et al. Incidence and prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis in a Norwegian population. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1998 Jan;33(1):99-103. Abstract

31. Chapman R, Fevery J, Kalloo A, et al. Diagnosis and management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Hepatology. 2010 Feb;51(2):660-78.Full text  Abstract

32. Walker SL, McCormick PA. Diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma in primary sclerosing cholangitis: an "evidence based radiology" review. Abdom Imaging. 2008 Jan-Feb;33(1):14-7. Abstract

33. Campbell WL, Peterson MS, Federle MP, et al. Using CT and cholangiography to diagnose biliary tract carcinoma complicating primary sclerosing cholangitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001 Nov;177(5):1095-100.Full text  Abstract

34. Ament AE, Haaga JR, Wiedenmann SD, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: CT findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1983 Oct;7(5):795-800. Abstract

35. Lindor KD, Kowdley KV, Harrison ME; American College of Gastroenterology. ACG clinical guideline: primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015 May;110(5):646-59.Full text  Abstract

36. Dave M, Elmunzer BJ, Dwamena BA, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of MR cholangiopancreatography. Radiology. 2010 Aug;256(2):387-96.Full text  Abstract

37. de Rougemont O, Dutkowski P, Clavien PA. Clinical update on inflammatory disorders of the GI tract: liver transplantation. In: Mayerle J, Tilg H, eds. Clinical update on inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research. Vol. 26. Basel: Karger; 2010:59-71.

38. Terada T, Nakanuma Y. Intrahepatic cholangiographic appearance simulating primary sclerosing cholangitis in several hepatobiliary diseases: a postmortem cholangiographic and histopathological study in 154 livers at autopsy. Hepatology. 1995 Jul;22(1):75-81. Abstract

39. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of cholestatic liver diseases. J Hepatol. 2009 Aug;51(2):237-67.Full text  Abstract

40. Zein CO, Jorgensen RA, Clarke B, et al. Alendronate improves bone mineral density in primary biliary cirrhosis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Hepatology. 2005 Oct;42(4):762-71.Full text  Abstract

41. Collier J. Bone disorders in chronic liver disease. Hepatology. 2007 Oct;46(4):1271-8.Full text  Abstract

42. Vleggaar FP, Lutgens MW, Claessen MM, et al. Review article: the relevance of surveillance endoscopy in long-lasting inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Dec;26 Suppl 2:47-52. Abstract

43. Burak KW, Angulo P, Lindor KD. Is there a role for liver biopsy in primary sclerosing cholangitis? Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 May;98(5):1155-8. Abstract

44. Wiesner RH, LaRusso NF, Ludwig J, et al. Comparison of the clinicopathologic features of primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 1985 Jan;88(1 Pt 1):108-14. Abstract

45. Ludwig J, Barham SS, LaRusso NF, et al. Morphologic features of chronic hepatitis associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis and chronic ulcerative colitis. Hepatology. 1981 Nov-Dec;1(6):632-40. Abstract

46. Baron TH, Harewood GC, Rumalla A, et al. A prospective comparison of digital image analysis and routine cytology for the identification of malignancy in biliary tract strictures. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Mar;2(3):214-9. Abstract

47. Liew ZH, Loh TJ, Lim TK, et al. Role of fluorescence in situ hybridization in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma in indeterminate biliary strictures. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jan;33(1):315-9. Abstract

48. Etzel JP, Eng SC, Ko CW, et al. Complications after ERCP in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008 Apr;67(4):643-8. Abstract

49. Nishino T, Oyama H, Hashimoto E, et al. Clinicopathological differentiation between sclerosing cholangitis with autoimmune pancreatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jul;42(7):550-9. Abstract

50. Björnsson E. Immunoglobulin G4-associated cholangitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008 May;24(3):389-94. Abstract

51. Alvarez F, Berg PA, Bianchi FB, et al. International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group Report: review of criteria for diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. J Hepatol. 1999 Nov;31(5):929-38. Abstract

52. Kaplan MM, Gershwin ME. Primary biliary cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 22;353(12):1261-73. Abstract

53. Navaneethan U, Shen B. Hepatopancreatobiliary manifestations and complications associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010 Sep;16(9):1598-619.Full text  Abstract

54. Belle A, Laurent V, Pouillon L, et al. Systematic screening for primary sclerosing cholangitis with magnetic resonance cholangiography in inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2018 Oct;50(10):1012-18.Full text  Abstract

55. Chapman MH, Thorburn D, Hirschfield GM, et al. British Society of Gastroenterology and UK-PSC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gut. 2019 Aug;68(8):1356-78.Full text  Abstract

56. Carey JB Jr, Williams G. Relief of the pruritus of jaundice with a bile-acid sequestering resin. JAMA. 1961 May 6;176:432-5. Abstract

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58. Terg R, Coronel E, Sordá J, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral naltrexone treatment for pruritus of cholestasis, a crossover, double blind, placebo-controlled study. J Hepatol. 2002 Dec;37(6):717-22. Abstract

59. Mayo MJ, Handem I, Saldana S, et al. Sertraline as a first-line treatment for cholestatic pruritus. Hepatology. 2007 Mar;45(3):666-74.Full text  Abstract

60. Singh S, Khanna S, Pardi DS, et al. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid use on the risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Jul;19(8):1631-8. Abstract

61. Michaels A, Levy C. The medical management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Medscape J Med. 2008 Mar 12;10(3):61.Full text  Abstract

62. Manns MP, Czaja AJ, Gorham JD, et al. Diagnosis and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology. 2010 Jun;51(6):2193-213.Full text  Abstract

63. Gluck M, Cantone NR, Brandaburr JJ, et al. A twenty-year experience with endoscopic therapy for symptomatic primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Oct;42(9):1032-9. Abstract

64. Gotthardt DN, Rudolph G, Klöters-Plachky P, et al. Endoscopic dilation of dominant stenoses in primary sclerosing cholangitis: outcome after long-term treatment. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010 Mar;71(3):527-34. Abstract

65. Aljiffry M, Renfrew PD, Walsh MJ, et al. Analytical review of diagnosis and treatment strategies for dominant bile duct strictures in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. HPB (Oxford). 2011 Feb;13(2):79-90. Abstract

66. Kaya M, Petersen BT, Angulo P, et al. Balloon dilation compared to stenting of dominant strictures in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Apr;96(4):1059-66. Abstract

67. Ponsioen CY, Arnelo U, Bergquist A, et al. No superiority of stents vs balloon dilatation for dominant strictures in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gastroenterology. 2018 May 24;155(3):752-9.e5. Abstract

68. Stiehl A, Rudolph G, Kloters-Plachky P, et al. Development of dominant bile duct stenoses in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis treated with ursodeoxycholic acid: outcome after endoscopic treatment. J Hepatol. 2002 Feb;36(2):151-6. Abstract

69. Hirota WK, Petersen K, Baron TH, et al. Guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis for GI endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003 Oct;58(4):475-82. Abstract

70. Pawlik TM, Olbrecht VA, Pitt HA, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: role of extrahepatic biliary resection. J Am Coll Surg. 2008 May;206(5):822-30. Abstract

71. Graziadei IW. Wiesner RH, Marotta PJ, et al. Long-term results of patients undergoing liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Hepatology. 1999 Nov;30(5):1121-7. Abstract

72. Graziadei IW, Wiesner RH, Batts KP, et al. Recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis following liver transplantation. Hepatology. 1999 Apr;29(4):1050-6. Abstract

73. Gordon F. Recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis: clinical diagnosis and long-term management issues. Liver Transpl. 2006 Nov;12(11 Suppl 2):S73-5. Abstract

74. Alexander J, Lord JD, Yeh MM, et al. Risk factors for recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2008 Feb;14(2):245-51. Abstract

75. Campsen J, Zimmerman MA, Trotter JF, et al. Clinically recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis following liver transplantation: a time course. Liver Transpl. 2008 Feb;14(2):181-5. Abstract

76. Poropat G, Giljaca V, Stimac D, et al. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19;(1):CD003626.Full text  Abstract

77. Eaton JE, Silveira MG, Pardi DS, et al. High-dose ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with the development of colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;106(9):1638-45. Abstract

78. Wunsch E, Trottier J, Milkiewicz M, et al. Prospective evaluation of ursodeoxycholic acid withdrawal in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Hepatology. 2014 Jul 30;60(3):931-40.Full text  Abstract

79. Triantos CK, Koukias NM, Nikolopoulou VN, et al. Meta-analysis: ursodeoxycholic acid for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Oct;34(8):901-10. Abstract

80. Volk ML. Risks of using ursodeoxycholic acid to treat primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gastroenterology. 2011 Oct 24;141(6):2267-8.Full text  Abstract

81. Guañabens N, Parés A, Ros I, et al. Alendronate is more effective than etidronate for increasing bone mass in osteopenic patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Oct;98(10):2268-74. Abstract

82. Stokkeland K, Höijer J, Bottai M, et al. Statin use is associated with improved outcomes of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Nov 15 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

83. Hey P, Lokan J, Johnson P, et al. Efficacy of oral vancomycin in recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis following liver transplantation. BMJ Case Rep. 2017 Sep 25;2017:bcr-2017-221165.Full text  Abstract

84. Tabibian JH, Weeding E, Jorgensen RA, et al. Randomised clinical trial: vancomycin or metronidazole in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis - a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Feb 5;37(6):604-12.Full text  Abstract

85. de Chambrun GP, Nachury M, Funakoshi N, et al. Oral vancomycin induces sustained deep remission in adult patients with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Oct;30(10):1247-52. Abstract

86. Davies YK, Cox KM, Abdullah BA, et al. Long-term treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis in children with oral vancomycin: an immunomodulating antibiotic. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008 Jul;47(1):61-7.Full text  Abstract

87. Allegretti JR, Kassam Z, Carrellas M, et al. Fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: a pilot clinical trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jan 31 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

88. Kowdley KV, Vuppalanchi R, Levy C, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II study of obeticholic acid for primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Hepatol. 2020 Jul;73(1):94-101.Full text  Abstract

89. Fickert P, Hirschfield GM, Denk G, et al. norUrsodeoxycholic acid improves cholestasis in primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Hepatol. 2017 Sep;67(3):549-58.Full text  Abstract

90. Wiesner RH, Grambsch PM, Dickson ER, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: natural history, prognostic factors and survival analysis. Hepatology. 1989 Oct;10(4):430-6. Abstract

91. Claessen MM, Vleggaar FP, Tytgat KM, et al. High lifetime risk of cancer in primary sclerosing cholangitis. J Hepatol. 2009 Jan;50(1):158-64. Abstract

92. Boonstra K, Weersma RK, van Erpecum KJ, et al. Population-based epidemiology, malignancy risk and outcome of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Hepatology. 2013 Dec;58(6):2045-55. Abstract

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95. Björnsson E, Olsson R, Bergquist A, et al. The natural history of small-duct primary sclerosing cholangitis. Gastroenterology. 2008 Apr;134(4):975-80. Abstract

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99. Kim WR, Therneau TM, Wiesner RH, et al. A revised natural history model for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000 Jul;75(7):688-94. Abstract

100. Fevery J, Verslype C, Lai G, et al. Incidence, diagnosis, and therapy of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Nov;52(11):3123-35. Abstract

101. Burak K, Angulo P, Pasha TM, et al. Incidence and risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar;99(3):523-6. Abstract

102. Charatcharoenwitthaya P, Enders FB, Halling KC, et al. Utility of serum markers, imaging, and biliary cytology for detecting cholangiocarcinoma in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Hepatology. 2008 Oct;48(4):1106-17. Abstract

103. Tischendorf JJ, Krüger M, Trautwein C, et al. Cholangioscopic characterization of dominant bile duct stenoses in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Endoscopy. 2006 Jul;38(7):665-9. Abstract

104. Tischendorf JJ, Meier PN, Schneider A, et al. Transpapillary intraductal ultrasound in the evaluation of dominant bile duct stenoses in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007 Aug;42(8):1011-7. Abstract

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107. Bowlus CL, Lim JK, Lindor KD. AGA clinical practice update on surveillance for hepatobiliary cancers in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: expert review. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Nov;17(12):2416-22.Full text  Abstract

108. Tabibian JH, Ali AH, Lindor KD. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, part 2: cancer risk, prevention, and surveillance. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2018 Jul;14(7):427-32.Full text  Abstract

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112. Soetikno RM, Lin OS, Heidenreich PA, et al. Increased risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002 Jul;56(1):48-54. Abstract

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