Screening

There are no established screening guidelines for the general population for CKD. However, based on expert opinion, there are recommendations to screen those considered high-risk and include all individuals with diabetes and hypertension age <50 years, and all of those age >50 years, with an annual urinalysis and serum creatinine. Other high-risk populations, such as those with a family history of kidney disease, should also be considered in the screening program.[48]

Patients with risk factors for CKD such as diabetes, hypertension, or a family member with CKD should be evaluated annually with serum creatinine and mathematical formulation for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in addition to urinalysis for hematuria and/or proteinuria. 

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