This is a common condition that is often unrecognized until the most advanced stages. It is estimated that 9% to 13% of the adult population worldwide has CKD. In 2017, the estimated worldwide prevalence of CKD stages 1 to 2 accounted for 5%, stage 3 for 3.9%, stage 4 for 0.16%, stage 5 for 0.07%, dialysis for 0.041%, and kidney transplantation for 0.011%. Prevalence in the US adult population is 13%. The incidence is rising and is thought to be due to an aging population; a higher incidence of diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, which are the most common causes in the adult population; and an increased incidence of glomerular disorders such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Black people, Hispanic people, and those with a family member who has a diagnosis of kidney disease have a higher prevalence than the general population. Additionally, individuals with an episode of acute kidney injury are most likely to be at risk for chronic kidney injury and end-stage kidney disease in the future.
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