Central sleep apnea

References

Key articles

American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International classification of sleep disorders: diagnostic and coding manual. 3rd ed. Darien, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014.

Dempsey JA. Crossing the apnoeic threshold: causes and consequences. Exp Physiol. 2005 Jan;90(1):13-24.Full text  Abstract

Javaheri S. Central sleep apnea in congestive heart failure: prevalence, mechanisms, impact, and therapeutic options. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Feb;26(1):44-55. Abstract

Aurora RN, Bista SR, Casey KR, et al. Updated adaptive servo-ventilation recommendations for the 2012 AASM guideline: the treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016 May 15;12(5):757-61.Full text  Abstract

Arzt M, Floras JS, Logan AG, et al. Suppression of central sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure and transplant-free survival in heart failure. Circulation. 2007 Jun 26;115(25):3173-80.Full text  Abstract

Aurora RN, Chowdhuri S, Ramar K, et al. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep. 2012 Jan 1;35(1):17-40.Full text  Abstract

Cowie MR, Woehrle H, Wegscheider K, et al. Adaptive servo-ventilation for central sleep apnea in systolic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2015 Sep 17;373(12):1095-105. Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International classification of sleep disorders: diagnostic and coding manual. 3rd ed. Darien, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014.

2. Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Merchia P, et al. Central sleep apnea: pathophysiology and treatment. Chest. 2007 Feb;131(2):595-607.Full text  Abstract

3. Latshang TD, Bloch KE, Lynm C, et al. JAMA patient page: Traveling to high altitude when you have sleep apnea. JAMA. 2012 Dec 12;308(22):2418.Full text  Abstract

4. Brack T. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure: ominous sign or innocent bystander? Swiss Med Wkly. 2007 Mar 10;137(9-10):133-8. Abstract

5. Brack T, Thuer I, Clarenbach CF, et al. Daytime Cheyne-Stokes respiration in ambulatory patients with severe congestive heart failure is associated with increased mortality. Chest. 2007 Nov;132(5):1463-71. Abstract

6. Lanfranchi PA, Braghiroli A, Bosimini E, et al. Prognostic value of nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure. Circulation. 1999 Mar 23;99(11):1435-40.Full text  Abstract

7. Yeghiazarians Y, Jneid H, Tietjens JR, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021 Jul 20;144(3):e56-e67.Full text  Abstract

8. Javaheri S. Sleep disorders in systolic heart failure: a prospective study of 100 male patients. The final report. Int J Cardiol. 2006 Jan 4;106(1):21-8. Abstract

9. Parra O, Arboix A, Bechich S, et al. Time course of sleep-related breathing disorders in first-ever stroke or transient ischemic attack. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Feb;161(2 Pt 1):375-80.Full text  Abstract

10. Nopmaneejumruslers C, Kaneko Y, Hajek V, et al. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in stroke: relationship to hypocapnia and occult cardiac dysfunction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 May 1;171(9):1048-52.Full text  Abstract

11. Hermann DM, Siccoli M, Kirov P, et al. Central periodic breathing during sleep in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2007 Mar;38(3):1082-4.Full text  Abstract

12. Wang D, Teichtahl H, Drummer OH, et al. Central sleep apnea in stable methadone maintenance treatment patients. Chest. 2005 Sep;128(3):1348-56. Abstract

13. Torlasco C, Bilo G, Giuliano A, et al. Effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on blood pressure and sleep breathing patterns. Int J Cardiol. 2020 Feb 15;301:173-9. Abstract

14. Karaki A, Attarian HP. Central sleep apnea due to high-altitude periodic breathing. Nov 2020 [internet publication].Full text

15. Lombardi C, Meriggi P, Agostoni P, et al; HIGHCARE Investigators. High-altitude hypoxia and periodic breathing during sleep: gender-related differences. J Sleep Res. 2013 Jun;22(3):322-30.Full text  Abstract

16. Dempsey JA. Crossing the apnoeic threshold: causes and consequences. Exp Physiol. 2005 Jan;90(1):13-24.Full text  Abstract

17. Vazir A, Hastings PC, Dayer M, et al. A high prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in men with mild symptomatic chronic heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Eur J Heart Fail. 2007 Mar;9(3):243-50. Abstract

18. Oldenburg O, Lamp B, Faber L, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with symptomatic heart failure: a contemporary study of prevalence in and characteristics of 700 patients. Eur J Heart Fail. 2007 Mar;9(3):251-7. Abstract

19. Javaheri S. Central sleep apnea in congestive heart failure: prevalence, mechanisms, impact, and therapeutic options. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Feb;26(1):44-55. Abstract

20. Tamura A, Kawano Y, Naono S, et al. Relationship between beta-blocker treatment and the severity of central sleep apnea in chronic heart failure. Chest. 2007 Jan;131(1):130-5. Abstract

21. Hanly P. Sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness in end-stage renal disease. Semin Dial. 2004 Mar-Apr;17(2):109-14. Abstract

22. Pressman MR, Benz RL, Schleifer CR, et al. Sleep disordered breathing in ESRD: acute beneficial effects of treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Kidney Int. 1993 May;43(5):1134-9. Abstract

23. Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, et al. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in women: effects of gender. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Mar;163(3 Pt 1):608-13.Full text  Abstract

24. Sin DD, Fitzgerald F, Parker JD, et al. Risk factors for central and obstructive sleep apnea in 450 men and women with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Oct;160(4):1101-6.Full text  Abstract

25. Leung RS, Huber MA, Rogge T, et al. Association between atrial fibrillation and central sleep apnea. Sleep. 2005 Dec;28(12):1543-6. Abstract

26. Hoch CC, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, et al. Comparison of sleep-disordered breathing among healthy elderly in the seventh, eighth, and ninth decades of life. Sleep. 1990 Dec;13(6):502-11. Abstract

27. Wang D, Teichtahl H. Opioids, sleep architecture and sleep disordered breathing. Sleep Med Rev. 2007 Feb;11(1):35-46. Abstract

28. Grunstein RR, Ho KY, Sullivan CE. Sleep apnea in acromegaly. Ann Intern Med. 1991 Oct 1;115(7):527-32. Abstract

29. Correa D, Farney RJ, Chung F, et al. Chronic opioid use and central sleep apnea: a review of the prevalence, mechanisms, and perioperative considerations. Anesth Analg. 2015 Jun;120(6):1273-85.Full text  Abstract

30. Sériès F, Kimoff RJ, Morrison D, et al. Prospective evaluation of nocturnal oximetry for detection of sleep-related breathing disturbances in patients with chronic heart failure. Chest. 2005 May;127(5):1507-14. Abstract

31. Mayer G, Arzt M, Braumann B, et al. German S3 guideline nonrestorative sleep/sleep disorders, chapter "sleep-related breathing disorders in adults," short version: German Sleep Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin, DGSM). Somnologie (Berl). 2017;21(4):290-301.Full text  Abstract

32. Morgenthaler TI, Kagramanov V, Hanak V, et al. Complex sleep apnea syndrome: is it a unique clinical syndrome? Sleep. 2006 Sep;29(9):1203-9. Abstract

33. Aurora RN, Bista SR, Casey KR, et al. Updated adaptive servo-ventilation recommendations for the 2012 AASM guideline: the treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016 May 15;12(5):757-61.Full text  Abstract

34. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and obesity hypoventilation syndrome in over 16s. Aug 2021 [internet publication].Full text

35. Hanly PJ, Zuberi-Khokhar NS. Increased mortality associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 Jan;153(1):272-6. Abstract

36. Bradley TD, Logan AG, Kimoff RJ, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure for central sleep apnea and heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2005 Nov 10;353(19):2025-33.Full text  Abstract

37. Arzt M, Floras JS, Logan AG, et al. Suppression of central sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure and transplant-free survival in heart failure. Circulation. 2007 Jun 26;115(25):3173-80.Full text  Abstract

38. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events. January 2020 [internet publication].Full text

39. Fleetham J, Ayas N, Bradley D, et al; Canadian Thoracic Society Sleep Disordered Breathing Committee. Canadian Thoracic Society 2011 guideline update: diagnosis and treatment of sleep disordered breathing. Can Respir J. 2011 Jan-Feb;18(1):25-47.Full text  Abstract

40. Aurora RN, Chowdhuri S, Ramar K, et al. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep. 2012 Jan 1;35(1):17-40.Full text  Abstract

41. Cowie MR, Woehrle H, Wegscheider K, et al. Adaptive servo-ventilation for central sleep apnea in systolic heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2015 Sep 17;373(12):1095-105. Abstract

42. Hoffstein V, Slutsky AS. Central sleep apnea reversed by continuous positive airway pressure. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987 May;135(5):1210-2. Abstract

43. Issa FG, Sullivan CE. Reversal of central sleep apnea using nasal CPAP. Chest. 1986 Aug;90(2):165-71.Full text  Abstract

44. Banno K, Okamura K, Kryger MH. Adaptive servo-ventilation in patients with idiopathic Cheyne-Stokes breathing. J Clin Sleep Med. 2006 Apr 15;2(2):181-6. Abstract

45. DeBacker WA, Verbraecken J, Willemen M, et al. Central apnea index decreases after prolonged treatment with acetazolamide. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Jan;151(1):87-91. Abstract

46. White DP, Zwillich CW, Pickett CK, et al. Central sleep apnea. Improvement with acetazolamide therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1982 Oct;142(10):1816-9. Abstract

47. Quadri S, Drake C, Hudgel DW. Improvement of idiopathic central sleep apnea with zolpidem. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009 Apr 15;5(2):122-9.Full text  Abstract

48. Bonnet MH, Dexter JR, Arand DL. The effect of triazolam on arousal and respiration in central sleep apnea patients. Sleep. 1990 Feb;13(1):31-41. Abstract

49. Somers VK, White DP, Amin R, et al. AHA/ACCF scientific statement: Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2008 Sep 2;118(10):1080-111.Full text  Abstract

50. Yamamoto S, Yamaga T, Nishie K, et al. Positive airway pressure therapy for the treatment of central sleep apnoea associated with heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Dec 4;(12):CD012803.Full text  Abstract

51. Eulenburg C, Wegscheider K, Woehrle H, et al. Mechanisms underlying increased mortality risk in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction randomly assigned to adaptive servoventilation in the SERVE-HF study: results of a secondary multistate modelling analysis. Lancet Respir Med. 2016 Nov;4(11):873-81. Abstract

52. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Aug 8;70(6):776-803. Abstract

53. Liu HM, Chiang IJ, Kuo KN, et al. The effect of acetazolamide on sleep apnea at high altitude: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2017 Jan;11(1):20-9.Full text  Abstract

54. Nussbaumer-Ochsner Y, Latshang TD, Ulrich S, et al. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome benefit from acetazolamide during an altitude sojourn: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Chest. 2012 Jan;141(1):131-8. Abstract

55. Latshang TD, Nussbaumer-Ochsner Y, Henn RM, et al. Effect of acetazolamide and autoCPAP therapy on breathing disturbances among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome who travel to altitude: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012 Dec 12;308(22):2390-8.Full text  Abstract

56. Allam JS, Olson EJ, Gay PC, et al. Efficacy of adaptive servoventilation in treatment of complex and central sleep apnea syndromes. Chest. 2007 Dec;132(6):1839-46. Abstract

57. Talcott B, Morgenthaler TI, Silber M. Opioid use and sleep disordered breathing: a case control study. Sleep. 2007;30(suppl):A160.

58. Javaheri S, Malik A, Smith J, et al. Adaptive pressure support servoventilation: a novel treatment for sleep apnea associated with use of opioids. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008 Aug 15;4(4):305-10.Full text  Abstract

59. Farney RJ, Walker JM, Boyle KM, et al. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) in patients with sleep disordered breathing associated with chronic opioid medications for non-malignant pain. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008 Aug 15;4(4):311-9.Full text  Abstract

60. Javaheri S, Harris N, Howard J, et al. Adaptive servoventilation for treatment of opioid-associated central sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014 Jun 15;10(6):637-43.Full text  Abstract

61. Guilleminault C, Cao M, Yue HJ, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and chronic opioid use. Lung. 2010 Dec;188(6):459-68. Abstract

62. Morgenthaler TI, Kuzniar TJ, Wolfe LF, et al. The complex sleep apnea resolution study: a prospective randomized controlled trial of continuous positive airway pressure versus adaptive servoventilation therapy. Sleep. 2014 May 1;37(5):927-34.Full text  Abstract

63. Morgenthaler TI, Gay PC, Gordon N, et al. Adaptive servoventilation versus noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for central, mixed, and complex sleep apnea syndromes. Sleep. 2007 Apr;30(4):468-75. Abstract

64. Westhoff M, Arzt M, Litterst P. Influence of adaptive servoventilation on B-type natriuretic petide in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration and mild to moderate systolic and diastolic heart failure [in German]. Pneumologie. 2010 Aug;64(8):467-73. Abstract

65. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA approves new label changes and dosing for zolpidem products and a recommendation to avoid driving the day after using Ambien CR. May 2013 [internet publication].Full text

66. Hagenah G, Andreas S, Clemens C, et al. Nocturnal oxygen administration and cardiac arrhythmias during Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure [in German]. Z Kardiol. 1996 Jun;85(6):435-41. Abstract

67. Andreas S, Weidel K, Hagenah G, et al. Treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration with nasal oxygen and carbon dioxide. Eur Respir J. 1998 Aug;12(2):414-9.Full text  Abstract

68. Teschler H, Döhring J, Wang YM, et al. Adaptive pressure support servo-ventilation: a novel treatment for Cheyne-Stokes respiration in heart failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Aug 15;164(4):614-9.Full text  Abstract

69. Lamba J, Simpson CS, Redfearn DP, et al. Cardiac resynchronization therapy for the treatment of sleep apnoea: a meta-analysis. Europace. 2011 Aug;13(8):1174-9.Full text  Abstract

70. Javaheri S. Acetazolamide improves central sleep apnea in heart failure: a double-blind, prospective study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Jan 15;173(2):234-7.Full text  Abstract

71. Javaheri S, Parker TJ, Wexler L, et al. Effect of theophylline on sleep-disordered breathing in heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1996 Aug 22;335(8):562-7.Full text  Abstract

72. Hu K, Li Q, Yang J, et al. The effect of theophylline on sleep-disordered breathing in patients with stable chronic congestive heart failure. Chin Med J (Engl). 2003 Nov;116(11):1711-6. Abstract

73. Luks AM, van Melick H, Batarse RR, et al. Room oxygen enrichment improves sleep and subsequent day-time performance at high altitude. Respir Physiol. 1998 Sep;113(3):247-58. Abstract

74. McElroy MK, Gerard A, Powell FL, et al. Nocturnal O2 enrichment of room air at high altitude increases daytime O2 saturation without changing control of ventilation. High Alt Med Biol. 2000 Fall;1(3):197-206. Abstract

75. Nickol AH, Leverment J, Richards P, et al. Temazepam at high altitude reduces periodic breathing without impairing next-day performance: a randomized cross-over double-blind study. J Sleep Res. 2006 Dec;15(4):445-54.Full text  Abstract

76. Thomas RJ, Daly RW, Weiss JW. Low-concentration carbon dioxide is an effective adjunct to positive airway pressure in the treatment of refractory mixed central and obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep. 2005 Jan;28(1):69-77. Abstract

77. Xie A, Rankin F, Rutherford R, et al. Effects of inhaled CO2 and added dead space on idiopathic central sleep apnea. J Appl Physiol. 1997 Mar;82(3):918-26.Full text  Abstract

78. Baranchuk A, Healey JS, Simpson CS, et al. Atrial overdrive pacing in sleep apnoea: a meta-analysis. Europace. 2009 Aug;11(8):1037-40. Abstract

79. Abe H, Takahashi M, Yaegashi H, et al. Valve repair improves central sleep apnea in heart failure patients with valvular heart diseases. Circ J. 2009 Nov;73(11):2148-53.Full text  Abstract

80. Fox H, Oldenburg O, Javaheri S, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of phrenic nerve stimulation for the treatment of central sleep apnea. Sleep. 2019 Oct 21;42(11):zsz158.Full text  Abstract

81. Costanzo MR, Ponikowski P, Javaheri S, et al. Transvenous neurostimulation for central sleep apnoea: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Sep 3;388(10048):974-82. Abstract

82. Jagielski D, Ponikowski P, Augostini R, et al. Transvenous stimulation of the phrenic nerve for the treatment of central sleep apnoea: 12 months' experience with the remedē(®) System. Eur J Heart Fail. 2016 Nov;18(11):1386-93. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer