Growth hormone deficiency in children

References

Key articles

Mehta A, Dattani MT. Congenital disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In: Brook CG, Clayton PE, Brown RS, et al., eds. Clinical pediatric endocrinology. 5th ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing; 2005:62-89.

Hage C, Gan HW, Ibba A, et al. Advances in differential diagnosis and management of growth hormone deficiency in children. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2021 Oct;17(10):608-24. Abstract

Grimberg A, DiVall SA, Polychronakos C, et al. Guidelines for growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I treatment in children and adolescents: growth hormone deficiency, idiopathic short stature, and primary insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency. Horm Res Paediatr. 2016;86(6):361-97.Full text  Abstract

Sklar CA, Antal Z, Chemaitilly W, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary and growth disorders in survivors of childhood cancer: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 1;103(8):2761-84.Full text  Abstract

Segal TY, Mehta A, Anazodo A, et al. Role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation tests in differentiating patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism from those with constitutional delay of growth and puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Mar;94(3):780-5. Abstract

Dattani M, Preece M. Growth hormone deficiency and related disorders: insights into causation, diagnosis, and treatment. Lancet. 2004 Jun 12;363(9425):1977-87. Abstract

Ho KK, 2007 GH Deficiency Consensus Workshop Participants. Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of adults with GH deficiency II: a statement of the GH Research Society in association with the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, Lawson Wilkins Society, European Society of Endocrinology, Japan Endocrine Society, and Endocrine Society of Australia. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Dec;157(6):695-700.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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27. Carakushansky M, Whatmore AJ, Clayton PE, et al. A new missense mutation in the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor gene in familial isolated GH deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003 Jan;148(1):25-30.Full text  Abstract

28. Moseley CT, Mullis PE, Prince MA, et al. An exon splice enhancer mutation causes autosomal dominant GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb;87(2):847-52.Full text  Abstract

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33. Esberg BH, Jacobsen BB. Isolated congenital growth hormone deficiency: severe hypoglycemia and neonatal giant cell hepatitis [in Danish]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1996 Nov 4;158(45):6467-9. Abstract

34. Ogilvy-Stuart AL. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) from birth to 2 years of age: diagnostic specifics of GHD during the early phase of life. Horm Res. 2003;60(suppl 1):2-9.Full text  Abstract

35. Binder G, Weidenkeller M, Blumenstock G, et al. Rational approach to the diagnosis of severe growth hormone deficiency in the newborn. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 May;95(5):2219-26. Abstract

36. Bosch I Ara L, Katugampola H, Dattani MT. Congenital hypopituitarism during the neonatal period: epidemiology, pathogenesis, therapeutic options, and outcome. Front Pediatr. 2021 Feb 2;8:600962.Full text  Abstract

37. Van der Kaay DC, Van Heel WJ, Dudink J, et al. Transient diabetes insipidus in a preterm neonate and the challenge of desmopressin dosing. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jul;27(7-8):769-71. Abstract

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41. Sfeir JG, Kittah NEN, Tamhane SU, et al. Diagnosis of GH deficiency as a late effect of radiotherapy in survivors of childhood cancers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 1;103(8):2785-93.Full text  Abstract

42. Grimberg A, DiVall SA, Polychronakos C, et al. Guidelines for growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I treatment in children and adolescents: growth hormone deficiency, idiopathic short stature, and primary insulin-like growth factor-I deficiency. Horm Res Paediatr. 2016;86(6):361-97.Full text  Abstract

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44. Sklar CA, Antal Z, Chemaitilly W, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary and growth disorders in survivors of childhood cancer: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Aug 1;103(8):2761-84.Full text  Abstract

45. Tillmann V, Tang VW, Price DA, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov-Dec;13(9):1577-83. Abstract

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47. Hussain K, Hindmarsh P, Aynsley-Green A. Spontaneous hypoglycemia in childhood is accompanied by paradoxically low serum growth hormone and appropriate cortisol counterregulatory hormonal responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Aug;88(8):3715-23.Full text  Abstract

48. Mehta A, Hindmarsh PC, Stanhope RG, et al. Is the thyrotropin-releasing hormone test necessary in the diagnosis of central hypothyroidism in children? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Dec;88(12):5696-703.Full text  Abstract

49. van Tijn DA, de Vijlder JJ, Vulsma T. Role of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in diagnosis of congenital central hypothyroidism in infants. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Feb;93(2):410-9.Full text  Abstract

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51. Mehta A, Hindmarsh PC, Dattani MT. An update on the biochemical diagnosis of congenital ACTH insufficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Mar;62(3):307-14. Abstract

52. Segal TY, Mehta A, Anazodo A, et al. Role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation tests in differentiating patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism from those with constitutional delay of growth and puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Mar;94(3):780-5. Abstract

53. Turton JP, Mehta A, Raza J, et al. Mutations within the transcription factor PROP1 are rare in a cohort of patients with sporadic combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Jul;63(1):10-8. Abstract

54. Birla S, Khadgawat R, Jyotsna VP, et al. Identification of novel GHRHR and GH1 mutations in patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2016 Aug;29:50-6. Abstract

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57. Yuen KCJ, Biller BMK, Radovick S, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology guidelines for management of growth hormone deficiency in adults and patients transitioning from pediatric to adult care. Endocr Pract. 2019 Nov;25(11):1191-232.Full text  Abstract

58. Dattani M, Preece M. Growth hormone deficiency and related disorders: insights into causation, diagnosis, and treatment. Lancet. 2004 Jun 12;363(9425):1977-87. Abstract

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