Pediculosis capitis


Key articles

Burgess I. Human lice and their control. Ann Rev Entomol. 2004 Jan;49:457-81. Abstract

American Academy of Pediatrics; Devore CD, Schutze GE. Head lice. Pediatrics. 2015 May;135(5):e1355-65.Full text  Abstract

Meinking TL. Infestations: pediculosis. Curr Probl Dermatol. 1996;24:157-63. Abstract

Mumcuoglu KY, Meinking TA, Burkhart CN, et al. Head louse infestations: the "no nit" policy and its consequences. Int J Derm. 2006 Aug;45(8):891-6. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Burgess IF, Silverston P. Head lice. Clin Evid (Online). January 2015 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

2. Burgess I. Human lice and their control. Ann Rev Entomol. 2004 Jan;49:457-81. Abstract

3. Ko CJ, Elston DM. Pediculosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Jan;50(1):1-12. Abstract

4. Leung AK, Fong JH, Pinto-Rojas A. Pediculosis capitis. J Ped Health Care. 2005 Nov-Dec;19(6):369-73. Abstract

5. American Academy of Pediatrics; Devore CD, Schutze GE. Head lice. Pediatrics. 2015 May;135(5):e1355-65.Full text  Abstract

6. Downs A, Oxley J. Head lice infestations in different ethnic groups. Int J Derm. 2001 Mar;40(3):237-8. Abstract

7. Falagas ME, Matthaiou DK, Rafailidis PI, et al. Worldwide prevalence of head lice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Sep;14(9):1493-4.Full text  Abstract

8. Counahan M, Andrews R, Buttner P, et al. Head lice prevalence in primary schools in Victoria, Australia. J Paediatr Child Health. 2004 Nov;40(11):616-9. Abstract

9. Harris J, Crawshaw JG, Millership S. Incidence and prevalence of head lice in a district health authority area. Commun Dis Public Health. 2003 Sep;6(3):246-9. Abstract

10. Fan CK, Liao CW, Wu MS, et al. Prevalence of pediculus capitis infestation among school children of Chinese refugees residing in mountainous areas of northern Thailand. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2004 Apr;20(4):183-7. Abstract

11. Lesshafft H, Baier A, Guerra H, et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with pediculosis capitis in an impoverished urban community in lima, peru. J Glob Infect Dis. 2013 Oct;5(4):138-43.Full text  Abstract

12. Meinking TL. Infestations: pediculosis. Curr Probl Dermatol. 1996;24:157-63. Abstract

13. Gratz NG; World Health Organization/WHOPES. Human lice: their prevalence, control and resistance to insecticides - a review, 1985-1997. August 1997 [internet publication].Full text

14. Houhamdi L, Parola P, Raoult D. Les poux et les maladies transmises à l’homme [in French]. Médecine Tropicale. 2005;65:13-23.

15. Feldmeier H. Lice as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms. In: Heukelbach J, ed. Management and control of head lice infestation. Bremen: UNIMED; 2010:132-5.

16. Boutellis A, Mediannikov O, Bilcha KD, et al. Borrelia recurrentis in head lice, Ethiopia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 May;19(5):796-8.Full text  Abstract

17. Antinori S, Mediannikov O, Corbellino M, et al. Louse-borne relapsing fever among East African refugees in Europe. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2016 Mar-Apr;14(2):110-4. Abstract

18. Speare R, Thomas G, Cahill C. Head lice are not found on floors in primary school classrooms. Aus N Z J Pub Health. 2002;26(3):208-11. Abstract

19. Heukelbach J, Wilcke T, Winter B, et al. Epidemiology and morbidity of scabies and pediculosis capitis in resource-poor communities in Brazil. Br J Derm. 2005 Jul;153(1):150-6. Abstract

20. Estrada JS, Morris RI. Pediculosis in a school population. J Sch Nurs. 2000 Aug;16(3):32-8. Abstract

21. Willems S, Lapeere H, Haedens N, et al. The importance of socio-economic status and individual characteristics on the prevalence of head lice in schoolchildren. Eur J Dermatol. 2005 Sep-Oct;15(5):387-92. Abstract

22. Chunge RN, Scott FE, Underwood JE, et al. A pilot study to investigate transmission of head lice. Can J Public Health. 1991 May-Jun;82(3):207-8. Abstract

23. Maunder JW. Human lice: some basic facts and misconceptions. Bull Pan Am Health Organ. 1985;19(2):194-7. Abstract

24. Burkhart CN. Fomite transmission with head lice: a continuing controversy. Lancet. 2003 Jan 11;361(9352):99-100. Abstract

25. Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG. Fomite transmission in head lice. J Am Acad Derm. 2007 Jun;56(6):1044-7. Abstract

26. Speare R, Cahill C, Thomas G. Head lice on pillows, and strategies to make a small risk even less. Int J Derm. 2003 Aug;42(8):626-9. Abstract

27. Williams LK, Reichert A, MacKenzie WR, et al. Lice, nits, and school policy. Pediatrics. 2001 May;107(5):1011-5. Abstract

28. Mumcuoglu KY, Meinking TA, Burkhart CN, et al. Head louse infestations: the "no nit" policy and its consequences. Int J Derm. 2006 Aug;45(8):891-6. Abstract

29. American Academy of Pediatrics. Head lice. In: 2006 Red Book: report of the committee on infectious diseases. 27:448-92.

30. Public Health Medicine Environmental Group. Head lice: evidence-based guidelines based on the Stafford Report - 2012 update [internet publication].Full text

31. Mumcuoglu KY, Friger M, Ioffe-Uspensky I, et al. Louse comb versus direct visual examination for the diagnosis of head louse infestations. Ped Derm. 2001 Jan-Feb;18(1):9-12. Abstract

32. Burgess I. Detection combing. Nurs Times. 2002 Nov 12-18;98(46):57. Abstract

33. Pollack RJ, Kiszewski AD, Spielman A. Overdiagnosis and consequent mismanagement of head louse infestation in North America. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 Aug;19(8):689-93. Abstract

34. Jahnke C, Bauer E, Hengge UR, et al. Accuracy of diagnosis of pediculosis capitis: visual inspection vs wet combing. Arch Dermatol. 2009 Mar;145(3):309-13.Full text  Abstract

35. Balcioglu C, Burgess IF, Limoncu ME, et al. Plastic detection comb better than visual screening for diagnosis of head louse infestation. Epidemiol Infect. 2008 Oct;136(10):1425-31. Abstract

36. Hootman J. Quality improvement projects related to pediculosis management. J School Nursing. 2002 Apr;18(2):80-6. Abstract

37. Feldmeier H. Pediculosis capitis: new insights into epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Sep;31(9):2105-10. Abstract

38. Pollack RJ. The role of the school in battling head lice. Our children (US National PTA). 2007 [internet publication].Full text

39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites - lice - head lice diagnosis. September 2013 [internet publication].Full text

40. Cummings C, Finlay JC, MacDonald NE. Head lice infestations: A clinical update. [in fre]. Paediatr Child Health. 2018 Feb;23(1):e18-e24.Full text  Abstract

41. Jones KN, English JC. Review of common therapeutic options in the United States for the treatment of Pediculosis capitis. Clin Inf Dis. 2003 Jun 1;36(11):1355-61. Abstract

42. Downs AM. Managing head lice in an era of increasing resistance to insecticides. Am J Clin Derm. 2004;5(3):169-77. Abstract

43. Meinking TL, Entzel P, Villar ME, et al. Comparative efficacy of treatments for Pediculosis capitis infestations. Arch Dermatol. 2001 Mar;137(3):287-92.Full text  Abstract

44. Burkhart CG, Burkhart CN. Safety and efficacy of pedulicides for head lice. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006 Jan;5(1):169-79. Abstract

45. Burkhart CG, Burkhart CN. Head lice therapies revisited. Derm Online J. 2006 Oct 31;12(6):3. Abstract

46. Burkhart CG. Relationship of treatment-resistant head lice to the safety and efficacy of pediculicides. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 May;79(5):661-6. Abstract

47. Lebwohl M, Clark L, Levitt J. Therapy for head lice based on life cycle, resistance, and safety considerations. Pediatrics. 2007 May;119(5):965-74. Abstract

48. Do-Pham G, Le Cleach L, Giraudeau B, et al. Designing randomized-controlled trials to improve head-louse treatment: systematic review using a vignette-based method. J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Mar;134(3):628-34. Abstract

49. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites: lice: head lice treatment. August 2016 [internet publication].Full text

50. Kristensen M, Knorr M, Rasmussen AM, et al. Survey of permethrin and malathion resistance in human head lice populations from Denmark. J Med Entomol. 2006 May;43(3):533-8.Full text  Abstract

51. Kasai S1, Ishii N, Natsuaki M, Fukutomi H, et al. Prevalence of kdr-like mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in human head louse populations in Japan. J Med Entomol. 2009 Jan;46(1):77-82.Full text  Abstract

52. Hunter JA, Barker SC. Susceptibility of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) to pediculicides in Australia. Parasitol Res. 2003 Aug;90(6):476-8. Abstract

53. Durand R, Millard B, Bouges-Michel C, et al. Detection of pyrethroid resistance gene in head lice in schoolchildren from Bobigny, France. J Med Entomol. 2007 Sep;44(5):796-8.Full text  Abstract

54. Bailey AM, Prociv P. Persistent head lice following multiple treatments: evidence for insecticide resistance in Pediculus humanus capitis. Australas J Dermatol. 2000 Nov;41(4):250-4. Abstract

55. Sendzik J, Stahlmann R. Arzneimittel gegen Kopflausbefall. Toxikologie und Wirksamkeit [in German]. Med Monatsschr Pharm. 2005 May;28(5):167-72.

56. Menegaux F, Baruchel A, Bertrand Y, et al. Household exposure to pesticides and risk of childhood acute leukaemia. Occup Environ Med. 2006 Feb;63(2):131-4.Full text  Abstract

57. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA public health advisory: safety of topical lindane products for the treatment of scabies and lice. 2009 [internet publication].Full text

58. Takano-Lee M, Edman JD, Mullens BA, et al. Home remedies to control head lice: assessment of home remedies to control the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis. J Ped Nursing. 2004 Dec;19(6):393-8. Abstract

59. Priestley CM, Burgess IF, Williamson EM. Lethality of essential oil constituents towards the human louse, Pediculus humanus, and its eggs. Fitoterapia. 2006 Jun;77(4):303-9. Abstract

60. Speare R, Canyon DV, Cahill C, et al. Comparative efficacy of two nit combs in removing head lice (Pediculosis capitis) and their eggs. Int J Dermatol. 2007 Dec;46(12):1275-8. Abstract

61. Lapeere H, Brochez L, Verhaeghe E, et al. Efficacy of products to remove eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from the human hair. J Med Entomol. 2014 Mar;51(2):400-7.Full text  Abstract

62. Bainbridge CV, Klein GL, Neibart SI, et al. Comparative study of the clinical effectiveness of a pyrethrin-based pediculicide with combing versus a permethrin-based pediculicide with combing. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1998 Jan;37(1):17-22. Abstract

63. Plastow L, Luthra M, Wright J, et al. Head lice infestation: bug busting vs traditional treatment. J Clin Nursing. 2001 Nov;10(6):775-83. Abstract

64. Tebruegge M, Runnacles J. Is wet combing effective in children with pediculosis capitis infestation? Arch Dis Child. 2007 Sep;92(9):818-20. Abstract

65. Monheit BM, Norris MM. Is combing the answer to head lice? J Sch Health. 1986 Apr;56(4):158-9. Abstract

66. O'Brien E. Detection and removal of head lice with an electronic comb: zapping the louse! J Pediatr Nurs. 1998 Aug;13(4):265-6. Abstract

67. Burkhart CN, Burkhart CG, Pchalek I, et al. The adherent cylindrical nit structure and its chemical denaturation in vitro: an assessment with therapeutic implications for head lice. Adolesc Med. 1998 Jul;152(7):711-2. Abstract

68. DeFelice J, Rumsfield J, Bernstein JE, et al. Clinical evaluation of an after-pediculicide nit removal system. Int J Dermatol. 1989 Sep;28(7):468-70. Abstract

69. Goates BM, Atkin JS, Wilding KG, et al. An effective nonchemical treatment for head lice: a lot of hot air. Pediatrics. 2006 Nov;118(5):1962-70. Abstract

70. Pearlman DL. A simple treatment for head lice: dry-on, suffocation-based pediculicide. Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):e275-9.Full text  Abstract

71. Pearlman D. Cetaphil cleanser (Nuvo Lotion) cures head lice. Pediatrics. 2005 Dec;116(6):1612. Abstract

72. Tomalik-Scharte D, Lazar A, Meins J, et al. Dermal absorption of permethrin following topical administration. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jul;61(5-6):399-404. Abstract

73. Gao JR, Yoon KS, Lee SH, et al. Increased frequency of the T929I and L932F mutations associated with knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant populations of the human head louse, Pediculus capitis, from California, Florida, and Texas. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2003 Nov;77:115-24.Full text

74. Meinking TL, Vicaria M, Eyerdam DH, et al. A randomized, investigator-blinded, time-ranging study of the comparative efficacy of 0.5% malathion gel versus Ovide Lotion (0.5% malathion) or Nix Creme Rinse (1% permethrin) used as labeled, for the treatment of head lice. Ped Derm. 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):405-11. Abstract

75. Meinking TL, Vicaria M, Eyerdam DH, et al. Efficacy of a reduced application time of Ovide lotion (0.5% malathion) compared to Nix creme rinse (1% permethrin) for the treatment of head lice. Ped Derm. 2004 Nov-Dec;21(6):670-4. Abstract

76. Yoon KS, Gao JR, Lee SH, et al. Permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus capitis, and their treatment. Arch Dermatol. 2003 Aug;139(8):994-1000.Full text  Abstract

77. Meinking TL, Serrano L, Hard B, et al. Comparative in vitro pediculicidal efficacy of treatments in a resistant head lice population in the United States. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Feb;138(2):220-4.Full text  Abstract

78. Abramowicz M, ed. Drugs for head lice. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1997 Jan 17;39(992):6-7. Abstract

79. Pollack RJ, Kiszewski A, Armstrong P, et al. Differential permethrin susceptibility of head lice sampled in the United States and Borneo. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999 Sep;153(9):969-73. Abstract

80. Burgess IF, Lee PN, Brown CM. Randomised, controlled, parallel group clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone solution against head lice. Pharm J. 2008;280:371-5.

81. Kaul N, Palma KG, Silagy SS, et al. North American efficacy and safety of a novel pediculicide rinse, isopropyl myristate 50% (Resultz). J Cutan Med Surg. 2007 Sep-Oct;11(5):161-7. Abstract

82. Chosidow O, Giraudeau B, Cottrell J, et al. Oral ivermectin versus malathion lotion for difficult-to-treat head lice. New Engl J Med. 2010 Mar 11;362(10):896-905. Abstract

83. POEMs Research Summaries. Ivermectin safe and effective for treatment of resistant head lice. J Natl Med Assoc. 2010;102:662-3.

84. Karacic I, Yawalker SJ. A single application of crotamiton lotion in the treatment of patients with pediculosis capitis. Int J Dermatol. 1982 Dec;21(10):611-3. Abstract

85. Heukelbach J, Oliveira FA, Richter J, et al. Dimeticone-based pediculicides: a physical approach to eradicate head lice. Open Dermatol J. 2010;4:77-81.Full text

86. Richling I, Böckeler W. Lethal effects of treatment with a special dimeticone formula on head lice and house crickets (Orthoptera, Ensifera: Acheta domestica and Anoplura, phthiraptera: Pediculus humanus). Insights into physical mechanisms. Arzneimittelforschung. 2008;58(5):248-54. Abstract

87. Burgess IF. The mode of action of dimeticone 4% lotion against head lice, Pediculus capitis. BMC Pharmacol. 2009 Feb 20;9:3.Full text  Abstract

88. Kurt O, Balcioğlu IC, Burgess IF, et al. Treatment of head lice with dimeticone 4% lotion: comparison of two formulations in a randomised controlled trial in rural Turkey. BMC Public Health. 2009 Dec 1;9:441.Full text  Abstract

89. Burgess IF, Brunton ER, Burgess NA. Single application of 4% dimeticone liquid gel versus two applications of 1% permethrin creme rinse for treatment of head louse infestation: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Dermatol. 2013 Apr 1;13:5.Full text  Abstract

90. Burgess IF, Brown CM, Lee PN. Treatment of head louse infestation with 4% dimeticone lotion: randomised controlled equivalence trial. BMJ. 2005 Jun 18;330(7505):1423.Full text  Abstract

91. Heukelbach J, Pilger D, Oliveira FA, et al. A highly efficacious pediculicide based on dimeticone: randomized observer blinded comparative trial. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:115.Full text  Abstract

92. Burgess IF1, Lee PN, Matlock G. Randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial comparing 4% dimeticone lotion with 0.5% malathion liquid for head louse infestation. PLoS One. 2007 Nov 7;2(11):e1127.Full text  Abstract

93. Strycharz JP, Yoon KS, Clark JM. A new ivermectin formulation topically kills permethrin-resistant human head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol. 2008 Jan;45(1):75-81.Full text  Abstract

94. Heukelbach J, Sonnberg S, Becher H, et al. Ovicidal efficacy of high concentration dimeticone: a new era of head lice treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Apr;64(4):e61-2. Abstract

95. Burgess IF, Burgess NA. Dimeticone 4% liquid gel found to kill all lice and eggs with a single 15 minute application. BMC Res Notes. 2011 Jan 25;4:15.Full text  Abstract

96. Feldmeier H. Treatment of pediculosis capitis: a critical appraisal of the current literature. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2014 Oct;15(5):401-12. Abstract

97. Burgess IF, Lee PN, Kay K, et al. 1,2-Octanediol, a novel surfactant, for treating head louse infestation: identification of activity, formulation, and randomised, controlled trials. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35419.Full text  Abstract

98. Burgess IF, Burgess NA, Brunton ER. Tocopheryl acetate 20% spray for elimination of head louse infestation: a randomised controlled trial comparing with 1% permethrin creme rinse. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013 Sep 3;14:43.Full text  Abstract

99. National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia). Staying healthy: preventing infectious diseases in early childhood education and care services, fifth edition. June 2013 [internet publication].Full text

100. National Association of School Nurses (US). Head lice management in the school setting: position statement. January 2016 [internet publication].Full text

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer