Gestational diabetes mellitus

References

Key articles

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes care. 2022 Jan;45(1 suppl):S1-2.Full text

Plows JF, Stanley JL, Baker PN, et al. The pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Oct 26;19(11):E3342.Full text  Abstract

Metzger BE, Gabbe SG, Persson B, et al; International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Consensus Panel. International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 2010 Mar;33(3):676-82.Full text  Abstract

Martis R, Crowther CA, Shepherd E, et al. Treatments for women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 14;8:CD012327.Full text  Abstract

Ratner RE, Christophi CA, Metzger BE, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Prevention of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes: effects of metformin and lifestyle interventions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Dec;93(12):4774-9.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes care. 2022 Jan;45(1 suppl):S1-2.Full text

2. International Diabetes Federation. IDF diabetes atlas. 10th ed. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2021.Full text

3. Pu J, Zhao B, Wang EJ, et al. Racial/ethnic differences in gestational diabetes prevalence and contribution of common risk factors. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2015 Jul 22;29(5):436-43. Abstract

4. Yuen L, Wong VW. Gestational diabetes mellitus: challenges for different ethnic groups. World J Diabetes. 2015 Jul 25;6(8):1024-32.Full text  Abstract

5. Chamberlain C, McNamara B, Williams ED, et al. Diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2013 May;29(4):241-56.Full text  Abstract

6. Nguyen CL, Pham NM, Binns CW, et al. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in eastern and southeastern Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Diabetes Res. 2018 Feb 20;2018:6536974.Full text  Abstract

7. Gao C, Sun X, Lu L, et al. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in mainland China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Diabetes Investig. 2018 May 27;10(1):154-62.Full text  Abstract

8. Bardenheier BH, Imperatore G, Gilboa SM, et al. Trends in gestational diabetes among hospital deliveries in 19 U.S. states, 2000-2010. Am J Prev Med. 2015 Jul;49(1):12-9.Full text  Abstract

9. Deputy NP, Kim SY, Conrey EJ, et al. Prevalence and changes in preexisting diabetes and gestational diabetes among women who had a live birth - United States, 2012-2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Nov 2;67(43):1201-7.Full text  Abstract

10. Hedderson M, Ehrlich S, Sridhar S, et al. Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus by BMI. Diabetes Care. 2012 May 22;35(7):1492-8.Full text  Abstract

11. Ferrara A. Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: a public health perspective. Diabetes Care. 2007 Jul;30 Suppl 2:S141-6.Full text  Abstract

12. Plows JF, Stanley JL, Baker PN, et al. The pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Oct 26;19(11):E3342.Full text  Abstract

13. Egan AM, Vellinga A, Harreiter J, et al; DALI Core Investigator group. Epidemiology of gestational diabetes mellitus according to IADPSG/WHO 2013 criteria among obese pregnant women in Europe. Diabetologia. 2017 Oct;60(10):1913-21.Full text  Abstract

14. Lo JC, Feigenbaum SL, Escobar GJ, et al. Increased prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among women with diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome: a population-based study. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1915-7.Full text  Abstract

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17. Cremona A, O'Gorman C, Cotter A, et al. Effect of exercise modality on markers of insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control in pregnancies complicated with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Obes Sci Pract. 2018 Sep 4;4(5):455-67.Full text  Abstract

18. Davenport MH, Ruchat SM, Poitras VJ, et al. Prenatal exercise for the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2018 Nov;52(21):1367-75. Abstract

19. Kim C, Berger DK, Chamany S. Recurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2007 May;30(5):1314-9.Full text  Abstract

20. Metzger BE, Buchanan TA, Coustan DR, et al. Summary and recommendations of the Fifth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2007 Jul;30 Suppl 2:S251-60.Full text  Abstract

21. Weintrob N, Karp M, Hod M. Short- and long-range complications in offspring of diabetic mothers. J Diabetes Complications. 1996 Sep-Oct;10(5):294-301. Abstract

22. Metzger BE, Lowe LP, Dyer AR, et al; HAPO Study Cooperative Research Group. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2008 May 8;358(19):1991-2002.Full text  Abstract

23. Solomon CG, Willett WC, Carey VJ, et al. A prospective study of pregravid determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 1997 Oct 1;278(13):1078-83. Abstract

24. Kjerulff LE, Sanchez-Ramos L, Duffy D. Pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Jun;204(6):558.e1-6. Abstract

25. Willi C, Bodenmann P, Ghali WA, et al. Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2007 Dec 12;298(22):2654-64. Abstract

26. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period. December 2020 [internet publication].Full text

27. Kaspar D, Hastreiter S, Irmler M, et al. Nutrition and its role in epigenetic inheritance of obesity and diabetes across generations. Mamm Genome. 2020 Jun;31(5-6):119-33.Full text  Abstract

28. Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines. Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining the guidelines. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2009.Full text  Abstract

29. Koivusalo SB, Rönö K, Klemetti MM, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus can be prevented by lifestyle intervention: The Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL): a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2016 Jan;39(1):24-30.Full text  Abstract

30. Shepherd E, Gomersall JC, Tieu J, et al. Combined diet and exercise interventions for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 13;(11):CD010443.Full text  Abstract

31. Griffith RJ, Alsweiler J, Moore AE, et al. Interventions to prevent women from developing gestational diabetes mellitus: an overview of Cochrane Reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jun 11;6:CD012394.Full text  Abstract

32. Chatzakis C, Goulis DG, Mareti E, et al. Prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus in overweight or obese pregnant women: A network meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Dec;158:107924 Abstract

33. Skouteris H, Morris H, Nagle C, et al. Behavior modification techniques used to prevent gestational diabetes: a systematic review of the literature. Curr Diab Rep. 2014 Apr;14(4):480. Abstract

34. Syngelaki A, Nicolaides KH, Balani J, et al. Metformin versus placebo in obese pregnant women without diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2016 Feb 4;374(5):434-43. Abstract

35. Dodd JM, Louise J, Deussen AR, et al. Effect of metformin in addition to dietary and lifestyle advice for pregnant women who are overweight or obese: the GRoW randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018 Dec 4;7(1):15-24. Abstract

36. Metzger BE, Gabbe SG, Persson B, et al; International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Consensus Panel. International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 2010 Mar;33(3):676-82.Full text  Abstract

37. World Health Organization. Diagnostic criteria and classification of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy. 2013 [internet publication].Full text

38. Hughes RC, Moore MP, Gullam JE, et al. An early pregnancy HbA1c ≥5.9% (41 mmol/mol) is optimal for detecting diabetes and identifies women at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diabetes Care. 2014 Nov;37(11):2953-9.Full text  Abstract

39. Committee on Practice Bulletins - Obstetrics. ACOG practice bulletin no. 190: gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Feb;131(2):e49-64. Abstract

40. Vandorsten JP, Dodson WC, Espeland MA, et al. NIH consensus development conference: diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus. NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 2013 Mar 6;29(1):1-31. Abstract

41. Donovan L, Hartling L, Muise M, et al. Screening tests for gestational diabetes: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Jul 16;159(2):115-22.Full text  Abstract

42. Mulholland C, Njoroge T, Mersereau P, et al. Comparison of guidelines available in the United States for diagnosis and management of diabetes before, during, and after pregnancy. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007 Jul-Aug;16(6):790-801. Abstract

43. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Scientific impact paper no. 23. Diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes. Jan 2011 [internet publication].Full text

44. World Health Organization, International Diabetes Federation. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia: report of a WHO/IDF consultation. 2006 [internet publication].Full text

45. Hod M, Kapur A, Sacks DA, et al. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) initiative on gestational diabetes mellitus: a pragmatic guide for diagnosis, management, and care. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015 Oct;131(suppl 3):S173-211.Full text  Abstract

46. Agarwal MM, Dhatt GS, Punnose J, et al. Gestational diabetes: a reappraisal of HBA1c as a screening test. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Dec;84(12):1159-63. Abstract

47. Agarwal MM, Hughes PF, Punnose J, et al. Gestational diabetes screening of a multiethnic, high-risk population using glycated proteins. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2001 Jan;51(1):67-73. Abstract

48. Tieu J, McPhee AJ, Crowther CA, et al. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus based on different risk profiles and settings for improving maternal and infant health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Aug 3;(8):CD007222.Full text  Abstract

49. US Preventive Services Task Force. Gestational diabetes: screening. Aug 2021 [internet publication].Full text

50. Berger H, Gagnon R, Sermer M. Guideline no. 393-diabetes in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2019 Dec;41(12):1814-25.e1.Full text  Abstract

51. Diabetes Canada (Canadian Diabetes Association). Clinical practice guidelines: diabetes and pregnancy. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

52. Endocrine Society. Clinical practice guideline: diabetes and pregnancy. Nov 2013 [internet publication].Full text

53. Diabetes UK. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. Managing diabetes and hyperglycaemia during labour and birth. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

54. Falavigna M, Schmidt MI, Trujillo J, et al. Effectiveness of gestational diabetes treatment: a systematic review with quality of evidence assessment. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012 Dec;98(3):396-405. Abstract

55. Hartling L, Dryden DM, Guthrie A, et al. Benefits and harms of treating gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the National Institutes of Health Office of Medical Applications of Research. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Jul 16;159(2):123-9.Full text  Abstract

56. Inkster ME, Fahey TP, Donnan PT, et al. Poor glycated haemoglobin control and adverse pregnancy outcomes in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review of observational studies. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2006 Oct 30;6:30.Full text  Abstract

57. Horvath K, Koch K, Jeitler K, et al. Effects of treatment in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010 Apr 1;340:c1395.Full text  Abstract

58. Martis R, Crowther CA, Shepherd E, et al. Treatments for women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 14;8:CD012327.Full text  Abstract

59. Brown J, Alwan NA, West J, et al. Lifestyle interventions for the treatment of women with gestational diabetes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 4;(5):CD011970.Full text  Abstract

60. Barbour LA, Feig DS. Metformin for gestational diabetes mellitus: progeny, perspective, and a personalized approach. Diabetes Care. 2019 Mar;42(3):396-9.Full text  Abstract

61. de Veciana M, Major CA, Morgan MA, et al. Postprandial versus preprandial blood glucose monitoring in women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. N Engl J Med. 1995 Nov 9;333(19):1237-41.Full text  Abstract

62. Durnwald CP, Mele L, Spong CY, et al. Glycemic characteristics and neonatal outcomes of women treated for mild gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Apr;117(4):819-27.Full text  Abstract

63. Han S, Middleton P, Shepherd E, et al. Different types of dietary advice for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 25;(2):CD009275.Full text  Abstract

64. Gabbe SG, Graves CR. Management of diabetes mellitus complicating pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Oct;102(4):857-68. Abstract

65. Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, et al. Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care. 2002 Jan;25(1):148-98.Full text  Abstract

66. Viana LV, Gross JL, Azevedo MJ. Dietary intervention in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials on maternal and newborn outcomes. Diabetes Care. 2014 Dec;37(12):3345-55.Full text  Abstract

67. Harrison AL, Shields N, Taylor NF, et al. Exercise improves glycaemic control in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. J Physiother. 2016 Oct;62(4):188-96.Full text  Abstract

68. Youngwanichsetha S, Phumdoung S, Ingkathawornwong T. The effects of mindfulness eating and yoga exercise on blood sugar levels of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Appl Nurs Res. 2014 Nov;27(4):227-30. Abstract

69. McFarland MB, Langer O, Conway DL, et al. Dietary therapy for gestational diabetes: how long is long enough? Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jun;93(6):978-82. Abstract

70. Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Moss JR, et al; Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS) Trial Group. Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 16;352(24):2477-86.Full text  Abstract

71. Brown J, Grzeskowiak L, Williamson K, et al. Insulin for the treatment of women with gestational diabetes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 5;(11):CD012037.Full text  Abstract

72. Edson EJ, Bracco OL, Vambergue A, et al. Managing diabetes during pregnancy with insulin lispro: a safe alternative to human insulin. Endocrine Pract. 2010 Nov-Dec;16(6):1020-7. Abstract

73. Pollex E, Moretti ME, Koren G, et al. Safety of insulin glargine use in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Pharmacother. 2011 Jan;45(1):9-16. Abstract

74. Singh SR, Ahmad F, Lal A, et al. Efficacy and safety of insulin analogues for the management of diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2009 Feb 17;180(4):385-97. Abstract

75. Wang H, Wender-Ozegowska E, Garne E, et al. Insulin analogues use in pregnancy among women with pregestational diabetes mellitus and risk of congenital anomaly: a retrospective population-based cohort study. BMJ Open. 2018 Feb 24;8(2):e014972.Full text  Abstract

76. Lv S, Wang J, Xu Y. Safety of insulin analogs during pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015 Apr 9;292(4):749-56. Abstract

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78. Schaefer UM, Songster G, Xiang A, et al. Congenital malformations in offspring of women with hyperglycemia first detected during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Nov;177(5):1165-71. Abstract

79. Kjos SL, Schaefer-Graf UM. Modified therapy for gestational diabetes using high-risk and low-risk fetal abdominal circumference growth to select strict versus relaxed maternal glycemic targets. Diabetes Care. 2007 Jul;30 Suppl 2:S200-5.Full text  Abstract

80. Scifres CM, Feghali M, Dumont T, et al. Large-for-gestational-age ultrasound diagnosis and risk for cesarean delivery in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Nov;126(5):978-86. Abstract

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83. Hawkins JS, Casey BM. Labor and delivery management in women with diabetes. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2007 Jun;34(2):323-34. Abstract

84. Curet LB, Izquierdo LA, Gilson GJ, et al. Relative effects of antepartum and intrapartum maternal blood glucose levels on incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia. J Perinatol. 1997 Mar-Apr;17(2):113-5. Abstract

85. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. Managing diabetes and hyperglycaemia during labour and birth. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

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87. American Diabetes Association. Consensus development conference on the diagnosis of coronary heart disease in people with diabetes: 10-11 February 1998, Miami, Florida. Diabetes Care. 1998 Sep;21(9):1551-9. Abstract

88. Camelo Castillo W, Boggess K, Stürmer T, et al. Trends in glyburide compared with insulin use for gestational diabetes treatment in the United States, 2000-2011. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Jun;123(6):1177-84. Abstract

89. Waugh N, Royle P, Clar C, et al. Screening for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy: a rapid update for the National Screening Committee. Health Technol Assess. 2010 Sep;14(45):1-183.Full text  Abstract

90. Dhulkotia JS, Ola B, Fraser R, et al. Oral hypoglycemic agents vs insulin in management of gestational diabetes: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Nov;203(5):457.e1-9. Abstract

91. Petry CJ. Gestational diabetes: risk factors and recent advances in its genetics and treatment. Br J Nutr. 2010 Sep;104(6):775-87. Abstract

92. Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Publications Committee. SMFM statement: pharmacological treatment of gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Feb 2;218(5):B2-4.Full text  Abstract

93. Barbour LA, Feig DS. Metformin for gestational diabetes mellitus: progeny, perspective, and a personalized approach. Diabetes Care. 2019 Mar;42(3):396-9.Full text  Abstract

94. Langer O, Conway DL, Berkus MD, et al. A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000 Oct 19;343(16):1134-8.Full text  Abstract

95. Nicholson W, Bolen S, Witkop CT, et al. Benefits and risks of oral diabetes agents compared with insulin in women with gestational diabetes: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jan;113(1):193-205. Abstract

96. Nicholson WK, Wilson LM, Witkop CT, et al. Therapeutic management, delivery, and postpartum risk assessment and screening in gestational diabetes. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2008 Mar;(162):1-96.Full text  Abstract

97. Silva JC, Fachin DR, Coral ML, et al. Perinatal impact of the use of metformin and glyburide for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. J Perinat Med. 2012 Jan 10;40(3):225-8. Abstract

98. Camelo Castillo W, Boggess K, Stürmer T, et al. Association of adverse pregnancy outcomes with glyburide vs insulin in women with gestational diabetes. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 May;169(5):452-8. Abstract

99. Sénat MV, Affres H, Letourneau A, et al; Groupe de Recherche en Obstétrique et Gynécologie (GROG). Effect of glyburide vs subcutaneous insulin on perinatal complications among women with gestational diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2018 May 1;319(17):1773-80.Full text  Abstract

100. Schwartz RA, Rosenn B, Aleksa K, et al. Glyburide transport across the human placenta. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Mar;125(3):583-8. Abstract

101. Hellmuth E, Damm P, Molsted-Pedersen L. Oral hypoglycaemic agents in 118 diabetic pregnancies. Diabet Med. 2000 Jul;17(7):507-11. Abstract

102. Rowan JA, Rush EC, Obolonkin V, et al. Metformin in gestational diabetes: the offspring follow-up (MiG TOFU): body composition at 2 years of age. Diabetes Care. 2011 Oct;34(10):2279-84.Full text  Abstract

103. Ijäs H, Vääräsmäki M, Saarela T, et al. A follow-up of a randomised study of metformin and insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus: growth and development of the children at the age of 18 months. BJOG. 2015 Jun;122(7):994-1000. Abstract

104. Rowan JA, Rush EC, Plank LD, et al. Metformin in gestational diabetes: the offspring follow-up (MiG TOFU): body composition and metabolic outcomes at 7-9 years of age. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2018 Apr 13;6(1):e000456.Full text  Abstract

105. Coetzee EJ, Jackson WP. Metformin in management of pregnant insulin-independent diabetics. Diabetologia. 1979 Apr;16(4):241-5. Abstract

106. Mesdaghinia E, Samimi M, Homaei Z, et al. Comparison of newborn outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus treated with metformin or insulin: a randomised blinded trial. Int J Prev Med. 2013 Mar;4(3):327-33.Full text  Abstract

107. Tertti K, Ekblad U, Koskinen P, et al. Metformin vs. insulin in gestational diabetes. A randomized study characterizing metformin patients needing additional insulin. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013 Mar;15(3):246-51. Abstract

108. Rowan JA, Hague WM, Gao W, et al; MiG Trial Investigators. Metformin versus insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 May 8;358(19):2003-15.Full text  Abstract

109. Berger H, Gagnon R, Sermer M. Guideline no. 393-diabetes in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2019 Dec;41(12):1814-25.e1.Full text  Abstract

110. Schwartz N, Nachum Z, Green MS. Risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus recurrence: a meta-analysis. Endocrine. 2016 Sep;53(3):662-71. Abstract

111. Li Z, Cheng Y, Wang D, et al. Incidence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 170,139 women. J Diabetes Res. 2020;2020:3076463.Full text  Abstract

112. Diaz-Santana MV, O'Brien KM, Park YM, et al. Persistence of risk for type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2022 Apr 1;45(4):864-70.Full text  Abstract

113. Ratner RE, Christophi CA, Metzger BE, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Prevention of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes: effects of metformin and lifestyle interventions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Dec;93(12):4774-9.Full text  Abstract

114. Vounzoulaki E, Khunti K, Abner SC, et al. Progression to type 2 diabetes in women with a known history of gestational diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020 May 13;369:m1361.Full text  Abstract

115. Cryer PE, Davis SN, Shamoon H. Hypoglycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Jun;26(6):1902-12.Full text  Abstract

116. Li Z, Cheng Y, Wang D, et al. Incidence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 170,139 women. J Diabetes Res. 2020;2020:3076463.Full text  Abstract

117. Vounzoulaki E, Khunti K, Abner SC, et al. Progression to type 2 diabetes in women with a known history of gestational diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020 May 13;369:m1361.Full text  Abstract

118. Aroda VR, Christophi CA, Edelstein SL, et al. The effect of lifestyle intervention and metformin on preventing or delaying diabetes among women with and without gestational diabetes: the Diabetes Prevention Program outcomes study 10-year follow-up. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Apr;100(4):1646-53.Full text  Abstract

119. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Long-term effects of metformin on diabetes prevention: identification of subgroups that benefited most in the Diabetes Prevention Program and Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Diabetes Care. 2019 Apr;42(4):601-8.Full text  Abstract

120. Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C. Development and validation of QDiabetes-2018 risk prediction algorithm to estimate future risk of type 2 diabetes: cohort study. BMJ. 2017 Nov 20;359:j5019.Full text  Abstract

121. Tovar A, Chasan-Taber L, Eggleston E, et al. Postpartum screening for diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Prev Chronic Dis. 2011 Nov;8(6):A124.Full text  Abstract

122. Scholtens DM, Kuang A, Lowe LP, et al; HAPO Follow-Up Study Cooperative Research Group. Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Follow-up Study (HAPO FUS): maternal glycemia and childhood glucose metabolism. Diabetes Care. 2019 Jan 7;42(3):381-92.Full text  Abstract

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124. Nicklas JM, Zera CA, England LJ, et al. A web-based lifestyle intervention for women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Sep;124(3):563-70. Abstract

125. Gunderson EP, Hedderson MM, Chiang V, et al. Lactation intensity and postpartum maternal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in women with recent GDM: the SWIFT cohort. Diabetes Care. 2012 Jan;35(1):50-6.Full text  Abstract

126. Stuebe AM, Rich-Edwards JW, Willett WC, et al. Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2005 Nov 23;294(20):2601-10.Full text  Abstract

127. Matias SL, Dewey KG, Quesenberry CP Jr, et al. Maternal prepregnancy obesity and insulin treatment during pregnancy are independently associated with delayed lactogenesis in women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan;99(1):115-21.Full text  Abstract

128. Kramer CK, Campbell S, Retnakaran R. Gestational diabetes and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2019 Mar 7;62(6):905-14.Full text  Abstract

129. Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women - 2011 update. A guideline from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011 Mar 22;123(11):1243-62.Full text  Abstract

130. Ferrara A, Hedderson MM, Brown SD, et al. The comparative effectiveness of diabetes prevention strategies to reduce postpartum weight retention in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: the Gestational diabetes' Effects on Moms (GEM) cluster randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2016 Jan;39(1):65-74. Abstract

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