Chronic pancreatitis

References

Key articles

Sherman S, Freeman ML, Tarnasky PR, et al. Administration of secretin (RG1068) increases the sensitivity of detection of duct abnormalities by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in patients with pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2014;147:646-654.e2.Full text  Abstract

Gurusamy KS, Lusuku C, Davidson BR. Pregabalin for decreasing pancreatic pain in chronic pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(2):CD011522.Full text  Abstract

Ahmed Ali U, Jens S, Busch OR, et al. Antioxidants for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Aug 21;(8):CD008945.Full text  Abstract

Ahmed Ali U, Pahlplatz JM, Nealon WH, et al. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 19;(3):CD007884.Full text  Abstract

Gurusamy KS, Lusuku C, Halkias C, et al. Duodenum-preserving pancreatic resection versus pancreaticoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Feb 3;(2):CD011521.Full text  Abstract

Bachmann K, Tomkoetter L, Erbes J, et al. Beger and Frey procedures for treatment of chronic pancreatitis: comparison of outcomes at 16-year follow-up. J Am Coll Surg. 2014 Aug;219(2):208-16. Abstract

Cahen DL, Gouma DJ, Nio Y, et al. Endoscopic versus surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct in chronic pancreatitis. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:676-684. Abstract

Reference articles

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4. Whitcomb DC, North American Pancreatitis Study Group. Pancreatitis: TIGAR-O version 2 risk/etiology checklist with topic reviews, updates, and use primers. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun;10(6):e00027.Full text  Abstract

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6. Schneider A, Löhr JM, Singer MV. The M-ANNHEIM classification of chronic pancreatitis: introduction of a unifying classification system based on a review of previous classifications of the disease. J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:101-119. Abstract

7. Kamisawa T, Yoshiike M, Egawa N, et al. Chronic pancreatitis in the elderly in Japan. Pancreatology. 2004;4(3-4):223-7. Abstract

8. Okazaki K, Kawa S, Kamisawa T, et al. Clinical diagnostic criteria of autoimmune pancreatitis: revised proposal. J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jul;41(7):626-31.Full text  Abstract

9. Kawa S, Hamano H. Clinical features of autoimmune pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol. 2007 May;42 (Suppl 18):9-14. Abstract

10. Mullhaupt B, Truninger K, Ammann R. Impact of etiology on the painful early stage of chronic pancreatitis: a long-term prospective study. Z Gastroenterol. 2005 Dec;43(12):1293-301. Abstract

11. Layer P, Yamamoto H, Kalthoff L, et al. The different courses of early- and late-onset idiopathic and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 1994 Nov;107(5):1481-7. Abstract

12. Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, DiMagno EP, et al. Hereditary pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer: International Hereditary Pancreatitis Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Mar 19;89(6):442-6. Abstract

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23. Sankaran SJ, Xiao AY, Wu LM, et al. Frequency of progression from acute to chronic pancreatitis and risk factors: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2015 Nov;149(6):1490-500.Full text  Abstract

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28. Yadav D, Hawes RH, Brand RE, et al. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and the risk of recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Jun 8;169(11):1035-45. Abstract

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30. DiMagno MJ. Oktoberfest binge drinking and acute pancreatitis: is there really no relationship? Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Nov;9(11):920-2. Abstract

31. Samokhvalov AV, Rehm J, Roerecke M. Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis: a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses. EBioMedicine. 2015 Nov 14;2(12):1996-2002.Full text  Abstract

32. Durbec JP, Sarles H. Multicenter survey of the etiology of pancreatic diseases. Relationship between the relative risk of developing chronic pancreaitis and alcohol, protein and lipid consumption. Digestion. 1978;18(5-6):337-50. Abstract

33. Corrao G, Bahnardi V, Zambon A, et al. A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of 15 diseases. Prev Med. 2004 May;38(5):613-9. Abstract

34. Dufour MC, Adamson MD. The epidemiology of alcohol-induced pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2003 Nov;27(4):286-90. Abstract

35. Yadav D, Eigenbrodt ML, Briggs MJ, et al. Pancreatitis: prevalence and risk factors among male veterans in a detoxification program. Pancreas. 2007 May;34(4):390-8. Abstract

36. Lankisch PG, Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P. What is the risk of alcoholic pancreatitis in heavy drinkers? Pancreas. 2002 Nov;25(4):411-2. Abstract

37. Bourliere M, Barthet M, Berthezene P, et al. Is tobacco a risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis? Gut. 1991 Nov;32(11):1392-5.Full text  Abstract

38. Stigendal L, Olsson R. Alcohol consumption pattern and serum lipids in alcoholic cirrhosis and pancreatitis: a comparative study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1984 Jul;19(5):582-7. Abstract

39. Wilson JS, Bernstein L, McDonald C, et al. Diet and drinking habits in relation to the development of alcoholic pancreatitis. Gut. 1985 Sep;26(9):882-7.Full text  Abstract

40. DiMagno MJ, DiMagno EP. Chronic pancreatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006 Sep;22(5):487-97. Abstract

41. DiMagno MJ, DiMagno EP. Chronic pancreatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005 Sep;21(5):544-54. Abstract

42. Ockenga J, Vogel A, Teich N, et al. UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A7) gene polymorphisms increase the risk of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology. 2003 Jun;124(7):1802-8. Abstract

43. Jerrells TR, Chapman N, Clemens DL. Animal model of alcoholic pancreatitis: role of viral infections. Pancreas. 2003 Nov;27(4):301-4. Abstract

44. Clemens DL, Jerrells TR. Ethanol consumption potentiates viral pancreatitis and may inhibit pancreas regeneration: preliminary findings. Alcohol. 2004 Jul;33(3):183-9. Abstract

45. Ostrowski SE, Reilly AA, Collins DN, et al. Progression or resolution of coxsackievirus B4-induced pancreatitis: a genomic analysis. J Virol. 2004 Aug;78(15):8229-37.Full text  Abstract

46. Ammann RW, Muellhaupt B. Progression of alcoholic acute to chronic pancreatitis. Gut. 1994 Apr;35(4):552-6.Full text  Abstract

47. Lankisch PG, Lohr-Happe A, Otto J, et al. Natural course in chronic pancreatitis: pain, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency and prognosis of the disease. Digestion. 1993;54(3):148-55. Abstract

48. Ammann RW, Muellhaupt B, Meyenberger C, et al. Alcoholic nonprogressive chronic pancreatitis: prospective long-term study of a large cohort with alcoholic acute pancreatitis (1976-1992). Pancreas. 1994 May;9(3):365-73. Abstract

49. Strate T, Bachmann K, Busch P, et al. Resection vs drainage in treatment of chronic pancreatitis: long-term results of a randomized trial. Gastroenterology. 2008 May;134(5):1406-11. Abstract

50. Warshaw AL, Banks PA, Fernandez-Del Castillo C. AGA technical review: treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 1998 Sep;115(3):765-76.Full text  Abstract

51. Morton C, Klatsky AL, Udaltsova N. Smoking, coffee, and pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Apr;99(4):731-8. Abstract

52. Murthy SN, Dinoso VP, Jr., Clearfield HR, et al. Simultaneous measurement of basal pancreatic, gastric acid secretion, plasma gastrin, and secretin during smoking. Gastroenterology. 1977 Oct;73(4 Pt 1):758-61. Abstract

53. Brown P. The influence of smoking on pancreatic function in man. Med J Aust. 1976 Aug 21;2(8):290-3. Abstract

54. Bynum TE, Solomon TE, Johnson LR, et al. Inhibition of pancreatic secretion in man by cigarette smoking. Gut. 1972 May;13(5):361-5.Full text  Abstract

55. Maisonneuve P, Lowenfels AB, Mullhaupt B, et al. Cigarette smoking accelerates progression of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Gut. 2005 Apr;54(4):510-4.Full text  Abstract

56. Tolstrup JS, Kristiansen L, Becker U, et al. Smoking and risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis among women and men: a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23;169(6):603-9. Abstract

57. Nøjgaard C, Becker U, Matzen P, et al. Progression from acute to chronic pancreatitis: prognostic factors, mortality, and natural course. Pancreas. 2011 Nov;40(8):1195-200. Abstract

58. Cavallini G, Talamini G, Vaona B, et al. Effect of alcohol and smoking on pancreatic lithogenesis in the course of chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 1994 Jan;9(1):42-6. Abstract

59. Nakamura Y, Ohmori T, Higuchi S, et al. Certain background factors exhibit an association with an increased risk for pancreatic calcification among Japanese male alcoholics. Pancreas. 2005 Oct;31(3):225-31. Abstract

60. DiMagno MJ, DiMagno EP. Chronic pancreatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Sep;20(5):444-51. Abstract

61. Singh VK, Yadav D, Garg PK. Diagnosis and management of chronic pancreatitis: a review. JAMA. 2019 Dec 24;322(24):2422-34. Abstract

62. Pezzilli R, Morselli-Labate AM, Mantovani V, et al. Mutations of the CFTR gene in pancreatic disease. Pancreas. 2003 Nov;27(4):332-6. Abstract

63. Masamune A, Ariga H, Kume K, et al. Genetic background is different between sentinel and recurrent acute pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Jun;26(6):974-8. Abstract

64. Aoun E, Muddana V, Papachristou GI, et al. SPINK1 N34S is strongly associated with recurrent acute pancreatitis but is not a risk factor for the first or sentinel acute pancreatitis event. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Feb;105(2):446-51. Abstract

65. Rosendahl J, Witt H, Szmola R, et al. Chymotrypsin C (CTRC) variants that diminish activity or secretion are associated with chronic pancreatitis. Nat Genet. 2008 Jan;40(1):78-82.Full text  Abstract

66. Muddana V, Lamb J, Greer JB, et al. Association between calcium sensing receptor gene polymorphisms and chronic pancreatitis in a US population: role of serine protease inhibitor Kazal 1type and alcohol. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jul 28;14(28):4486-91.Full text  Abstract

67. Felderbauer P, Hoffmann P, Einwächter H, et al. A novel mutation of the calcium sensing receptor gene is associated with chronic pancreatitis in a family with heterozygous SPINK1 mutations. BMC Gastroenterol. 2003 Nov 29;3:34.Full text  Abstract

68. Whitcomb DC, LaRusch J, Krasinskas AM, et al. Common genetic variants in the CLDN2 and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci alter risk for alcohol-related and sporadic pancreatitis. Nat Genet. 2012 Dec;44(12):1349-54.Full text  Abstract

69. Witt H, Beer S, Rosendahl J, et al. Variants in CPA1 are strongly associated with early onset chronic pancreatitis. Nat Genet. 2013 Oct;45(10):1216-20.Full text  Abstract

70. Weiss FU, Schurmann C, Guenther A, et al. Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) non-secretor status and blood group B are associated with elevated serum lipase activity in asymptomatic subjects, and an increased risk for chronic pancreatitis: a genetic association study. Gut. 2015 Apr;64(4):646-56. Abstract

71. Xu W, Hui C, Yu SS, et al. MicroRNAs and cystic fibrosis - an epigenetic perspective. Cell Biol Int. 2011 May;35(5):463-6. Abstract

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73. Groman JD, Meyer ME, Wilmott RW, et al. Variant cystic fibrosis phenotypes in the absence of CFTR mutations. N Engl J Med. 2002 Aug 8;347(6):401-7.Full text  Abstract

74. Ko SB, Mizuno N, Yatabe Y, et al. Corticosteroids correct aberrant CFTR localization in the duct and regenerate acinar cells in autoimmune pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2010 May;138(5):1988-96.Full text  Abstract

75. Krier J, Barfield R, Green RC, et al. Reclassification of genetic-based risk predictions as GWAS data accumulate. Genome Med. 2016 Feb 17;8(1):20.Full text  Abstract

76. Garrett LT, Hickman N, Jacobson A, et al. Family studies for classification of variants of uncertain classification: current laboratory clinical practice and a new web-based educational tool. J Genet Couns. 2016 Dec;25(6):1146-56.Full text  Abstract

77. Moghadasi S, Eccles DM, Devilee P, et al. Classification and clinical management of variants of uncertain significance in high penetrance cancer predisposition genes. Hum Mutat. 2016 Apr;37(4):331-6.Full text  Abstract

78. Sadr-Azodi O, Sanders DS, Murray JA, et al. Patients with celiac disease have an increased risk for pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Oct;10(10):1136-42.Full text  Abstract

79. Ludvigsson JF, Montgomery SM, Ekbom A. Risk of pancreatitis in 14,000 individuals with celiac disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Nov;5(11):1347-53.Full text  Abstract

80. Patel RS, Johlin FC Jr, Murray JA. Celiac disease and recurrent pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999 Dec;50(6):823-7. Abstract

81. Chiu HY, Hsieh CF, Chiang YT, et al. The risk of chronic pancreatitis in patients with psoriasis: a population-based cohort study. PLoS One. 2016 Jul 28;11(7):e0160041.Full text  Abstract

82. Dominguez-Munoz JE, Drewes AM, Lindkvist B, et al. Recommendations from the United European Gastroenterology evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2018 Dec;18(8):847-54. Abstract

83. Jalal M, Campbell JA, Hopper AD. Practical guide to the management of chronic pancreatitis. Frontline Gastroenterol. 2019 Jul;10(3):253-60. Abstract

84. Gardner TB, Adler DG, Forsmark CE, et al. ACG clinical guideline: chronic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020 Mar;115(3):322-39. Abstract

85. Ahmed Ali U, Issa Y, Hagenaars JC, et al. Risk of recurrent pancreatitis and progression to chronic pancreatitis after a first episode of acute pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 May;14(5):738-46. Abstract

86. Garg PK, Tandon RK, Madan K. Is biliary microlithiasis a significant cause of idiopathic recurrent acute pancreatitis? A long-term follow-up study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Jan;5(1):75-9. Abstract

87. Jacob L, Geenen JE, Catalano MF, et al. Prevention of pancreatitis in patients with idiopathic recurrent pancreatitis: a prospective nonblinded randomized study using endoscopic stents. Endoscopy. 2001 Jul;33(7):559-62. Abstract

88. Yusoff IF, Raymond G, Sahai AV. A prospective comparison of the yield of EUS in primary vs recurrent idiopathic acute pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004 Nov;60(5):673-8. Abstract

89. Scott J, Summerfield JA, Elias E, et al. Chronic pancreatitis: a cause of cholestasis. Gut. 1977 Mar;18(3):196-201.Full text  Abstract

90. Meier R, Ockenga J, Pertkiewicz M, et al. ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition: pancreas. Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;25(2):275-84.Full text  Abstract

91. Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, Cavallini G, et al. Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer: International Pancreatitis Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1993 May 20;328(20):1433-7.Full text  Abstract

92. Malka D, Hammel P, Sauvanet A, et al. Risk factors for diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2000 Nov;119(5):1324-32. Abstract

93. Pan J, Xin L, Wang D, et al. Risk factors for diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis: a cohort of 2,011 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Apr;95(14):e3251.Full text  Abstract

94. Sikkens EC, Cahen DL, Koch AD, et al. The prevalence of fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies and a decreased bone mass in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2013 May-Jun;13(3):238-42. Abstract

95. Duggan SN, Smyth ND, O'Sullivan M, et al. The prevalence of malnutrition and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies in chronic pancreatitis. Nutr Clin Pract. 2014 Jun;29(3):348-54. Abstract

96. Duggan SN, Purcell C, Kilbane M, et al. An association between abnormal bone turnover, systemic inflammation, and osteoporosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis: a case-matched study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015 Feb;110(2):336-45. Abstract

97. Tignor AS, Wu BU, Whitlock TL, et al. High prevalence of low-trauma fracture in chronic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Dec;105(12):2680-6. Abstract

98. Duggan SN, Smyth ND, Murphy A, et al. High prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Feb;12(2):219-28. Abstract

99. Bang UC, Benfield T, Bendtsen F, et al. The risk of fractures among patients with cirrhosis or chronic pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Feb;12(2):320-6. Abstract

100. Lu CL, Chen CY, Luo JC, et al. Impaired gastric myoelectricity in patients with chronic pancreatitis: role of maldigestion. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan 21;11(3):372-6.Full text  Abstract

101. Chowdhury RS, Forsmark CE, Davis RH, et al. Prevalence of gastroparesis in patients with small duct chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2003 Apr;26(3):235-8. Abstract

102. Regan PT, Malagelada JR, DiMagno EP, et al. Postprandial gastric function in pancreatic insufficiency. Gut. 1979 Mar;20(3):249-54.Full text  Abstract

103. Long WB, Weiss JB. Rapid gastric emptying of fatty meals in pancreatic insufficiency. Gastroenterology. 1974 Nov;67(5):920-5. Abstract

104. Mizushima T, Ochi K, Ichimura M, et al. Pancreatic enzyme supplement improves dysmotility in chronic pancreatitis patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;19(9):1005-9. Abstract

105. Carasso S, Oren I, Alroy G, et al. Disseminated fat necrosis with asymptomatic pancreatitis: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Med Sci. 2000 Jan;319(1):68-72. Abstract

106. Lucas PF, Owen TK. Subcutaneous fat necrosis, 'polyarthritis', and pancreatic disease. Gut. 1962 Jun;3:146-8.Full text  Abstract

107. Bank S, Marks IN, Farman J, et al. Further observations on calcified medullary bone lesions in chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 1966 Aug;51(2):224-30. Abstract

108. Ichikawa T, Nakao K, Hamasaki K, et al. An autopsy case of acute pancreatitis with a high serum IgG4 complicated by amyloidosis and rheumatoid arthritis. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr 7;11(13):2032-4.Full text  Abstract

109. ASGE Standards of Practice Committee., Forbes N, Coelho-Prabhu N, et al. Adverse events associated with EUS and EUS-guided procedures. Gastrointest Endosc. 2022 Jan;95(1):16-26.e2.Full text  Abstract

110. Sherman S, Freeman ML, Tarnasky PR, et al. Administration of secretin (RG1068) increases the sensitivity of detection of duct abnormalities by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in patients with pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2014;147:646-654.e2.Full text  Abstract

111. DiMagno MJ, DiMagno EP. Chronic pancreatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004;20:444-451. Abstract

112. DiMagno EP, Malagelada JR, Taylor WF, et al. A prospective comparison of current diagnostic tests for pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med. 1977;297:737-742. Abstract

113. Bozkurt T, Braun U, Leferink S, et al. Comparison of pancreatic morphology and exocrine functional impairment in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Gut. 1994;35:1132-1136. Abstract

114. Otsuki M. Chronic pancreatitis. The problems of diagnostic criteria. Pancreatology. 2004;4(1):28-41. Abstract

115. DiMagno MJ. Pancreatic function tests. In: Johnson LR, Alpers D, Barrett K, et al, eds. Encyclopedia of gastroenterology. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science; 2003.

116. Kamisawa T, Yoshiike M, Egawa N, et al. Chronic pancreatitis in the elderly in Japan. Pancreatology. 2004;4:223-227. Abstract

117. Rebours V, Le Baleur Y, Cazals-Hatem D, et al. Immunoglobulin G4 immunostaining of gastric, duodenal, or colonic biopsies is not helpful for the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;10:91-94. Abstract

118. Moon SH, Kim MH, Park DH, et al. Is a 2-week steroid trial after initial negative workup for malignancy useful in differentiating autoimmune pancreatitis from pancreatic cancer? A prospective outcome study. Gut. 2008;57:1704-1712. Abstract

119. Munigala S, Kanwal F, Xian H, et al. Increased risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma after acute pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12:1143-1150.Full text  Abstract

120. Munigala S, Kanwal F, Xian H, et al. New diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: risk of missing an underlying pancreatic cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109:1824-1830. Abstract

121. Layer P, Yamamoto H, Kalthoff L, et al. The different courses of early- and late-onset idiopathic and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 1994;107:1481-1487. Abstract

122. Ammann RW. A clinically based classification system for alcoholic chronic pancreatitis: summary of an international workshop on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 1997;14:215-221. Abstract

123. Raimondo M, Imoto M, DiMagno EP. Rapid endoscopic secretin stimulation test and discrimination of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer from disease controls. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;1:397-403. Abstract

124. Homma T, Harada H, Koizumi M. Diagnostic criteria of chronic pancreatitis by the Japan Pancreas Society. Pancreas. 1997;15:14-15. Abstract

125. Ammann RW, Muellhaupt B. The natural history of pain in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 1999 May;116(5):1132-40. Abstract

126. Ammann RW, Akovbiantz A, Largiader F, et al. Course and outcome of chronic pancreatitis: longitudinal study of a mixed medical-surgical series of 245 patients. Gastroenterology. 1984 May;86(5 Pt 1):820-8. Abstract

127. Girdwood AH, Marks IN, Bornman PC, et al. Does progressive pancreatic insufficiency limit pain in calcific pancreatitis with duct stricture or continued alcohol insult? J Clin Gastroenterol. 1981 Sep;3(3):241-5. Abstract

128. Lankisch PG, Seidensticker F, Lohr-Happe A, et al. The course of pain is the same in alcohol- and nonalcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. Pancreas. 1995 May;10(4):338-41. Abstract

129. Malka D, Hammel P, Sauvanet A, et al. Risk factors for diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2000;119:1324-1332. Abstract

130. Duggan SN, Purcell C, Kilbane M, et al. An association between abnormal bone turnover, systemic inflammation, and osteoporosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis: a case-matched study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015;110:336-345. Abstract

131. Maluf-Filho F, Dotti CM, Halwan B, et al. An evidence-based consensus statement on the role and application of endosonography in clinical practice. Endoscopy. 2009 Nov;41(11):979-87. Abstract

132. Wallace MB, Hawes RH, Durkalski V, et al. The reliability of EUS for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: interobserver agreement among experienced endosonographers. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001 Mar;53(3):294-9. Abstract

133. Catalano MF, Sahai A, Levy M, et al. EUS-based criteria for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: the Rosemont classification. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009 Jun;69(7):1251-61. Abstract

134. Hahn JU, Bochnig S, Kerner W, et al. A new fecal elastase 1 test using polyclonal antibodies for the detection of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Pancreas. 2005 Mar;30(2):189-91. Abstract

135. Hahn JU, Kerner W, Maisonneuve P, et al. Low fecal elastase 1 levels do not indicate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in type-1 diabetes mellitus. Pancreas. 2008 Apr;36(3):274-8. Abstract

136. Dumasy V, Delhaye M, Cotton F, et al. Fat malabsorption screening in chronic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jul;99(7):1350-4. Abstract

137. Walkowiak J, Lisowska A, Blask-Osipa A, et al. Acid steatocrit determination is not helpful in cystic fibrosis patients without or with mild steatorrhea. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010 Mar;45(3):249-54. Abstract

138. DiMagno EP, Malagelada JR, Taylor WF, et al. A prospective comparison of current diagnostic tests for pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med. 1977 Oct 6;297(14):737-42. Abstract

139. Bozkurt T, Braun U, Leferink S, et al. Comparison of pancreatic morphology and exocrine functional impairment in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Gut. 1994 Aug;35(8):1132-6.Full text  Abstract

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