Sudden infant death syndrome

References

Key articles

Krous HF, Beckwith JB, Byard RW, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and unclassified sudden infant death (USID): a definitional and diagnostic approach. Pediatrics. 2004 Jul;114(1):234-8. Abstract

Bajanowski T, Vege A, Byard RW, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) - standardised investigations and classification: recommendations. Forensic Sci Int. 2007 Jan 17;165(2-3):129-43. Abstract

The Lullaby Trust. Evidence base. June 2016 [internet publication].Full text

Filiano JJ, Kinney HC. A perspective on neuropathologic findings in victims of the sudden infant death syndrome: the triple-risk model. Biol Neonate. 1994;65(3-4):194-7. Abstract

Mitchell EA. What is the mechanism of SIDS? Clues from epidemiology. Dev Psychobiol. 2009 Apr;51(3):215-22. Abstract

Vandenplas Y, Rudolph CD, Di Lorenzo C, et al. Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines: joint recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009 Oct;49(4):498-547. Abstract

Ostfeld BM, Esposito L, Perl H, et al. Concurrent risks in sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics. 2010 Mar;125(3):447-53. Abstract

Vennemann MM, Hense HW, Bajanowski T, et al. Bed sharing and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome: can we resolve the debate? J Pediatr. 2012 Jan;160(1):44-8.Full text  Abstract

American Academy of Pediatrics; Hymel KP; Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect, National Association of Medical Examiners. Distinguishing sudden infant death syndrome from child abuse fatalities. Pediatrics. 2006 Jul;118(1):421-7.Full text  Abstract

The Lullaby Trust. Evidence base. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Strehle EM, Gray WK, Gopisetti S, et al. Can home monitoring reduce mortality in infants at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome? A systematic review. Acta Paediatr. 2012 Jan;101(1):8-13. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Beckwith JB. Discussion of terminology and definition of the sudden infant death syndrome. In: Bergman AB, Beckwith JB, Ray CG, eds. Sudden infant death syndrome: proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Causes of Sudden Death in Infants. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press; 1970:14-22.

2. Willinger M, James LS, Catz C. Defining the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): deliberations of an expert panel convened by the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development. Pediatr Pathol. 1991;11:677-84. Abstract

3. Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Policy statement - SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: updated 2016 recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics. 2016 Nov;138(5):e20162938.Full text  Abstract

4. Krous HF, Beckwith JB, Byard RW, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and unclassified sudden infant death (USID): a definitional and diagnostic approach. Pediatrics. 2004 Jul;114(1):234-8. Abstract

5. Bajanowski T, Vege A, Byard RW, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) - standardised investigations and classification: recommendations. Forensic Sci Int. 2007 Jan 17;165(2-3):129-43. Abstract

6. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. CDC WONDER: linked birth/infant death records, 2007-2017 [internet publication].Full text

7. Moon RY; Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Technical report - SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: evidence base for 2016 updated recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics. 2016 Nov;138(5):e20162940.Full text  Abstract

8. Taylor BJ, Garstang J, Engelberts A, et al. International comparison of sudden unexpected death in infancy rates using a newly proposed set of cause-of-death codes. Arch Dis Child. 2015 Nov;100(11):1018-23. Abstract

9. Carpenter RG, Irgens LM, Blair PS, et al. Sudden unexplained infant death in 20 regions in Europe: case control study. Lancet. 2004 Jan 17;363(9404):185-91. Abstract

10. Mathews TJ, MacDorman MF, Thoma ME. Infant mortality statistics from the 2013 period linked birth/infant death data set. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2015 Aug 6;64(9):1-30.Full text  Abstract

11. Panaretto KS, Whitehall JS, McBride G, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome in indigenous and non-indigenous infants in Northern Queensland, 1990-1998. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Apr;38(2):135-9. Abstract

12. Gilbert R, Rudd P, Berry PJ, et al. Combined effect of infection and heavy wrapping on the risk of sudden unexplained infant death. Arch Dis Child. 1992 Feb;67(2):171-7.Full text  Abstract

13. The Lullaby Trust. Evidence base. June 2016 [internet publication].Full text

14. Psaila K, Foster JP, Pulbrook N, et al. Infant pacifiers for reduction in risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Apr 5;(4):CD011147.Full text  Abstract

15. Ackerman MJ, Tester DJ, Jones G, et al. Ethnic differences in cardiac potassium channel variants: implications for genetic susceptibility to sudden cardiac death and genetic testing for long QT syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Dec;78(12):1479-87. Abstract

16. Tester DJ, Ackerman MJ. Sudden infant death syndrome: how significant are the cardiac channelopathies? Cardiovasc Res. 2005 Aug 15;67(3):388-96.Full text  Abstract

17. Narita N, Narita M, Takashima S, et al. Serotonin transporter gene variation is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome in the Japanese population. Pediatrics. 2001 Apr;107(4):690-2. Abstract

18. Weese-Mayer DE, Berry-Kravis EM, Zhou L, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome: association with a promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Am J Med Genet A. 2003 Mar 15;117A(3):268-74. Abstract

19. Weese-Mayer DE, Zhou L, Berry-Kravis EM, et al. Association of the serotonin transporter gene with sudden infant death syndrome: a haplotype analysis. Am J Med Genet A. 2003 Oct 15;122A(3):238-45. Abstract

20. Weese-Mayer DE, Berry-Kravis EM, Zhou L, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome: case-control frequency differences at genes pertinent to early autonomic nervous system embryologic development. Pediatr Res. 2004 Sep;56(3):391-5.Full text  Abstract

21. Korachi M, Pravica V, Barson AJ, et al. Interleukin 10 genotype as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome: determination of IL-10 genotype from wax-embedded postmortem samples. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004 Sep 1;42(1):125-9. Abstract

22. Blackwell CC, Moscovis SM, Gorden AE, et al. Cytokine responses and sudden infant death syndrome: genetic, developmental, and environmental risk factors. J Leukoc Biol. 2005 Dec;78(6):1242-54. Abstract

23. Filiano JJ, Kinney HC. A perspective on neuropathologic findings in victims of the sudden infant death syndrome: the triple-risk model. Biol Neonate. 1994;65(3-4):194-7. Abstract

24. Hunt CE. The cardiorespiratory control hypothesis for sudden infant death syndrome. Clin Perinatol. 1992 Dec;19(4):757-71. Abstract

25. Sridhar S, Thach BT, Kelly DH, et al. Characterization of successful and failed autoresuscitation in human infants, including those dying of SIDS. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003 Aug;36(2):113-22. Abstract

26. Panigrahy A, Filiano J, Sleeper LA, et al. Decreased serotonergic receptor binding in rhombic lip-derived regions of the medulla oblongata in the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2000 May;59(5):377-84. Abstract

27. Ozawa Y, Takashima S. Developmental neurotransmitter pathology in the brainstem of sudden infant death syndrome: a review and sleep position. Forensic Sci Int. 2002 Sep 14;130 (Suppl):S53-9. Abstract

28. Machaalani R, Say M, Waters KA. Serotoninergic receptor 1A in the sudden infant death syndrome brainstem medulla and associations with clinical risk factors. Acta Neuropathol. 2009 Mar;117(3):257-65. Abstract

29. Kinney HC, Randall LL, Sleeper LA, et al. Serotonergic brainstem abnormalities in Northern Plains Indians with the sudden infant death syndrome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 Nov;62(11):1178-91. Abstract

30. Sawagachi T, Franco P, Kadhim H, et al. Clinicopathological correlation between brainstem gliosis using GFAP as a marker and sleep apnea in the sudden infant death syndrome. Early Hum Dev. 2003 Dec;75 (Suppl):S3-11. Abstract

31. Kinney HC, Burger P, Harrell FE, et al. Reactive gliosis in the medulla oblongata of victims of the sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics. 1983 Aug;72(2):181-7. Abstract

32. Sawaguchi T, Franco P, Kadhim H, et al. The correlation between serotonergic neurons in the brainstem and sleep apnea in SIDS victims. Early Hum Dev. 2003 Dec;75 (Suppl):S31-40. Abstract

33. Biondo B, Magagnin S, Bruni B, et al. Glial and neuronal alterations in the nucleus tractus solitarii of sudden infant death syndrome victims. Acta Neuropathol. 2004 Oct;108(4):309-18. Abstract

34. Moon RY, Horne RS, Hauck FR. Sudden infant death syndrome. Lancet. 2007 Nov 3;370(9598):1578-87. Abstract

35. Mitchell EA. What is the mechanism of SIDS? Clues from epidemiology. Dev Psychobiol. 2009 Apr;51(3):215-22. Abstract

36. Søvik S, Lossius K, Walløe L. Heart rate response to transient chemoreceptor stimulation in term infants is modified by exposure to maternal smoking. Pediatr Res. 2001 Apr;49(4):558-65. Abstract

37. Chang AB, Wilson SJ, Masters IB, et al. Altered arousal response in infants exposed to cigarette smoke. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Jan;88(1):30-3.Full text  Abstract

38. Mitchell EA, Tuohy PG, Brunt JM, et al. Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome following the prevention campaign in New Zealand: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 1997 Nov;100(5):835-40. Abstract

39. Blair PS, Mitchell EA, Heckstall-Smith EM, et al. Head-covering - a major modifiable risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome: a systematic review. Arch Dis Child. 2008 Sep;93(9):778-83. Abstract

40. Kemp JS, Livne M, White DK, et al. Softness and potential to cause rebreathing: differences in bedding used by infants at high and low risk for sudden infant death syndrome. J Pediatr. 1998 Feb;132(2):234-9. Abstract

41. Kemp JS, Nelson VE, Thach BT. Physical properties of bedding that may increase risk of sudden infant death syndrome in prone-sleeping infants. Pediatr Res. 1994 Jul;36(1 Pt 1):7-11. Abstract

42. Kemp JS, Thach BT. Quantifying the potential of infant bedding to limit CO2 dispersal and factors affecting rebreathing in bedding. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1995 Feb;78(2):740-5. Abstract

43. Kemp JS. Rebreathing of exhaled gases: importance as a mechanism for the causal association between prone sleep and sudden infant death syndrome. Sleep. 1996 Dec;19(10 Suppl):S263-6. Abstract

44. Blackwell CC, Weir DM. The role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1999 Aug 1;25(1-2):1-6.Full text  Abstract

45. Reichlin S. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions. N Engl J Med. 1993 Oct 21;329(17):1246-53. Abstract

46. Li DK, Petitti DB, Willinger M, et al. Infant sleeping position and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in California, 1997-2000. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Mar 1;157(5):446-55.Full text  Abstract

47. Mitchell EA, Thach BT, Thompson JM, et al. Changing infants' sleep position increases risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999 Nov;153(11):1136-41.Full text  Abstract

48. Fleming PJ, Blair PS, Bacon C, et al. Environment of infants during sleep and risk of the sudden infant death syndrome: results of 1993-5 case-control study for confidential inquiry into stillbirths and deaths in infancy. BMJ. 1996 Jul 27;313(7051):191-5.Full text  Abstract

49. Waters KA, Gonzalez A, Jean C, et al. Face-straight-down and face-near-straight-down positions in healthy, prone-sleeping infants. J Pediatr. 1996 May;128(5 Pt 1):616-25. Abstract

50. American Academy of Pediatrics. AAP urges US Consumer Product Safety Commission to recall Fisher-Price rock 'n play sleeper. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

51. Colson ER, Rybin D, Smith LA, et al. Trends and factors associated with infant sleeping position: the national infant sleep position study, 1993-2007. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009 Dec;163(12):1122-8.Full text  Abstract

52. Colson ER, Geller NL, Heeren T, et al. Factors associated with choice of infant sleep position. Pediatrics. 2017 Sep;140(3):e20170596.Full text  Abstract

53. Oyen N, Markestad T, Skaerven R, et al. Combined effects of sleeping position and prenatal risk factors in sudden infant death syndrome: the Nordic epidemiological SIDS study. Pediatrics. 1997 Oct;100(4):613-21. Abstract

54. Vandenplas Y, Rudolph CD, Di Lorenzo C, et al. Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines: joint recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009 Oct;49(4):498-547. Abstract

55. McKenna JJ, Mosko SS, Richard CA. et al. Bedsharing promotes breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 1997 Aug;100(2 Pt 1):214-9. Abstract

56. Joyner BL, Oden RP, Ajao TI, et al. Where should my baby sleep? A qualitative study of African-American infant sleep location decisions. J Natl Med Assoc. 2010 Oct;102(10):881-9. Abstract

57. Unger B, Kemp JS, Wilkins D, et al. Racial disparity and modifiable risk factors among infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly. Pediatrics. 2003 Feb;111(2):E127-31.Full text  Abstract

58. Scheers NJ, Rutherford GW, Kemp JS. Where should infants sleep? A comparison of risk for suffocation of infants sleeping in cribs, adult beds, and other sleeping locations. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):883-9. Abstract

59. Scheers NJ, Dayton CM, Kemp JS. Sudden infant death with external airways covered: case-comparison study of 206 deaths in the United States. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998 Jun;152(6):540-7.Full text  Abstract

60. Ostfeld BM, Perl H, Esposito L, et al. Sleep environment, positional, lifestyle, and demographic characteristics associated with bed sharing in sudden infant death syndrome cases: a population-based study. Pediatrics. 2006 Nov;118(5):2051-9. Abstract

61. Ostfeld BM, Esposito L, Perl H, et al. Concurrent risks in sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics. 2010 Mar;125(3):447-53. Abstract

62. Kemp JS, Unger B, Wilkins D, et al. Unsafe sleep practices and an analysis of bedsharing among infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly: results of a four-year, population-based, death-scene investigation study of sudden infant death syndrome and related deaths. Pediatrics. 2000 Sep;106(3):E41.Full text  Abstract

63. Drago DA, Dannenberg AL. Infant mechanical suffocation deaths in the United States, 1980-1997. Pediatrics. 1999 May;103(5):e59.Full text  Abstract

64. Tappin D, Ecob R, Stat S, et al. Bedsharing, roomsharing, and sudden infant death syndrome in Scotland; a case-control study. J Pediatr. 2005 Jul;147(1):32-7. Abstract

65. Scragg RK, Mitchell EA, Taylor BJ, et al; New Zealand Cot Death Study Group. Bed sharing, smoking, and alcohol in the sudden infant death syndrome. BMJ. 1993 Nov 20;307(6915):1312-8.Full text  Abstract

66. Blair PS, Fleming PJ, Smith IJ, et al; CESDI SUDI research group. Babies sleeping with parents: case-control study of factors influencing the risk of the sudden infant death syndrome. BMJ. 1999 Dec 4;319(7223):1457-61.Full text  Abstract

67. Arnestad M, Andersen M, Vege A, et al. Changes in the epidemiological pattern of sudden infant death syndrome in southeast Norway, 1984-1998: implications for future prevention and research. Arch Dis Child. 2001 Aug;85(2):108-15.Full text  Abstract

68. Vennemann MM, Hense HW, Bajanowski T, et al. Bed sharing and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome: can we resolve the debate? J Pediatr. 2012 Jan;160(1):44-8.Full text  Abstract

69. Hauck FR, Herman SM, Donovan M, et al. Sleep environment and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in an urban population: the Chicago Infant Mortality Study. Pediatrics. 2003 May;111(5 Pt 2):1207-14. Abstract

70. Fu LY, Moon RY, Hauck FR. Bed sharing among black infants and sudden infant death syndrome: interactions with other known risk factors. Acad Pediatr. 2010 Nov-Dec;10(6):376-82. Abstract

71. Blair PS, Sidebotham P, Evason-Coombe C, et al. Hazardous cosleeping environments and risk factors amenable to change: case-control study of SIDS in south west England. BMJ. 2009 Oct 13;339:b3666.Full text  Abstract

72. Carpenter RG, Irgens LM, Blair PS, et al. Sudden unexplained infant death in 20 regions in Europe: case control study. Lancet. 2004 Jan 17;363(9404):185-91. Abstract

73. McGarvey C, McDonnell M, Chong A, et al. Factors relating to the infant's last sleep environment in sudden infant death syndrome in the Republic of Ireland. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Dec;88(12):1058-64.Full text  Abstract

74. McGarvey C, McDonnell M, Hamilton K, et al. An 8 year study of risk factors for SIDS: bed-sharing vs. non bed-sharing. Arch Dis Child. 2006 Apr;91(4):318-23.Full text  Abstract

75. Willinger M, Ko CW, Hoffman HJ, et al. Trends in infant bed sharing in the United States, 1993-2000: the National Infant Sleep Position study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003 Jan;157(1):43-9.Full text  Abstract

76. Lahr MB, Rosenberg KD, Lapidus JA. Maternal-infant bedsharing: risk factors for bedsharing in a population-based survey of new mothers and implications for SIDS risk reduction. Matern Child Health J. 2007 May;11(3):277-86. Abstract

77. Fu LY, Colson ER, Corwin MJ, et al. Infant sleep location: associated maternal and infant characteristics with sudden infant death syndrome prevention recommendations. J Pediatr. 2008 Oct;153(4):503-8.Full text  Abstract

78. Haglund B, Cnattingius S. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome: a population-based study. Am J Public Health. 1990 Jan;80(1):29-32.Full text  Abstract

79. MacDorman M, Cnattingius S, Hoffman HJ, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome and smoking in the United States and Sweden. Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Aug 1;146(3):249-57.Full text  Abstract

80. Alm B, Milerad J, Wennergren G, et al. A case-control of smoking and sudden infant death syndrome in the Scandinavian countries, 1992-1995. Arch Dis Child. 1998 Apr;78(4):329-34.Full text  Abstract

81. Anderson TM, Lavista Ferres JM, Ren SY, et al. Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy and the risk of sudden unexpected infant death. Pediatrics. 2019 Apr;143(4):pii: e20183325.Full text  Abstract

82. Pollack HA. Sudden infant death syndrome, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and the cost effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention. Am J Public Health. 2001 Mar;91(3):432-6.Full text  Abstract

83. Blackwell CC, Moscovis SM, Gordon AE, et al. Ethnicity, infection, and sudden infant death syndrome. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004 Sep 1;42(1):53-65. Abstract

84. Schoendorf KC, Kiely JL. Relationship of sudden infant death syndrome to maternal smoking during and after pregnancy. Pediatrics. 1992 Dec;90(6):905-8. Abstract

85. Klonoff-Cohen HS, Edelstein SL, Lefkowitz ES, et al. The effect of passive smoking and tobacco exposure through breast milk on sudden infant death syndrome. JAMA. 1995 Mar 8;273(10):795-8. Abstract

86. Vennemann MM, Bajanowski T, Brinkmann B, et al; GeSID Study Group. Does breastfeeding reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome? Pediatrics. 2009 Mar;123(3):e406-10. Abstract

87. Hauck FR, Thompson JM, Tanabe KO, et al. Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2011 Jul;128(1):103-10.Full text  Abstract

88. Hauck FR, Omojokun OO, Siadaty MS. Do pacifiers reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome? A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2005 Nov;116(5):e716-23.Full text  Abstract

89. Mitchell EA, Blair PS, L'Hoir MP. Should pacifiers be recommended to prevent sudden infant death syndrome? Pediatrics. 2006 May;117(5):1755-8. Abstract

90. Vennemann MM, Bajanowski T, Brinkmann B, et al. Sleep environment risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome: the German sudden infant death syndrome study. Pediatrics. 2009 Apr;123(4):1162-70. Abstract

91. Li DK, Willinger M, Petitti DB, et al. Use of a dummy (pacifier) during sleep and risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): population based case-control study. BMJ. 2006 Jan 7;332(7532):18-22.Full text  Abstract

92. Jenik AG, Vain NE, Gorestein AN, et al. Does the recommendation to use a pacifier influence the prevalence of breastfeeding? J Pediatr. 2009 Sep;155(3):350-4. Abstract

93. Malloy MH, Freeman DH. Birth weight- and gestational age-specific sudden infant death syndrome mortality: United States 1991 vs 1995. Pediatrics. 2000 Jun;105(6):1227-31. Abstract

94. Ramanathan R, Corwin MJ, Hunt CE, et al; the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation (CHIME) Study Group. Cardiorespiratory events recorded on home monitors: comparison of healthy infants with those at increased risk for SIDS. JAMA. 2001 May 2;285(17):2199-207. Abstract

95. Iyasu S, Randall LL, Welty TK, et al. Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome among Northern Plains Indians. JAMA. 2002 Dec 4;288(21):2717-23. Abstract

96. Strandberg-Larsen K, Grønboek M, Andersen AM, et al. Alcohol drinking pattern during pregnancy and risk of infant mortality. Epidemiology. 2009 Nov;20(6):884-91. Abstract

97. Scragg RK, Mitchell EA, Ford RP, et al. Maternal cannabis use in the sudden infant death syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2001 Jan;90(1):57-60. Abstract

98. Ward SL, Bautista D, Chan L, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome in infants of substance-abusing mothers. J Pediatr. 1990 Dec;117(6):876-81. Abstract

99. James C, Klenka H, Manning D. Sudden infant death syndrome: bed sharing with mothers who smoke. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Feb;88(2):112-3.Full text  Abstract

100. Hunt CE, Hauck FR. Sudden infant death syndrome. CMAJ. 2006 Jun 20;174(13):1861-9.Full text  Abstract

101. Vennemann MM, Hoffgen M, Bajanowski T, et al. Do immunizations reduce the risk of SIDS? A meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2007 Jun 21;25(26):4875-9. Abstract

102. Bulterys MG, Greenland S, Kraus JF. Chronic fetal hypoxia and sudden infant death syndrome: interaction between maternal smoking and low hematocrit during pregnancy. Pediatrics. 1990 Oct;86(4):535-40. Abstract

103. Storm H, Nylander G, Saugstad OD. The amount of brainstem gliosis in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) victims correlates with maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Acta Paediatr. 1999 Jan;88(1):13-8. Abstract

104. Elliot J, Vullermin P, Robinson P. Maternal cigarette smoking is associated with increased inner airway wall thickness in children who die from sudden infant death syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Sep;158(3):802-6.Full text  Abstract

105. Cutz E, Perrin DG, Hackman R, et al. Maternal smoking and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics. 1996 Oct;98(4 Pt 1):668-72. Abstract

106. Stick S. The effects of in-utero tobacco-toxin exposure on the respiratory system in children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Oct;6(5):312-6. Abstract

107. Wisborg K, Kesmodel U, Henriksen TB, et al. A prospective study of smoking during pregnancy and SIDS. Arch Dis Child. 2000 Sep;83(3):203-6.Full text  Abstract

108. Dwyer T, Ponsonby AL, Newman NM, et al. Prospective cohort study of prone sleeping position and sudden infant death syndrome. Lancet. 1991 May 25;337(8752):1244-7. Abstract

109. Beal SM, Finch CF. An overview of retrospective case-control studies investigating the relationship between prone sleeping position and SIDS. J Paediatr Child Health. 1991 Dec;27(6):334-9. Abstract

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111. Hunt CE, Lesko SM, Vezina RM, et al. Infant sleep position and associated health outcomes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003 May;157(5):469-74. Abstract

112. Horsley T, Clifford T, Barrowman N, et al. Benefits and harms associated with the practice of bed sharing: A systematic review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Mar;161(3):237-45. Abstract

113. UNICEF UK. Co-sleeping and SIDs: a guide for health professionals. Oct 2019 [internet publication].Full text

114. Psaila K, Foster JP, Pulbrook N, et al. Infant pacifiers for reduction in risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Apr 5;(4):CD011147.Full text  Abstract

115. Franco P, Scaillet S, Wermenbol V, et al. The influence of a pacifier on infants' arousals from sleep. J Pediatr. 2000 Jun;136(6):775-9. Abstract

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117. Moon RY, Hauck FR, Colson ER, et al. The effect of nursing quality improvement and mobile health interventions on infant sleep practices: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Jul 25;318(4):351-9.Full text  Abstract

118. Corey TS, Hanzlick R, Howard J, et al. A functional approach to sudden unexplained infant deaths. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2007 Sep;28(3):271-7. Abstract

119. Jorch G, Tapiainen T, Bonhoeffer J, et al. Unexplained sudden death, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in the first and second years of life: case definition and guidelines for collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine. 2007 Aug 1;25(31):5707-16. Abstract

120. Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Kimball M, Tomashek KM, et al. US infant mortality trends attributable to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed from 1984 through 2004: are rates increasing? Pediatrics. 2009 Feb;123(2):533-9. Abstract

121. American Academy of Pediatrics; Hymel KP; Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect, National Association of Medical Examiners. Distinguishing sudden infant death syndrome from child abuse fatalities. Pediatrics. 2006 Jul;118(1):421-7.Full text  Abstract

122. Craft AW, Hall DM. Munchausen syndrome by proxy and sudden infant death. BMJ. 2004 May 29;328(7451):1309-12.Full text  Abstract

123. American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk. Pediatrics. 2005 Nov;116(5):1245-55.Full text  Abstract

124. The Lullaby Trust. Evidence base. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text

125. Ward SL, Keens TG, Chan LS, et al. Sudden infant death syndrome in infants evaluated by apnea programs in California. Pediatrics. 1986 Apr;77(4):451-8. Abstract

126. Monod N, Plouin P, Sternberg B, et al. Are polygraphic and cardiopneumographic respiratory patterns useful tools for predicting the risk of sudden infant death syndrome? A 10-year study. Biol Neonate. 1986;50(3):147-53. Abstract

127. Strehle EM, Gray WK, Gopisetti S, et al. Can home monitoring reduce mortality in infants at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome? A systematic review. Acta Paediatr. 2012 Jan;101(1):8-13. Abstract

128. Committee on Fetus and Newborn, American Academy of Pediatrics. Apnea, sudden infant death syndrome, and home monitoring. Pediatrics. 2003 Apr;111(4 Pt 1):914-7.Full text  Abstract

129. Sivan Y, Kornecki A, Baharav A, et al. Home monitoring for infants at high risk for the sudden infant death syndrome. Isr J Med Sci. 1997 Jan;33(1):45-9. Abstract

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