Atrioventricular block

References

Key articles

Kusumoto FM, Schoenfeld MH, Barrett C, et al. 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline on the evaluation and management of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction delay: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2019 Aug 20;140(8):e382-482.Full text  Abstract

Glikson M, Nielsen JC, Kronborg MB, et al; ESC National Cardiac Societies; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2021 ESC Guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Eur Heart J. 2021 Sep 14;42(35):3427-520.Full text  Abstract

Greenland P, Alpert JS, Beller GA, et al; American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association. 2010 ACCF/AHA guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:e50-103.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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29. Nordenswan HK, Lehtonen J, Ekström K, et al. Outcome of Cardiac Sarcoidosis Presenting With High-Grade Atrioventricular Block. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2018 Aug;11(8):e006145.Full text  Abstract

30. Salama A, Abdullah A, Nadkarni A, et al. Sarcoidosis increases the risk of complete heart block: a review from the national inpatient sample. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Mar;73(9 Suppl 1):543.Full text

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33. Yang KC, Hung CC, Ho YL. Tuberculous serositis coexisting with reversible high-grade atrioventricular block. Acta Cardiol Sin.2005;21:164-8.Full text

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37. Shen WK, Sheldon RS, Benditt DG, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the evaluation and management of patients with syncope: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2017 Aug 1;136(5):e60-122.Full text  Abstract

38. Greenland P, Alpert JS, Beller GA, et al; American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association. 2010 ACCF/AHA guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:e50-103.Full text  Abstract

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40. Kindermann M, Hennen B, Jung J, et al. Biventricular versus conventional right ventricular stimulation for patients with standard pacing indication and left ventricular dysfunction: the Homburg Biventricular Pacing Evaluation (HOBIPACE). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006:47:1927-37.Full text  Abstract

41. Funck RC, Blanc JJ, Mueller HH, et al; BioPace Study Group. Biventricular stimulation to prevent cardiac desynchronization: rationale, design, and endpoints of the 'Biventricular Pacing for Atrioventricular Block to Prevent Cardiac Desynchronization (BioPace)' study. Europace. 2006;8:629-35.Full text  Abstract

42. McDonagh TA, Metra M, Adamo M, et al; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2021 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2021 Sep 21;42(36):3599-726.Full text  Abstract

43. Sumiyoshi M, Nakata Y, Yasuda M, et al. Changes of conductivity in patients with second- or third-degree atrioventricular block after pacemaker implantation. Jpn Circ J. 1995;59:284-91. Abstract

44. Curtis AB, Worley SJ, Adamson PB, et al; Biventricular Versus Right Ventricular Pacing in Heart Failure Patients with Atrioventricular Block (BLOCK HF) Trial Investigators. Biventricular pacing for atrioventricular block and systolic dysfunction. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1585-93.Full text  Abstract

45. Plotnikov AN, Shlapakova I, Szabolcs MJ, et al. Xenografted adult human mesenchymal stem cells provide a platform for sustained biological pacemaker function in canine heart. Circulation. 2007;116:706-13.Full text  Abstract

46. Farraha M, Kumar S, Chong J, et al. Gene therapy approaches to biological pacemakers. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2018 Oct 19;5(4):50.Full text  Abstract

47. Goto H, Sugiura T, Harada Y, et al. Feasibility of using the automatic generating system for quartz watches as a leadless pacemaker power source. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1999;37:377-80. Abstract

48. Lee KL, Tse HF, Echt DS, et al. Temporary leadless pacing in heart failure patients with ultrasound-mediated stimulation energy and effects on the acoustic window. Heart Rhythm. 2009;6:742-8.Full text  Abstract

49. Lee KL, Lau CP, Tse HF, et al. First human demonstration of cardiac stimulation with transcutaneous ultrasound energy delivery: implications for wireless pacing with implantable devices. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:877-83.Full text  Abstract

50. Echt DS, Cowan MW, Riley RE, et al. Feasibility and safety of a novel technology for pacing without leads. Heart Rhythm. 2006;3:1202-6. Abstract

51. Reddy VY, Exner DV, Cantillon DJ, et al; LEADLESS II Study Investigators. Percutaneous implantation of an entirely intracardiac leadless pacemaker. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1125-35.Full text  Abstract

52. Russo AM, Stainback RF, Bailey SR, et al. ACCF/HRS/AHA/ASE/HFSA/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2013 appropriate use criteria for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Heart Rhythm. 2013;10:e11-58.Full text  Abstract

53. Gillis AM, Russo AM, Ellenbogen KA, et al. HRS/ACCF expert consensus statement on pacemaker device and mode selection. Heart Rhythm. 2012;9:1344-65.Full text  Abstract

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