Evaluation of abdominal pain in children

References

Key articles

Di Lorenzo C, Colletti RB, Lehmann HP, et al; AAP Subcommittee, NASPGHAN Committee on Chronic Abdominal Pain. Chronic abdominal pain in children: a technical report of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005 Mar;40(3):249-61.Full text  Abstract

Di Lorenzo C, Colletti RB, Lehmann HP, et al; American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Chronic Abdominal Pain; NASPGHAN Committee on Abdominal Pain. Chronic abdominal pain in children: a clinical report of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005 Mar;40(3):245-8.Full text  Abstract

Dahabreh IJ, Adam GP, Halladay CW, et al; Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Comparative Effectiveness Review: number 157. Diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain and suspected acute appendicitis. Dec 2015 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

Tabbers MM, DiLorenzo C, Berger MY, et al; European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition; North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology. Evaluation and treatment of functional constipation in infants and children: evidence-based recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Feb;58(2):258-74.Full text  Abstract

Howell JM, Eddy OL, Lukens TW, et al. American College of Emergency Physicians. Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of emergency department patients with suspected appendicitis. Ann Emerg Med. 2010 Jan;55(1):71-116. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Koppen IJ, Vriesman MH, Saps M, et al. Prevalence of functional defecation disorders in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pediatr. 2018 Jul;198:121-30.e6. Abstract

2. Zeevenhooven J, Koppen IJ, Benninga MA. The new Rome IV criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders in infants and toddlers. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 2017 Mar;20(1):1-13.Full text  Abstract

3. Benninga MA, Faure C, Hyman PE, et al. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: neonate/toddler. Gastroenterology. 2016 Feb 15;150(6):P1443-55. Abstract

4. Wessel MA, Cobb JC, Jackson EB, et al. Paroxysmal fussing in infancy, sometimes called colic. Pediatrics. 1954 Nov;14(5):421-35. Abstract

5. Lucassen PL, Assendelft WJ, van Eijk JT, et al. Systematic review of the occurrence of infantile colic in the community. Arch Dis Child. 2001 May;84(5):398-403.Full text  Abstract

6. Omling E, Salö M, Saluja S, et al. Nationwide study of appendicitis in children. Br J Surg. 2019 Nov;106(12):1623-31.Full text  Abstract

7. Howell EC, Dubina ED, Lee SL. Perforation risk in pediatric appendicitis: assessment and management. Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2018 Oct 26;9:135-45.Full text  Abstract

8. Alvarado A. A practical score for the early diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ann Emerg Med. 1986 May;15(5):557-64. Abstract

9. Samuel M. Pediatric appendicitis score. J Pediatr Surg. 2002 Jun;37(6):877-81. Abstract

10. Cotton DM, Vinson DR, Vazquez-Benitez G, et al; Clinical Research on Emergency Services and Treatments (CREST) Network. Validation of the Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator (pARC) in a community emergency department setting. Ann Emerg Med. 2019 Oct;74(4):471-80.Full text  Abstract

11. Kharbanda AB, Vazquez-Benitez G, Ballard DW, et al. Development and validation of a novel Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator (pARC). Pediatrics. 2018 Apr;141(4):e20172699.Full text  Abstract

12. Mandeville K, Pottker T, Bulloch B, et al. Using appendicitis scores in the pediatric ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2011 Nov;29(9):972-7. Abstract

13. Di Saverio S, Podda M, De Simone B, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis: 2020 update of the WSES Jerusalem guidelines. World J Emerg Surg. 2020 Apr 15;15(1):27.Full text  Abstract

14. Li J. Revisiting delayed appendectomy in patients with acute appendicitis. World J Clin Cases. 2021 Jul 16;9(20):5372-90.Full text  Abstract

15. Papandria D, Goldstein SD, Rhee D, et al. Risk of perforation increases with delay in recognition and surgery for acute appendicitis. J Surg Res. 2013 Oct;184(2):723-9.Full text  Abstract

16. Manatakis DK, Aheimastos V, Antonopoulou MI, et al. Unfinished business: a systematic review of stump appendicitis. World J Surg. 2019 Nov;43(11):2756-61. Abstract

17. Sunkara T, Rawla P, Yarlagadda KS, et al. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: diagnosis and clinical perspectives. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun 5;12:239-53.Full text  Abstract

18. Salvadori M, Bertoni E. Update on hemolytic uremic syndrome: diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations. World J Nephrol. 2013 Aug 6;2(3):56-76.Full text  Abstract

19. Jiang J, Jiang B, Parashar U, et al. Childhood intussusception: a literature review. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e68482.Full text  Abstract

20. Mateen MA, Saleem S, Rao PC, et al. Transient small bowel intussusceptions: ultrasound findings and clinical significance. Abdom Imaging. 2006 Jul-Aug;31(4):410-6. Abstract

21. Hansen CC, Søreide K. Systematic review of epidemiology, presentation, and management of Meckel's diverticulum in the 21st century. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Aug;97(35):e12154.Full text  Abstract

22. Elsayes KM, Menias CO, Harvin HJ, et al. Imaging manifestations of Meckel's diverticulum. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Jul;189(1):81-8.Full text  Abstract

23. Lin XK, Huang XZ, Bao XZ, et al. Clinical characteristics of Meckel diverticulum in children: a retrospective review of a 15-year single-center experience. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Aug;96(32):e7760.Full text  Abstract

24. Karabulut R, Sonmez K, Turkyilmaz Z, et al. Negative appendectomy experience in children. Ir J Med Sci. 2011 Mar;180(1):55-8. Abstract

25. Gross I, Siedner-Weintraub Y, Stibbe S, et al. Characteristics of mesenteric lymphadenitis in comparison with those of acute appendicitis in children. Eur J Pediatr. 2017 Feb;176(2):199-205. Abstract

26. Shalaby MS, Kuti K, Walker G. Intestinal malrotation and volvulus in infants and children. BMJ. 2013 Nov 26;347:f6949. Abstract

27. Destro F, Maestri L, Meroni M, et al. Colonic volvulus in children: surgical management of a challenging condition. Children (Basel). 2021 Oct 30;8(11):982.Full text  Abstract

28. Battersby C, Santhalingam T, Costeloe K, et al. Incidence of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis in high-income countries: a systematic review. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2018 Mar;103(2):F182-9. Abstract

29. Neu J, Walker WA. Necrotizing enterocolitis. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jan 20;364(3):255-64.Full text  Abstract

30. Sullivan PB. Symposium: gastroenterology. Peptic ulcer disease in children. Paediatr Child Health. 2010 Oct;20(10):462-4.Full text

31. Rinawi F, Assa A, Eliakim R, et al. The natural history of pediatric-onset IBD-unclassified and prediction of Crohn's disease reclassification: a 27-year study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2017 May;52(5):558-63. Abstract

32. Carvalho RS, Abadom V, Dilworth HP, et al. Indeterminate colitis: a significant subgroup of pediatric IBD. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 Apr;12(4):258-62.Full text  Abstract

33. Ye Y, Manne S, Treem WR, et al. Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric and adult populations: recent estimates from large national databases in the United States, 2007-2016. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2020 Mar 4;26(4):619-25.Full text  Abstract

34. Feuerstein JD, Cheifetz AS. Crohn disease: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Mayo Clin Proc. 2017 Jul;92(7):1088-103.Full text  Abstract

35. Torres J, Mehandru S, Colombel JF, et al. Crohn's disease. Lancet. 2017 Apr 29;389(10080):1741-55. Abstract

36. Molodecky NA, Soon IS, Rabi DM, et al. Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review. Gastroenterology. 2012 Jan;142(1):46-54.e42.Full text  Abstract

37. Singh P, Arora A, Strand TA, et al. Global prevalence of celiac disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-36.e2.Full text  Abstract

38. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Coeliac disease: recognition, assessment and management. Sep 2015 [internet publication].Full text

39. Al-Toma A, Volta U, Auricchio R, et al. European Society for the Study of Coeliac Disease (ESsCD) guideline for coeliac disease and other gluten-related disorders. United European Gastroenterol J. 2019 Jun;7(5):583-613.Full text  Abstract

40. Santucci NR, Hyman PE, Harmon CM, et al. Biliary dyskinesia in children: a systematic review. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Feb;64(2):186-93.Full text  Abstract

41. Suzuki M, Sai JK, Shimizu T. Acute pancreatitis in children and adolescents. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2014 Nov 15;5(4):416-26.Full text  Abstract

42. Burgener FA, Meyers SP, Tan RK, et al. Differential diagnosis in magnetic resonance imaging. New York: Thieme; 2002:530.

43. Aslam S, Sohaib A, Reznek RH. Reticuloendothelial disorders: the spleen. In: Adam A, Dixon A, eds. Grainger and Allison's Diagnostic radiology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:1759-70.

44. Bradshaw CJ, Bandi AS, Muktar Z, et al. International study of the epidemiology of paediatric trauma: PAPSA Research Study. World J Surg. 2018 Jun;42(6):1885-94.Full text  Abstract

45. Ladomenou F, Bitsori M, Galanakis E. Incidence and morbidity of urinary tract infection in a prospective cohort of children. Acta Paediatr. 2015 Jul;104(7):e324-9. Abstract

46. De Sanctis V, Soliman A, Bernasconi S, et al. Primary dysmenorrhea in adolescents: prevalence, impact and recent knowledge. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2015 Dec;13(2):512-20. Abstract

47. Zhao LC, Lautz TB, Meeks JJ, et al. Pediatric testicular torsion epidemiology using a national database: incidence, risk of orchiectomy and possible measures toward improving the quality of care. J Urol. 2011 Nov;186(5):2009-13.Full text  Abstract

48. Katz VL. 18. Benign gynecologic lesions: vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, et al., eds. Comprehensive gynecology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2007:419-72.

49. Boyle KJ, Torrealday S. Benign gynecologic conditions. Surg Clin North Am. 2008 Apr;88(2):245-64. Abstract

50. Schultz KA, Ness KK, Nagarajan R, et al. Adnexal masses in infancy and childhood. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Sep;49(3):464-79. Abstract

51. Emeksiz HC, Derinöz O, Akkoyun EB, et al. Age-specific frequencies and characteristics of ovarian cysts in children and adolescents. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2017 Mar 1;9(1):58-62.Full text  Abstract

52. Dasgupta R, Renaud E, Goldin AB, et al. Ovarian torsion in pediatric and adolescent patients: A systematic review. J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Jul;53(7):1387-91. Abstract

53. Trent M. Pelvic inflammatory disease. Pediatr Rev. 2013 Apr;34(4):163-72.Full text  Abstract

54. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021 Jul 23;70(4):1-187.Full text  Abstract

55. WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research. Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy. Managing complications in pregnancy and childbirth: a guide for midwives and doctors. 2007:S-7.Full text

56. American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Early pregnancy loss. Practice bulletin 200. Nov 2018 [internet publication].Full text

57. Bouyer J, Coste J, Fernandez H, et al. Sites of ectopic pregnancy: a 10 year population-based study of 1800 cases. Hum Reprod. 2002 Dec;17(12):3224-30.Full text  Abstract

58. Gaskins AJ, Missmer SA, Rich-Edwards JW, et al. Demographic, lifestyle, and reproductive risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2018 Dec;110(7):1328-37.Full text  Abstract

59. Sectish TC, Prober CG. Pneumonia. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2007:1795-800.

60. Hyams JS, Di Lorenzo C, Saps M, et al. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: child/adolescent. Gastroenterology. 2016 May;150(6):P1456-68.e2. Abstract

61. Drossman DA, Chang L, Chey WD, et al. Rome IV: functional gastrointestinal disorders - disorders of gut-brain interaction. 4th ed. Raleigh, NC: Rome Foundation; 2017.

62. Baaleman DF, Di Lorenzo C, Benninga MA, et al. The effects of the Rome IV criteria on pediatric gastrointestinal practice. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2020 Mar 19;22(5):21.Full text  Abstract

63. Boronat AC, Ferreira-Maia AP, Matijasevich A, et al. Epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents: a systematic review. World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Jun 7;23(21):3915-27.Full text  Abstract

64. Di Lorenzo C, Colletti RB, Lehmann HP, et al; AAP Subcommittee, NASPGHAN Committee on Chronic Abdominal Pain. Chronic abdominal pain in children: a technical report of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005 Mar;40(3):249-61.Full text  Abstract

65. Di Lorenzo C, Colletti RB, Lehmann HP, et al; American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Chronic Abdominal Pain; NASPGHAN Committee on Abdominal Pain. Chronic abdominal pain in children: a clinical report of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005 Mar;40(3):245-8.Full text  Abstract

66. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: suspected appendicitis - child. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

67. Dahabreh IJ, Adam GP, Halladay CW, et al; Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Comparative Effectiveness Review: number 157. Diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain and suspected acute appendicitis. Dec 2015 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

68. Fraser JD, Aguayo P, Sharp SW, et al. Accuracy of computed tomography in predicting appendiceal perforation. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Jan;45(1):231-5. Abstract

69. The Royal College of Surgeons of England; British Association of Paediatric Surgeons. Commissioning guide: paediatric emergency appendicectomy. Jul 2014 [internet publication].Full text

70. Hackam DJ, Upperman J, Grikscheit T, et al. Pediatric surgery: gastrointestinal tract. In: Schwartz's principles of surgery. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2019.

71. McCollough M, Sharieff GQ. Abdominal pain in children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2006 Feb;53(1):107-37, vi. Abstract

72. Gluckman S, Karpelowsky J, Webster AC, et al. Management for intussusception in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jun 1;(6):CD006476.Full text  Abstract

73. Cantor RM. Pediatric trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's emergency medicine: concepts and clinical practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2006:267-81.

74. Dayan PS, Klein BL. Chapter 71: acute care of the victim of multiple trauma. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2007.

75. Rey-Bellet Gasser C, Gehri M, Joseph JM, et al. Is it ovarian torsion? A systematic literature review and evaluation of prediction signs. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016 Apr;32(4):256-61. Abstract

76. Grunau GL, Harris A, Buckley J, et al. Diagnosis of ovarian torsion: is it time to forget about Doppler? J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2018 Jul;40(7):871-5. Abstract

77. Oelsner G, Shashar D. Adnexal torsion. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Sep;49(3):459-63. Abstract

78. Breech LL, Hillard PJ. Adnexal torsion in pediatric and adolescent girls. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Oct;17(5):483-9. Abstract

79. Kives S, Gascon S, Dubuc É, et al. No. 341 - diagnosis and management of adnexal torsion in children, adolescents, and adults. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2017 Feb;39(2):82-90. Abstract

80. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Adnexal torsion in adolescents: ACOG Committee Opinion No. 783. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Aug;134(2):e56-63.Full text  Abstract

81. Geimanaite L, Trainavicius K. Ovarian torsion in children: management and outcomes. J Pediatr Surg. 2013 Sep;48(9):1946-53. Abstract

82. European Association of Urology. Paediatric urology. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

83. Altinkilic B, Pilatz A, Weidner W. Detection of normal intratesticular perfusion using color coded duplex sonography obviates need for scrotal exploration in patients with suspected testicular torsion. J Urol. 2013 May;189(5):1853-8. Abstract

84. Sartelli M, Chichom-Mefire A, Labricciosa FM, et al. The management of intra-abdominal infections from a global perspective: 2017 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections. World J Emerg Surg. 2017 Jul 10;12:29.Full text  Abstract

85. Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016 Feb 23;315(8):801-10.Full text  Abstract

86. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

87. Royal College of Physicians. National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2. Dec 2017 [internet publication].Full text

88. American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Expert Panel on Sepsis. DART: an evidence-driven tool to guide the early recognition and treatment of sepsis and septic shock. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

89. Academy of Medical Royal Colleges. Statement on the initial antimicrobial treatment of sepsis. May 2022 [internet publication].Full text

90. Weiss SL, Peters MJ, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children. Intensive Care Med. 2020 Feb;46(suppl 1):10-67.Full text  Abstract

91. Greear GM, Romano MF, Katz MH, et al. Testicular torsion: epidemiological risk factors for orchiectomy in pediatric and adult patients. Int J Impot Res. 2021 Mar;33(2):184-90. Abstract

92. Kim JS. Acute abdominal pain in children. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 2013 Dec;16(4):219-24.Full text  Abstract

93. Tabbers MM, DiLorenzo C, Berger MY, et al; European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition; North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology. Evaluation and treatment of functional constipation in infants and children: evidence-based recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Feb;58(2):258-74.Full text  Abstract

94. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Constipation in children and young people: diagnosis and management. Jul 2017 [internet publication].Full text

95. Mattoo TK, Shaikh N, Nelson CP. Contemporary management of urinary tract infection in children. Pediatrics. 2021 Feb;147(2).Full text  Abstract

96. Morello W, La Scola C, Alberici I, et al. Acute pyelonephritis in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2016 Aug;31(8):1253-65.Full text  Abstract

97. Birmole BJ, Kulkarni BK, Vaidya MM, et al. Splenic cyst. J. Postgrad Med. 1993 Jan-Mar;39(1):40-1.Full text  Abstract

98. American College of Surgeons. Advanced trauma life support student course manual, 10th edition. Chicago, IL; 2018.Full text

99. Ekabe CJ, Kehbila J, Njim T, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis-induced Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: a case report. BMC Res Notes. 2017 Jan 3;10(1):10.Full text  Abstract

100. Zeeshan M, Hamidi M, O'Keeffe T, et al. Pediatric liver injury: physical examination, fast and serum transaminases can serve as a guide. J Surg Res. 2019 Oct;242:151-6. Abstract

101. Tenner S, Baillie J, DeWitt J, et al. American College of Gastroenterology guideline: management of acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep;108(9):1400-15.Full text  Abstract

102. Chin A, De Wit K. Inability of a negative faecal occult blood test to rule out intussusception in children. Emerg Med J. 2017 Jul;34(7):489-90. Abstract

103. Walsham NE, Sherwood RA. Fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2016;9:21-9.Full text  Abstract

104. Shane AL, Mody RK, Crump JA, et al. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Nov 29;65(12):e45-80.Full text  Abstract

105. Mitsuyama K, Niwa M, Takedatsu H, et al. Antibody markers in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jan 21;22(3):1304-10.Full text  Abstract

106. Reese GE, Constantinides VA, Simillis C, et al. Diagnostic precision of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Oct;101(10):2410-22. Abstract

107. Lee JY, Kim JH, Choi SJ, et al. Point-of-care ultrasound may be useful for detecting pediatric intussusception at an early stage. BMC Pediatr. 2020 Apr 13;20(1):155.Full text  Abstract

108. Holmes JF, Brant WE, Bond WF, et al. Emergency department ultrasonography in the evaluation of hypotensive and normotensive children with blunt abdominal trauma. J Pediatr Surg. 2001 Jul;36(7):968-73. Abstract

109. Calder BW, Vogel AM, Zhang J, et al. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma in children after blunt abdominal trauma: a multi-institutional analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Aug;83(2):218-24. Abstract

110. Holmes JF, Kelley KM, Wootton-Gorges SL, et al. Effect of abdominal ultrasound on clinical care, outcomes, and resource use among children with blunt torso trauma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Jun 13;317(22):2290-6. Abstract

111. Lee KH, Lee S, Park JH, et al. Risk of hematologic malignant neoplasms from abdominopelvic computed tomographic radiation in patients who underwent appendectomy. JAMA Surg. 2021 Apr 1;156(4):343-51.Full text  Abstract

112. Kulaylat AN, Moore MM, Engbrecht BW, et al. An implemented MRI program to eliminate radiation from the evaluation of pediatric appendicitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2015 Aug;50(8):1359-63. Abstract

113. Mushtaq R, Desoky SM, Morello F, et al. First-line diagnostic evaluation with MRI of children suspected of having acute appendicitis. Radiology. 2019 Apr;291(1):170-7.Full text  Abstract

114. Lee SM, Kim WS, Choi YH. Pediatric magnetic resonance enterography: focused on Crohn's disease. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 2015 Sep;18(3):149-59.Full text  Abstract

115. Brody AS, Frush DP, Huda W, et al; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Radiology. Radiation risk to children from computed tomography. Pediatrics. 2007 Sep;120(3):677-82.Full text  Abstract

116. Carney DE, Kokoska ER, Grosfeld JL, et al. Predictors of successful outcome after cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia. J Pediatr Surg. 2004 Jun;39(6):813-6. Abstract

117. Coluccio M, Claffey AJ, Rothstein DH. Biliary dyskinesia: fact or fiction? Semin Pediatr Surg. 2020 Aug;29(4):150947. Abstract

118. Nasri B, Glass T, Singh K, et al. Biliary hyperkinesia: an indication for cholecystectomy? Surg Endosc. 2021 Jul;35(7):3244-8. Abstract

119. Subcommittee on urinary tract infection. Reaffirmation of AAP clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis and management of the initial urinary tract infection in febrile infants and young children 2-24 months of age. Pediatrics. 2016 Dec;138(6):e20163026.Full text  Abstract

120. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Urinary tract infection in under 16s: diagnosis and management. July 2022 [internet publication].

121. Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection. Reaffirmation of AAP clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis and management of the initial urinary tract infection in febrile infants and young children 2-24 months of age. Pediatrics. 2016 Dec;138(6):e20163026.Full text  Abstract

122. Ammenti A, Alberici I, Brugnara M, et al; Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology. Updated Italian recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the first febrile urinary tract infection in young children. Acta Paediatr. 2020 Feb;109(2):236-47.Full text  Abstract

123. Webster J, Osborne S, Rickard CM, et al. Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 23;(1):CD007798.Full text  Abstract

124. Zouari M, Louati H, Abid I, et al. C-reactive protein value is a strong predictor of acute appendicitis in young children. Am J Emerg Med. 2018 Jul;36(7):1319-20. Abstract

125. Howell JM, Eddy OL, Lukens TW, et al. American College of Emergency Physicians. Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of emergency department patients with suspected appendicitis. Ann Emerg Med. 2010 Jan;55(1):71-116. Abstract

126. Sunkara T, Rawla P, Yarlagadda KS, et al. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: diagnosis and clinical perspectives. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun 5;12:239-53.Full text  Abstract

127. College of American Pathologists. Urinalysis checklist. Apr 2014 [internet publication].Full text

128. Downs SM. Technical report: urinary tract infections in febrile infants and young children. The Urinary Tract Subcommittee of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Quality Improvement. Pediatrics. 1999 Apr;103(4):e54. Abstract

129. Whiting P, Westwood M, Watt I, et al. Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under five years: a systematic review. BMC Pediatr. 2005 Apr 5;5(1):4.Full text  Abstract

130. Shiels WE 2nd, Maves CK, Hedlund GL, et al. Air enema for diagnosis and reduction of intussusception: clinical experience and pressure correlates. Radiology. 1991 Oct;181(1):169-72. Abstract

131. Evers MB. Meckel's diverticulum. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, et al, eds. Sabiston textbook of surgery. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:1321-3.

132. Cohen RB, Olafson SN, Krupp J, et al. Timing of Gastrografin administration in the management of adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO): does it matter? Surgery. 2021 Aug;170(2):596-602. Abstract

133. Maung AA, Johnson DC, Piper GL, et al. Evaluation and management of small-bowel obstruction: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Nov;73(5 suppl 4):S362-9.Full text  Abstract

134. Chan B, Gordon S, Yang M, et al. Abdominal ultrasound assists the diagnosis and management of necrotizing enterocolitis. Adv Neonatal Care. 2021 Oct 1;21(5):365-70. Abstract

135. Husby S, Koletzko S, Korponay-Szabó I, et al. European Society Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines for diagnosing coeliac disease 2020. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Jan;70(1):141-56.Full text  Abstract

136. Rompianesi G, Hann A, Komolafe O, et al. Serum amylase and lipase and urinary trypsinogen and amylase for diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Apr 21;(4):CD012010.Full text  Abstract

137. Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A, et al; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Jan;6(1):2-8. Abstract

138. Mahajan P, Grzybowski M, Chen X, et al. Procalcitonin as a marker of serious bacterial infections in febrile children younger than 3 years old. Acad Emerg Med. 2014 Feb;21(2):171-9.Full text  Abstract

139. Milcent K, Faesch S, Gras-Le Guen C, et al. Use of procalcitonin assays to predict serious bacterial infection in young febrile infants. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Jan;170(1):62-9.Full text  Abstract

140. Pantell RH, Roberts KB, Adams WG, et al; Subcommittee on Febrile Infants. Evaluation and management of well-appearing febrile infants 8 to 60 days old. Pediatrics. 2021 Aug;148(2):e2021052228.Full text  Abstract

141. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: acute onset of scrotal pain - without trauma, without antecedent mass. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer