Enuresis

References

Key articles

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. Text Revision, (DSM-5-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2022.

European Association of Urology. Guidelines on paediatric urology. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Nevéus T, Eggert P, Evans J, et al. Evaluation of and treatment for monosymptomatic enuresis: a standardization document from the International Children's Continence Society. J Urol. 2010 Feb;183(2):441-7.Full text  Abstract

Glazener CM, Evans JH, Petro RE. Alarm interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD002911. Abstract

Longstaffe S, Moffat M, Whalen J. Behavioral and self-esteem changes after six months of enuresis treatment: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2000;105:935-940. Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. Text Revision, (DSM-5-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2022.

2. Norgaard JP, van Gool JD, Norgaard JP, et al. Standardization and definitions in lower urinary tract dysfunction in children. International Children's Continence Society. Br J Urol. 1998;81(suppl 3):1-16. Abstract

3. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on paediatric urology. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

4. Adam A, Claassen F, Coovadia A, et al. The South African guidelines on enuresis - 2017. African Journal of Urology. 2018 Mar;24(1):1-13Full text

5. Jansson UB, Hanson M, Sillén U, et al. Voiding pattern and acquisition of bladder control from birth to age 6 years: a longitudinal study. J Urol. 2005;174:289-293. Abstract

6. Hirasing RA, van Leerdam FJ, Bolk-Bennink L, et al. Enuresis nocturna in adults. Scan J Urol Nephrol. 1997;31:533-536. Abstract

7. The International Children's Continence Society (ICCS): Hjalmas K, Arnold T, Bower W, et al. Nocturnal enuresis: an international evidence based management strategy. J Urol. 2004;171:2545-2561. Abstract

8. Lackgreen G, Hjalmas K, van Gool J, et al. Nocturnal enuresis: a suggestion for a European treatment strategy. Acta Paediatr. 1999;88:679-690. Abstract

9. Rittig S, Knudsen UB, Sorensen S, et al. Abnormal diurnal rhythm of plasma vasopressin and urinary output in patients with enuresis. Am J Physiol. 1989;256:664-671. Abstract

10. Oredsson AF, Jorgensen TM. Changes in nocturnal bladder capacity during treatment with the bell and pad for monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. J Urol. 1998;160:166-169. Abstract

11. Yeung CK, Chiu HN, Sit FK. Bladder dysfunction in children with refractory monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. J Urol. 1999;162:1049-1055. Abstract

12. Yeung CK, Sit FK, To LK, et al: Reduction in nocturnal functional bladder capacity is a common factor in the pathogenesis of refractory nocturnal enuresis. BJU Int. 2002;90:302-307. Abstract

13. Norgaard JP, Hansen JH, Wildschotz G, et al. Sleep cystometries in children with nocturnal enuresis. J Urol. 1989;141:1156-1159. Abstract

14. Ornitz EM, Russell AT, Hanna GL, et al. Prepulse inhibition of startle and the neurobiology of primary nocturnal enuresis. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45:1455-1466. Abstract

15. Wolfish N. Sleep arousal function in enuretic males. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1999;202:24-26. Abstract

16. Kovacevic L, Jurewicz M, Dabaja A, et al. Enuretic children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: should they see otolaryngology first? J Pediatr Urol. 2013;9:145-150. Abstract

17. von Gontard A, Schaumburg H, Hollman E, et al. The genetics of enuresis: A review. J Urol. 2001;166:2438-2443. Abstract

18. Basha S, Bialowas C, Ende K, et al. Effectiveness of adenotonsillectomy in the resolution of nocturnal enuresis secondary to obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:1101-1103. Abstract

19. Kalorin CM, Mouzakes J, Gavin JP, et al. Tonsillectomy does not improve bed wetting: results of a prospective controlled trial. J Urol. 2010:184;2527-2531. Abstract

20. Alexopoulos EI, Kostadima E, Pagonari I, et al. Association between primary nocturnal enuresis and habitual snoring in children. Urology. 2006;68:406-409. Abstract

21. Robson WL, Jackson HP, Blackhurst D, et al. Enuresis in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. South Med J. 1997;90:503-505. Abstract

22. Hagglof B, Andren O, Bergstrom E, et al. Self-esteem before and after treatment in children with nocturnal enuresis and urinary incontinence. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1997;183:79-82. Abstract

23. Hagglof B, Andren O, Bergstrom E, et al. Self-esteem in children with nocturnal enuresis and urinary incontinence: improvement of self-esteem after treatment. Eur Urol. 1998;33(suppl 3):16-19. Abstract

24. Longstaffe S, Moffat M, Whalen J. Behavioral and self-esteem changes after six months of enuresis treatment: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2000;105:935-940. Abstract

25. Hansen MN, Rittig S, Siggaard C, et al. Intra-individual variability in nighttime urine production and functional bladder capacity estimated by home recordings in patients with nocturnal enuresis. J Urol. 2001;166:2452-2455. Abstract

26. Koff SA. Estimating bladder capacity in children. Urology. 1983;21:248. Abstract

27. Nevéus T, Eggert P, Evans J, et al. Evaluation of and treatment for monosymptomatic enuresis: a standardization document from the International Children's Continence Society. J Urol. 2010 Feb;183(2):441-7.Full text  Abstract

28. Yeung CK, Sreedhar B, Leung VT, et al. Ultrasound bladder measurements in patients with primary nocturnal enuresis: a urodynamic and treatment outcome correlation. J Urol. 2004;171:2589-2594. Abstract

29. O'Regan S, Yazbeck S, Hamberger B, et al. Constipation a commonly unrecognized cause of enuresis. Am J Dis Child. 1986;140:260-261. Abstract

30. Nguyen LN, Randhawa H, Nadeau G, et al. Canadian Urological Association best practice report: Diagnosis and management of nocturia. Can Urol Assoc J. 2022 Jul;16(7):E336-49.Full text  Abstract

31. Kruse S, Hellstrom AL, Hjalmas K. Daytime bladder dysfunction in therapy-resistant nocturnal enuresis. A pilot study in urotherapy. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1999;33:49-52. Abstract

32. Caldwell PH, Nankivell G, Sureshkumar P. Simple behavioural interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(7):CD003637.Full text  Abstract

33. Loening-Baucke V. Urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection and their resolution with treatment of chronic constipation of childhood. Pediatrics. 1997;100:228-232. Abstract

34. Glazener CM, Evans JH, Petro RE. Alarm interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD002911. Abstract

35. Evans J, Malmsten B, Maddocks A, et al.; UK Study Group. Randomized comparison of long-term desmopressin and alarm treatment for bedwetting. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:21-29. Abstract

36. Kruse S, Hellstrom AL, Hanson E, et al. Treatment of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis with desmopressin: predictive factors. BJU Int. 2001;88:572-576. Abstract

37. Rushton HG, Belman AB, Zaontz MR, et al. The influence of small functional bladder capacity and other predictors on the response to desmopressin in the management of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. J Urol. 1996;156:651-655. Abstract

38. Glazener CM, Evans JH. Desmopressin for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD002112. Abstract

39. Hjalmas K, Hanson E, Hellstrom AL, et al. Long-term treatment with desmopressin in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: an open multicentre study. Swedish Enuresis Trial (SWEET) Group. BJU. 1998;82:704-709. Abstract

40. Nevéus T, Läckgren G, Tuvemo T, et al. Desmopressin resistant enuresis: pathogenetic and therapeutic considerations. J Urol. 1999;162:2136-2140. Abstract

41. Bolduc S, Upadhyay J, Payton J, et al. The use of tolterodine in children after oxybutynin failure. BJU Int. 2003;91:398-401. Abstract

42. Geller B, Reising D, Leonard HL, et al. Critical review of tricyclic antidepressant use in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38:513-516. Abstract

43. Tingelstad JB. The cardiotoxicity of the tricyclics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1991;30:845-846. Abstract

44. Caldwell PH, Sureshkumar P, Wong WC. Tricyclic and related drugs for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(1):CD002117.Full text  Abstract

45. Huang T, Shu X, Huang YS, et al. Complementary and miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(2):CD005230. Abstract

46. Canadian Paediatric Society. Management of primary nocturnal enuresis. January 2013 [internet publication].Full text

47. Vande Walle J, Rittig S, Bauer S, et al; American Academy of Pediatrics; European Society for Paediatric Urology; European Society for Paediatric Nephrology; International Children’s Continence Society. Practical consensus guidelines for the management of enuresis. Eur J Pediatr. 2012 Jun;171(6):971-83.Full text  Abstract

48. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Bedwetting in under 19s. October 2010 [internet publication].Full text

49. Longstaffe S, Moffat M, Whalen J. Behavioral and self-esteem changes after six months of enuresis treatment: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2000;105:935-940. Abstract

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