Melasma

References

Key articles

Ball Arefiev KL, Hantash BM. Advances in the treatment of melasma: a review of the recent literature. Dermatol Surg. 2012 Jul;38(7 Pt 1):971-84. Abstract

Victor FC, Gelber J, Rao B. Melasma: a review. J Cutan Med Surg. 2004 Mar-Apr;8(2):97-102. Abstract

Rajaratnam R, Halpern J, Salim A, et al. Interventions for melasma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(7):CD003583. Abstract

Grimes PE. Melasma. Etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:1453-1457. Abstract

Kang HY, Ortonne JP. What should be considered in treatment of melasma. Ann Dermatol. 2010 Nov;22(4):373-8.Full text  Abstract

Gupta AK, Gover MD, Nouri K, et al. The treatment of melasma: a review of clinical trials. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Dec;55(6):1048-65. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Ball Arefiev KL, Hantash BM. Advances in the treatment of melasma: a review of the recent literature. Dermatol Surg. 2012 Jul;38(7 Pt 1):971-84. Abstract

2. Victor FC, Gelber J, Rao B. Melasma: a review. J Cutan Med Surg. 2004 Mar-Apr;8(2):97-102. Abstract

3. Nicolaidou E, Antoniou C, Katsambas AD. Origin, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of facial hypermelanoses. Dermatol Clin. 2007 Jul;25(3):321-6, viii. Abstract

4. Pandya AG, Hynan LS, Bhore R, et al. Reliability assessment and validation of the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and a new modified MASI scoring method. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Jan;64(1):78-83, 83.e1-2. Abstract

5. Werlinger KD, Guevara IL, González CM, et al. Prevalence of self-diagnosed melasma among premenopausal Latino women in Dallas and Fort Worth, Tex. Arch Dermatol. 2007 Mar;143(3):424-5. Abstract

6. Rajaratnam R, Halpern J, Salim A, et al. Interventions for melasma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(7):CD003583. Abstract

7. Guinot C, Cheffai S, Latreille J, et al. Aggravating factors for melasma: a prospective study in 197 Tunisian patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Sep;24(9):1060-9. Abstract

8. Ortonne JP, Arellano I, Berneburg M, et al. A global survey of the role of ultraviolet radiation and hormonal influences in the development of melasma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23:1254-1262. Abstract

9. Grimes PE. Melasma. Etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:1453-1457. Abstract

10. Kang HY, Ortonne JP. What should be considered in treatment of melasma. Ann Dermatol. 2010 Nov;22(4):373-8.Full text  Abstract

11. Torres-Álvarez B, Mesa-Garza IG, Castanedo-Cázares JP, et al. Histochemical and immunohistochemical study in melasma: evidence of damage in the basal membrane. Am J Dermatopathol. 2011;33:291-295. Abstract

12. Miot LD, Miot HA, Polettini J, et al. Morphologic changes and the expression of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and melanocortin-1 receptor in melasma lesions: a comparative study. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32:676-682. Abstract

13. Lakhdar H, Zouhair K, Khadir K, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a broad-spectrum sunscreen in the prevention of chloasma in pregnant women. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Jul;21(6):738-42. Abstract

14. Sarkar R, Jain RK, Puri P. Melasma in Indian males. Dermatol Surg. 2003 Feb;29(2):204. Abstract

15. Ardigo M, Cameli N, Berardesca E, et al. Characterization and evaluation of pigment distribution and response to therapy in melasma using in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy: a preliminary study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Nov;24(11):1296-303. Abstract

16. Serrano G, Pujol C, Cuadra J, et al. Riehl's melanosis: pigmented contact dermatitis caused by fragrances. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:1057-1060. Abstract

17. Meffert JJ. Erythema dyschromicum perstans: a case report and review. Cutis. 2002;70:62. Abstract

18. Griffiths CE, Finkel LJ, Ditre CM, et al. Topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) improves melasma. A vehicle-controlled, clinical trial. Br J Dermatol. 1993 Oct;129(4):415-21. Abstract

19. Kimbrough-Green CK, Griffiths CE, Finkel LJ, et al. Topical retinoic acid (tretinoin) for melasma in black patients. A vehicle-controlled clinical trial. Arch Dermatol. 1994 Jun;130(6):727-33. Abstract

20. Kang HY, Valerio L, Bahadoran P, et al. The role of topical retinoids in the treatment of pigmentary disorders: an evidence-based review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2009;10(4):251-60. Abstract

21. Chan R, Park KC, Lee MH, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of a fixed triple combination (fluocinolone acetonide 0.01%, hydroquinone 4%, tretinoin 0.05%) compared with hydroquinone 4% cream in Asian patients with moderate to severe melasma. Br J Dermatol. 2008 Sep;159(3):697-703. Abstract

22. Taylor SC, Torok H, Jones T, et al. Efficacy and safety of a new triple-combination agent for the treatment of facial melasma. Cutis. 2003 Jul;72(1):67-72. Abstract

23. Arellano I, Cestari T, Ocampo-Candiani J, et al. Preventing melasma recurrence: prescribing a maintenance regimen with an effective triple combination cream based on long-standing clinical severity. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012 May;26(5):611-8. Abstract

24. Prignano F, Ortonne JP, Buggiani G, et al. Therapeutical approaches in melasma. Dermatol Clin. 2007 Jul;25(3):337-42, viii. Abstract

25. Verallo-Rowell VM, Verallo V, Graupe K, et al. Double-blind comparison of azelaic acid and hydroquinone in the treatment of melasma. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1989;143:58-61. Abstract

26. Balina LM, Graupe K. The treatment of melasma. 20% azelaic acid versus 4% hydroquinone cream. Int J Dermatol. 1991 Dec;30(12):893-5. Abstract

27. Deo KS, Dash KN, Sharma YK, et al. Kojic acid vis-a-vis its combinations with hydroquinone and betamethasone valerate in melasma: a randomized, single blind, comparative study of efficacy and safety. Indian J Dermatol. 2013 Jul;58(4):281-5.Full text  Abstract

28. Leyden JJ, Shergill B, Micali G, et al. Natural options for the management of hyperpigmentation. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011 Oct;25(10):1140-5. Abstract

29. Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, et al. Final report of the safety assessment of Kojic acid as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol. 2010 Nov-Dec;29(suppl 6):244S-73. Abstract

30. Espinal Perez LE, Moncada B, Castanedo-Cazares JP. A double-blind randomized trial of 5% ascorbic acid vs 4% hydroquinone in melasma. Int J Dermatol. 2004 Aug;43(8):604-7. Abstract

31. Sobhi RM, Sobhi AM. A single-blinded comparative study between the use of glycolic acid 70% peel and the use of topical nanosome vitamin C iontophoresis in the treatment of melasma. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2012 Mar;11(1):65-71. Abstract

32. Draelos ZD. Skin lightening preparations and the hydroquinone controversy. Dermatol Ther. 2007 Sep-Oct;20(5):308-13. Abstract

33. Gupta AK, Gover MD, Nouri K, et al. The treatment of melasma: a review of clinical trials. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Dec;55(6):1048-65. Abstract

34. Chun EY, Lee JB, Lee KH. Focal trichloroacetic acid peel method for benign pigmented lesions in dark-skinned patients. Dermatol Surg. 2004 Apr;30(4 Pt 1):512-6. Abstract

35. Grimes PE. The safety and efficacy of salicylic acid chemical peels in darker racial-ethnic groups. Dermatol Surg. 1999 Jan;25(1):18-22. Abstract

36. Javaheri SM, Handa S, Kaur I, et al. Safety and efficacy of glycolic acid facial peel in Indian women with melasma. Int J Dermatol. 2001 May;40(5):354-7. Abstract

37. Soliman MM, Ramadan SA, Bassiouny DA, et al. Combined trichloroacetic acid peel and topical ascorbic acid versus trichloroacetic acid peel alone in the treatment of melasma: a comparative study. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007 Jun;6(2):89-94. Abstract

38. Nouri K, Bowes L, Chartier T, et al. Combination treatment of melasma with pulsed CO2 laser followed by Q-switched alexandrite laser: a pilot study. Dermatol Surg. 1999 Jun;25(6):494-7. Abstract

39. Angsuwarangsee S, Polnikorn N. Combined ultrapulse CO2 laser and Q-switched alexandrite laser compared with Q-switched alexandrite laser alone for refractory melasma: split-face design. Dermatol Surg. 2003 Jan;29(1):59-64. Abstract

40. Rokhsar CK, Fitzpatrick RE. The treatment of melasma with fractional photothermolysis: a pilot study. Dermatol Surg. 2005 Dec;31(12):1645-50. Abstract

41. Kunachak S, Leelaudomlipi P, Wongwaisayawan S. Dermabrasion: a curative treatment for melasma. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2001 Mar-Apr;25(2):114-7. Abstract

42. Tierney EP, Hanke CW. Review of the literature: Treatment of dyspigmentation with fractionated resurfacing. Dermatol Surg. 2010 Oct;36(10):1499-508. Abstract

43. Wanitphakdeedecha R, Manuskiatti W, Siriphukpong S, et al. Treatment of melasma using variable square pulse Er:YAG laser resurfacing. Dermatol Surg. 2009 Mar;35(3):475-81. Abstract

44. Tannous Z. Fractional resurfacing. Clin Dermatol. 2007 Sep-Oct;25(5):480-6. Abstract

45. Tehrani S, Tehrani S, Esmaili-Azad M, et al. Efficacy and safety of azelaic acid 20% plus hydroquinone 5% in the management of melasma. Iran J Dermatol. 2012;15:11-14.Full text

46. Kodali S, Guevara IL, Carrigan CR, et al. A prospective, randomized, split-face, controlled trial of salicylic acid peels in the treatment of melasma in Latin American women. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Dec;63(6):1030-5. Abstract

47. Figueiredo Souza L, Trancoso Souza S. Single-session intense pulsed light combined with stable fixed-dose triple combination topical therapy for the treatment of refractory melasma. Dermatol Ther. 2012 Sep-Oct;25(5):477-80. Abstract

48. Tirado-Sanchez A, Santamaría-Roman A, Ponce-Olivera RM. Efficacy of dioic acid compared with hydroquinone in the treatment of melasma. Int J Dermatol. 2009 Aug;48(8):893-5. Abstract

49. Khemis A, Kaiafa A, Queille-Roussel C, et al. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of rucinol serum in patients with melasma: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2007 May;156(5):997-1004. Abstract

50. Huh SY, Shin JW, Na JI, et al. The efficacy and safety of 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.1% cream for the treatment of melasma: a randomized controlled split-face trial. Ann Dermatol. 2010 Feb;22(1):21-5. Abstract

51. Ni Z, Mu Y, Gulati O. Treatment of melasma with Pycnogenol. Phytother Res. 2002 Sep;16(6):567-71. Abstract

52. Handog EB, Galang DA, de Leon-Godinez MA, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral procyanidin with vitamins A, C, E for melasma among Filipino women. Int J Dermatol. 2009 Aug;48(8):896-901. Abstract

53. Yi X, Zhao G, Zhang H, et al. MITF-siRNA formulation is a safe and effective therapy for human melasma. Mol Ther. 2011 Feb;19(2):362-71. Abstract

54. Ilknur T, Biçak MU, Demirtaşoğlu M, et al. Glycolic acid peels versus amino fruit acid peels in the treatment of melasma. Dermatol Surg. 2010 Apr;36(4):490-5 Abstract

55. Kim SJ, Park JY, Shibata T, et al. Efficacy and possible mechanisms of topical tranexamic acid in melasma. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2016 Jul;41(5):480-5. Abstract

56. Kim HJ, Moon SH, Cho SH, et al. Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in melasma: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017 Jul 6;97(7):776-81.Full text  Abstract

57. Taraz M, Niknam S, Ehsani AH. Tranexamic acid in treatment of melasma: a comprehensive review of clinical studies. Dermatol Ther. 2017 May;30(3). Abstract

58. Sharma R, Mahajan VK, Mehta KS, et al. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of oral tranexamic acid and that of tranexamic acid local infiltration with microinjections in patients with melasma: a comparative study. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2017 Oct;42(7):728-34. Abstract

59. Atefi N, Dalvand B, Ghassemi M, et al. Therapeutic effects of topical tranexamic acid in comparison with hydroquinone in treatment of women with melasma. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2017 Sep;7(3):417-24.Full text  Abstract

60. Olumide YM, Odunowo BD, Odiase AO. Regional dermatoses in the African. Part I. Facial hypermelanosis. Int J Dermatol. 1991;30:186-189. Abstract

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