Musculoskeletal lower back pain

References

Key articles

American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: low back pain. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Primary care interventions to prevent low back pain in adults: recommendation statement. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Jun 15;71(12):2337-8.Full text  Abstract

Kendrick D, Fielding K, Bentley E, et al. Radiography of the lumbar spine in primary care patients with low back pain: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2001 Feb 17;322(7283):400-5.Full text  Abstract

Burton AK, Waddell G, Tillotson KM, et al. Information and advice to patients with back pain can have a positive effect. A randomized controlled trial of a novel educational booklet in primary care. Spine. 1999 Dec 1;24(23):2484-91. Abstract

Reference articles

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31. Bressler HB, Keyes WJ, Rochon PA, et al. The prevalence of low back pain in the elderly. A systematic review of the literature. Spine. 1999 Sep 1;24(17):1813-9. Abstract

32. Hurwitz EL, Morgenstern H. Correlates of back problems and back-related disability in the United States. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997 Jun;50(6):669-81. Abstract

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34. Macfarlane GJ, Thomas E, Papageorgiou AC, et al. Employment and physical work activities as predictors of future low back pain. Spine. 1997 May 15;22(10):1143-9. Abstract

35. Shelerud RA. Epidemiology of occupational low back pain. Clin Occup Environ Med. 2006;5(3):501-28. Abstract

36. Hestbaek L, Leboeuf-Yde C, Kyvik KO. Are lifestyle-factors in adolescence predictors for adult low back pain? A cross-sectional and prospective study of young twins. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006 Mar 15;7:27.Full text  Abstract

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38. Coenen P, Parry S, Willenberg L, et al. Associations of prolonged standing with musculoskeletal symptoms: a systematic review of laboratory studies. Gait Posture. 2017 Oct;58:310-8. Abstract

39. Locks F, Gupta N, Hallman D, et al. Association between objectively measured static standing and low back pain: a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers. Ergonomics. 2018 Sep;61(9):1196-207. Abstract

40. Hasegawa T, Katsuhira J, Oka H, et al. Association of low back load with low back pain during static standing. PLoS One. 2018 Dec 18;13(12):e0208877.Full text  Abstract

41. Zadro J, Shirley D, Ferreira M, et al. Mapping the association between vitamin D and low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Pain Physician. 2017 Nov;20(7):611-40.Full text  Abstract

42. Burton AK, Balagué F, Cardon G, et al. Chapter 2. European guidelines for prevention in low back pain: November 2004. Eur Spine J. 2006 Mar;15(suppl 2):S136-68.Full text  Abstract

43. Steffens D, Maher CG, Pereira LS, et al. Prevention of low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):199-208. Abstract

44. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Primary care interventions to prevent low back pain in adults: recommendation statement. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Jun 15;71(12):2337-8.Full text  Abstract

45. Sahar T, Cohen MJ, Ne'eman V, et al. Insoles for prevention and treatment of back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD005275.Full text  Abstract

46. Martimo KP, Verbeek J, Karppinen J, et al. Effect of training and lifting equipment for preventing back pain in lifting and handling: systematic review. BMJ. 2008 Feb 23;336(7641):429-31.Full text  Abstract

47. Driessen MT, Proper KI, van Tulder MW, et al. The effectiveness of physical and organisational ergonomic interventions on low back pain and neck pain: a systematic review. Occup Environ Med. 2010 Apr;67(4):277-85. Abstract

48. Agarwal S, Steinmaus C, Harris-Adamson C, et al. Sit-stand workstations and impact on low back discomfort: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ergonomics. 2018 Apr;61(4):538-52. Abstract

49. Pincus T, Burton AK, Vogel S, et al. A systematic review of psychological factors as predictors of chronicity/disability in prospective cohorts of low back pain. Spine. 2002 Mar 1;27(5):E109-20. Abstract

50. Malanga GA, Nadler S. Musculoskeletal physical examination: an evidence-based approach. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus; 2005.

51. Devillé WL, van der Windt DA, Dzaferagić A, et al. The test of Lasègue: systematic review of the accuracy in diagnosing herniated discs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000 May 1;25(9):1140-7. Abstract

52. Chou R, Qaseem A, Owens DK, et al. Diagnostic imaging for low back pain: advice for high-value health care from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Feb 1;154(3):181-9.Full text  Abstract

53. Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, et al. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990 Mar;72(3):403-8. Abstract

54. Jensen MC, Brant-Zawadzki MN, Obuchowski N, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jul 14;331(2):69-73.Full text  Abstract

55. Jarvik JJ, Hollingworth W, Heagerty P, et al. The Longitudinal Assessment of Imaging and Disability of the Back (LAIDBack) Study: baseline data. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001 May 15;26(10):1158-66. Abstract

56. Kendrick D, Fielding K, Bentley E, et al. Radiography of the lumbar spine in primary care patients with low back pain: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2001 Feb 17;322(7283):400-5.Full text  Abstract

57. Chou R, Fu R, Carrino JA, et al. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009 Feb 7;373(9662):463-72. Abstract

58. Kent DL, Haynor DR, Larson EB, et al. Diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis in adults: a metaanalysis of the accuracy of CT, MR, and myelography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1992 May;158(5):1135-44.Full text  Abstract

59. Deyo RA, Rainville J, Kent DL. What can the history and physical examination tell us about low back pain? JAMA. 1992 Aug 12;268(6):760-5. Abstract

60. US Department of Veterans Affairs. VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

61. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management. Nov 2016 [internet publication].Full text

62. Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, McLean RM, et al. Noninvasive treatments for acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Apr 4;166(7):514-30.Full text  Abstract

63. Engers A, Jellema P, Wensing M, et al. Individual patient education for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD004057.Full text  Abstract

64. Dahm KT, Brurberg KG, Jamtvedt G, et al. Advice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acute low-back pain and sciatica. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jun 16;(6):CD007612.Full text  Abstract

65. French SD, Cameron M, Walker BF, et al. Superficial heat or cold for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD004750.Full text  Abstract

66. Mayer JM, Ralph L, Look M, et al. Treating acute low back pain with continuous low-level heat wrap therapy and/or exercise: a randomized controlled trial. Spine J. 2005 Jul-Aug;5(4):395-403. Abstract

67. Nadler SF, Steiner DJ, Erasala GN, et al. Continuous low-level heat wrap therapy provides more efficacy than Ibuprofen and acetaminophen for acute low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002 May 15;27(10):1012-7. Abstract

68. Furlan AD, Giraldo M, Baskwill A, et al. Massage for low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 1;(9):CD001929.Full text  Abstract

69. Chou R, Deyo R, Friedly J, et al. Systemic pharmacologic therapies for low back pain: a systematic review for an American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Apr 4;166(7):480-92.Full text  Abstract

70. Lee JH, Choi TY, Lee MS, et al. Acupuncture for acute low back pain: a systematic review. Clin J Pain. 2013 Feb;29(2):172-85. Abstract

71. Rubinstein SM, Terwee CB, Assendelft WJ, et al. Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD008880.Full text  Abstract

72. Schneider M, Haas M, Glick R, et al. Comparison of spinal manipulation methods and usual medical care for acute and subacute low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Feb 15;40(4):209-17.Full text  Abstract

73. Oliphant D. Safety of spinal manipulation in the treatment of lumbar disk herniations: a systematic review and risk assessment. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2004 Mar-Apr;27(3):197-210. Abstract

74. Barrett AJ, Breen AC. Adverse effects of spinal manipulation. J R Soc Med. 2000 May;93(5):258-9.Full text  Abstract

75. Ernst E. Adverse effects of spinal manipulation: a systematic review. J R Soc Med. 2007 Jul;100(7):330-8.Full text  Abstract

76. Haas M, Vavrek D, Peterson D, et al. Dose-response and efficacy of spinal manipulation for care of chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Spine J. 2014 Jul 1;14(7):1106-16.Full text  Abstract

77. Sun E, Moshfegh J, Rishel CA, et al. Association of early physical therapy with long-term opioid use among opioid-naive patients with musculoskeletal pain. JAMA Netw Open. 2018 Dec 7;1(8):e185909.Full text  Abstract

78. Childs JD, Fritz JM, Wu SS, et al. Implications of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015 Apr 9;15:150.Full text  Abstract

79. Hay EM, Dunn KM, Hill JC, et al. A randomised clinical trial of subgrouping and targeted treatment for low back pain compared with best current care: the STarT Back trial study protocol. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008 Apr 22;9:58.Full text  Abstract

80. Hill JC, Whitehurst DG, Lewis M, et al. Comparison of stratified primary care management for low back pain with current best practice (STarT Back): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011 Oct 29;378(9802):1560-71.Full text  Abstract

81. Schaafsma F, Schonstein E, Ojajärvi A, et al. Physical conditioning programs for improving work outcomes among workers with back pain. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2011 Jan;37(1):1-5. Abstract

82. Cuellar WA, Wilson A, Blizzard CL, et al. The assessment of abdominal and multifidus muscles and their role in physical function in older adults: a systematic review. Physiotherapy. 2017 Mar;103(1):21-39. Abstract

83. Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Malmivaara A, et al. Exercise therapy for treatment of non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD000335.Full text  Abstract

84. Searle A, Spink M, Ho A, et al. Exercise interventions for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Clin Rehabil. 2015 Dec;29(12):1155-67. Abstract

85. Wang XQ, Zheng JJ, Yu ZW, et al. A meta-analysis of core stability exercise versus general exercise for chronic low back pain. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e52082.Full text  Abstract

86. Natour J, Cazotti Lde A, Ribeiro LH, et al. Pilates improves pain, function and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2015 Jan;29(1):59-68. Abstract

87. Barker AL, Talevski J, Morello RT, et al. Effectiveness of aquatic exercise for musculoskeletal conditions: a meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Sep;95(9):1776-86. Abstract

88. Aleksiev AR. Ten-year follow-up of strengthening versus flexibility exercises with or without abdominal bracing in recurrent low back pain. Spine. 2014 Jun 1;39(13):997-1003. Abstract

89. Díaz-Arribas MJ, Lovacs FM, Royuela A, et al; Spanish Back Pain Research Network. Effectiveness of the Godelieve Denys-Struyf (GDS) method in people with low back pain: cluster randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2015 Mar;95(3):319-36. Abstract

90. Sitthipornvorakul E, Klinsophon T, Sihawong R, et al. The effects of walking intervention in patients with chronic low back pain: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2018 Apr;34:38-46. Abstract

91. Vanti C, Andreatta S, Borghi S, et al. The effectiveness of walking versus exercise on pain and function in chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Disabil Rehabil. 2019 Mar;41(6):622-32. Abstract

92. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management. Nov 2016 [internet publication].Full text

93. Byrnes K, Wu PJ, Whillier S. Is pilates an effective rehabilitation tool? A systematic review. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2018 Jan;22(1):192-202. Abstract

94. Lin HT, Hung WC, Hung JL, et al. Effects of pilates on patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016 Oct;28(10):2961-9.Full text  Abstract

95. Zou L, Zhang Y, Yang L, et al. Are mindful exercises safe and beneficial for treating chronic lower back pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Med. 2019 May 8;8(5):628.Full text  Abstract

96. Wieland LS, Skoetz N, Pilkington K, et al. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 12;1(1):CD010671.Full text  Abstract

97. Saragiotto BT, Maher CG, Yamato TP, et al. Motor control exercise for chronic non-specific low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jan 8;(1):CD012004.Full text  Abstract

98. Furlan AD, van Tulder MW, Cherkin DC, et al. Acupuncture and dry-needling for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jan 25;(1):CD001351.Full text  Abstract

99. Xiang Y, He JY, Tian HH, et al. Evidence of efficacy of acupuncture in the management of low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo- or sham-controlled trials. Acupunct Med. 2020 Feb;38(1):15-24. Abstract

100. Castro-Sánchez AM, Lara-Palomo IC, Matarán-Peñarrocha GA, et al. Short-term effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy versus functional technique in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Spine J. 2016 Mar;16(3):302-12. Abstract

101. Coulter ID, Crawford C, Hurwitz EL, et al. Manipulation and mobilization for treating chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Spine J. 2018 May;18(5):866-79.Full text  Abstract

102. Rubinstein SM, de Zoete A, van Middelkoop M, et al. Benefits and harms of spinal manipulative therapy for the treatment of chronic low back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2019 Mar 13;364:l689.Full text  Abstract

103. Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft WJ, et al. Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;(2):CD008112.Full text  Abstract

104. Cotler HB, Chow RT, Hamblin MR, et al. The use of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for musculoskeletal pain. MOJ Orthop Rheumatol. 2015;2(5):00068.Full text  Abstract

105. Glazov G, Yelland M, Emery J. Low-level laser therapy for chronic non-specific low back pain: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Acupunct Med. 2016 Oct;34(5):328-41.Full text  Abstract

106. Henschke N, Ostelo RW, van Tulder MW, et al. Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jul 7;(7):CD002014. Abstract

107. Hajihasani A, Rouhani M, Salavati M, et al. The influence of cognitive behavioral therapy on pain, quality of life, and depression in patients receiving physical therapy for chronic low back pain: a systematic review. PM R. 2019 Feb;11(2):167-76. Abstract

108. Mariano TY, Urman RD, Hutchison CA, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for subacute low back pain: a systematic review. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2018 Feb 23;22(3):15. Abstract

109. Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Balderson BH, et al. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction vs cognitive behavioral therapy or usual care on back pain and functional limitations in adults with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016 Mar 22-29;315(12):1240-9.Full text  Abstract

110. Lamb SE, Hansen Z, Lall R, et al. Group cognitive behavioural treatment for low-back pain in primary care: a randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis. Lancet. 2010 Mar 13;375(9718):916-23. Abstract

111. Lamb SE, Mistry D, Lall R, et al. Group cognitive behavioural interventions for low back pain in primary care: extended follow-up of the Back Skills Training Trial (ISRCTN54717854). Pain. 2012 Feb;153(2):494-501. Abstract

112. Buhrman M, Syk M, Burvall O, et al. Individualized guided internet-delivered cognitive-behavior therapy for chronic pain patients with comorbid depression and anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. Clin J Pain. 2015 Jun;31(6):504-16. Abstract

113. Dear BF, Gandy M, Karin E, et al. The Pain Course: a randomised controlled trial examining an internet-delivered pain management program when provided with different levels of clinician support. Pain. 2015 Oct;156(10):1920-35. Abstract

114. Garg S, Garg D, Turin TC, et al. Web-based interventions for chronic back pain: a systematic review. J Med Internet Res. 2016 Jul 26;18(7):e139.Full text  Abstract

115. Kamper SJ, Apeldoorn AT, Chairotto A, et al. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for chronic low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Sep 2;(9):CD000963.Full text  Abstract

116. Marin TJ, Van Eerd D, Irvin E, et al. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jun 28;(6):CD002193.Full text  Abstract

117. Saragiotto BT, Machado GC, Ferreira ML, et al. Paracetamol for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jun 7;(6):CD012230.Full text  Abstract

118. Machado GC, Maher CG, Ferreira PH, et al. Efficacy and safety of paracetamol for spinal pain and osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled trials. BMJ. 2015 Mar 31;350:h1225.Full text  Abstract

119. Williams CM, Maher CG, Latimer J, et al. Efficacy of paracetamol for acute low-back pain: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014 Nov 1;384(9954):1586-96. Abstract

120. Alford DP. Chronic back pain with possible prescription opioid misuse. JAMA. 2013 Mar 6;309(9):919-25. Abstract

121. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of chronic pain: a national clinical guideline. Aug 2019 [internet publication].Full text

122. van Tulder MW, Touray T, Furlan AD, et al. Muscle relaxants for non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD004252.Full text  Abstract

123. Cherkin DC, Wheeler KJ, Barlow W, et al. Medication use for low back pain in primary care. Spine. 1998 Mar 1;23(5):607-14. Abstract

124. Chou R, Huffman LH. Medications for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Oct 2;147(7):505-14.Full text  Abstract

125. Urquhart DM, Hoving JL, Assendelft WJJ, et al. Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD001703.Full text  Abstract

126. Maas ET, Ostelo RW, Niemisto L, et al. Radiofrequency denervation for chronic low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Oct 23;(10):CD008572.Full text  Abstract

127. Poetscher AW, Gentil AF, Lenza M, et al. Radiofrequency denervation for facet joint low back pain: a systematic review. Spine. 2014 Jun 15;39(14):E842-9. Abstract

128. Juch JNS, Maas ET, Ostelo RWJG, et al. Effect of radiofrequency denervation on pain intensity among patients with chronic low back pain: the Mint randomized clinical trials. JAMA. 2017 Jul 4;318(1):68-81.Full text  Abstract

129. Lee CH, Chung CK, Kim CH. The efficacy of conventional radiofrequency denervation in patients with chronic low back pain originating from the facet joints: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Spine J. 2017 Nov;17(11):1770-80. Abstract

130. Henschke N, Kuijpers T, Rubinstein SM, et al. Injection therapy and denervation procedures for chronic low-back pain: a systematic review. Eur Spine J. 2010 Sep;19(9):1425-49.Full text  Abstract

131. Falco FJ, Manchikanti L, Datta S, et al. An update of the effectiveness of therapeutic lumbar facet joint interventions. Pain Physician. 2012 Nov-Dec;15(6):E909-53.Full text  Abstract

132. Manchikanti L, Datta S, Derby R, et al. A critical review of the American Pain Society clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques: Part 1. Diagnostic interventions. Pain Physician. 2010 May-Jun;13(3):E141-74.Full text  Abstract

133. Manchikanti L, Falco FJ, Singh V, et al. An update of comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for interventional techniques in chronic spinal pain. Part I: introduction and general considerations. Pain Physician. 2013 Apr;16(suppl 2):S1-48.Full text  Abstract

134. Helm Ii S, Simopoulos TT, Stojanovic M, et al. Effectiveness of thermal annular procedures in treating discogenic low back pain. Pain Physician. 2017 Sep;20(6):447-70.Full text  Abstract

135. Staal JB, de Bie R, de Vet HC, et al. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD001824.Full text  Abstract

136. Chou R, Hashimoto R, Friedly J, et al. Pain management injection therapies for low back pain. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), US; 2015.Full text  Abstract

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