Mycoplasma infection

References

Key articles

Waites KB, Katz B, Schelonka RL. Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas as neonatal pathogens. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:757-89.Full text  Abstract

Workowski KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases: treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64:1-137.Full text  Abstract

Taylor-Robinson D. The role of mycoplasmas in pregnancy outcome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;21:425-38. Abstract

Jain S, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among US children. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:835-45.Full text  Abstract

Jacobs E. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: now in the focus of clinicians and epidemiologists. Euro Surveill. 2012;17:pii:20084.Full text  Abstract

Esposito S, Bosis S, Begliatti E, et al. Acute tonsillopharyngitis associated with atypical bacterial infection in children: natural history and impact of macrolide therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:206-9.Full text  Abstract

Steinberg P, White RJ, Fuld SL, et al. Ecology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in marine recruits at Parris Island, South Carolina. Am J Epidemiol. 1969;89:62-73. Abstract

Neumayr L, Lennette E, Kelly D, et al. Mycoplasma disease and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Pediatrics. 2003;112:87-95. Abstract

Workowski KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64(RR-03):1-137.Full text  Abstract

Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:243-50.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Waites KB, Katz B, Schelonka RL. Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas as neonatal pathogens. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005;18:757-89.Full text  Abstract

3. Workowski KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases: treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64:1-137.Full text  Abstract

4. Taylor-Robinson D. The role of mycoplasmas in pregnancy outcome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;21:425-38. Abstract

5. Lowe J, Watkins WJ, Edwards MO, et al. Association between pulmonary ureaplasma colonization and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014;33:697-702. Abstract

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18. Jain S, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among US children. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:835-45.Full text  Abstract

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21. Chalker V, Stocki T, Litt D, et al. Increased detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children in England and Wales, October 2011 to January 2012. Euro Surveill. 2012;17:pii:20081.Full text  Abstract

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23. Uldum SA, Bangsborg JM, Gahrn-Hansen B, et al. Epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Denmark, 2010 and 2011. Euro Surveill. 2012;17:pii:20073.Full text  Abstract

24. Jacobs E. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: now in the focus of clinicians and epidemiologists. Euro Surveill. 2012;17:pii:20084.Full text  Abstract

25. Pereyre S, Charron A, Hidalgo-Grass C, et al. The spread of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is polyclonal in both an endemic setting in France and in an epidemic setting in Israel. PLoS One. 2012;7:38585.Full text  Abstract

26. Beeton ML, Zhang XS, Uldum SA, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, 11 countries in Europe and Israel, 2011 to 2016. Euro Surveill. 2020 Jan;25(2):1900112.Full text  Abstract

27. Esposito S, Bosis S, Begliatti E, et al. Acute tonsillopharyngitis associated with atypical bacterial infection in children: natural history and impact of macrolide therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:206-9.Full text  Abstract

28. Spuesens EB, Fraaij PL, Visser EG, et al. Carriage of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic children: an observational study. PLoS Med. 2013;10:e1001444.Full text  Abstract

29. Ferguson GD, Gadsby NJ, Henderson SS, et al. Clinical outcomes and macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Scotland, UK. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:1876-82. Abstract

30. Taylor-Robinson D, Jensen JS. Mycoplasma genitalium: from Chrysalis to multicolored butterfly. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:498-514.Full text  Abstract

31. Bjartling C, Osser S, Persson K. The association between Mycoplasma genitalium and pelvic inflammatory disease after termination of pregnancy. BJOG. 2010;117:361-4. Abstract

32. Gaydos C, Maldeis NE, Hardick A, et al. Mycoplasma genitalium as a contributor to the multiple etiologies of cervicitis in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36:598-606. Abstract

33. Mavedzenge SN, Van Der Pol B, Weiss HA, et al. The association between Mycoplasma genitalium and HIV-1 acquisition in African women. AIDS. 2012;26:617-24. Abstract

34. Vandepitte J, Muller E, Bukenya J, et al. Prevalence and correlates of Mycoplasma genitalium infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:289-96.Full text  Abstract

35. Seña AC, Lee JY, Schwebke J, et al. A silent epidemic: the prevalence, incidence and persistence of Mycoplasma genitalium among young, asymptomatic high-risk women in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 18;67(1):73-9.Full text  Abstract

36. Waites KB, Talkington DF. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its role as a human pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:697-728. Abstract

37. Steinberg P, White RJ, Fuld SL, et al. Ecology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in marine recruits at Parris Island, South Carolina. Am J Epidemiol. 1969;89:62-73. Abstract

38. Wan GH, Huang CG, Huang YC, et al. Surveillance of airborne adenovirus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in a hospital pediatric department. PLoS One. 2012;7:e33974.Full text  Abstract

39. Daxboeck F, Khanakah G, Bauer C, et al. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in serum specimens from patients with Mycoplasma pneumonia by PCR. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005;295:279-285. Abstract

40. Katz B, Waites K. Emerging intracellular bacterial infections. Clin Lab Med. 2004;24:627-649. Abstract

41. Kannan TR, Baseman JB. ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin of Mycoplasma pneumoniae represents unique virulence determinant among bacterial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006;103:6724-6729. Abstract

42. Johnston SL, Martin RJ. Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a role in asthma pathogenesis? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172:1078-1089. Abstract

43. Nakashima K, Tanaka T, Kramer MH, et al. Outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a Japanese nursing home, 1999-2000. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27:1171-7. Abstract

44. Klement E, Talkington DF, Wasserzug O, et al. Identification of risk factors for infection in an outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1239-45. Abstract

45. Feikin DR, Moroney JF, Talkington DF, et al. An outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and adenovirus at a federal service training academy: new implications from an old scenario. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:1545-50. Abstract

46. Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:2206-16. Abstract

47. Neumayr L, Lennette E, Kelly D, et al. Mycoplasma disease and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Pediatrics. 2003;112:87-95. Abstract

48. Klausner JD, Passaro D, Rosenberg J, et al. Enhanced control of an outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with azithromycin prophylaxis. J Infect Dis. 1998;177:161-6.Full text  Abstract

49. Hyde TB, Gilbert M, Schwartz SB. Azithromycin prophylaxis during a hospital outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:907-12.Full text  Abstract

50. Lim WS, Baudouin SV, George RC, et al; Pneumonia Guidelines Committee of the BTS Standards of Care Committee. BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: update 2009. Thorax. 2009;64(suppl 3):iii1-55.Full text  Abstract

51. Loens K, Ieven M. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: current knowledge on nucleic acid amplification techniques and serological diagnostics. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:448.Full text  Abstract

52. Diaz MH, Winchell JM. The evolution of advanced molecular diagnostics for the detection and characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:232.Full text  Abstract

53. Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. An official clinical practice guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Oct 1;200(7):e45-67.Full text  Abstract

54. Soni S, Horner P, Rayment M, et al. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV national guideline for the management of infection with Mycoplasma genitalium (2018). Int J STD AIDS. 2019 Sep;30(10):938-50.Full text  Abstract

55. Jensen JS, Cusini M, Gomberg M, et al. Background review for the 2016 European guideline on Mycoplasma genitalium infections. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016 Oct;30(10):1686-93.Full text  Abstract

56. Workowski KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64(RR-03):1-137.Full text  Abstract

57. Golden MR, Workowski KA, Bolan G. Developing a public health response to Mycoplasma genitalium. J Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 15;216(suppl_2):S420-6.Full text  Abstract

58. Kim KW, Sung JJ, Tchah H, et al. Hepatitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Korean children: a prospective study. Korean J Pediatr. 2015 Jun;58(6):211-7.Full text  Abstract

59. British Thoracic Society. Annotated BTS guideline for the management of CAP in adults (2009): summary of recommendations. January 2015 [internet publication].Full text

60. Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:243-50.Full text  Abstract

61. Lim WS, van der Eerden MM, Laing R, et al. Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study. Thorax. 2003;58:377-82.Full text  Abstract

62. Liu Y, Ye X, Zhang H, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates and molecular analysis of macrolide-resistant strains from Shanghai, China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2160-2.Full text  Abstract

63. Averbuch D, Hidalgo-Grass C, Moses AE, et al. Macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Israel, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1079-82.Full text  Abstract

64. Peuchant O, Ménard A, Renaudin H, et al. Increased macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in France directly detected in clinical specimens by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64:52-8.Full text  Abstract

65. Spuesens EB, Meijer A, Bierschenk D, et al. Macrolide resistance determination and molecular typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in respiratory specimens collected between 1997 and 2008 in the Netherlands. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1999-2004. Abstract

66. Brown RJ, Macfarlane-Smith L, Phillips S, et al. Detection of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in England, September 2014 to September 2015. Euro Surveill. 2015;20:30078. Abstract

67. Diaz MH, Benitez AJ, Winchell JM. Investigations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the United States: trends in molecular typing and macrolide resistance from 2006 to 2013. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53:124-30. Abstract

68. Yamada M, Buller R, Bledsoe S, et al. Rising rates of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the central United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:409-11. Abstract

69. Okada T, Morozumi M, Tajima T, et al. Rapid effectiveness of minocycline or doxycycline against macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in a 2011 outbreak among Japanese children. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1642-9. Abstract

70. Kawai Y, Miyashita N, Kubo M, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of macrolides, minocycline, and tosufloxacin against macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in pediatric patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:2252-8. Abstract

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73. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

74. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. Jul 2018 [internet publication]Full text

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76. Walker J, Fairley CK, Bradshaw CS, et al. Mycoplasma genitalium incidence, organism load, and treatment failure in a cohort of young Australian women. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1094-100. Abstract

77. Touati A, Peuchant O, Jensen JS, et al. Direct detection of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium isolates from clinical specimens from France by use of real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52:1549-55. Abstract

78. Bissessor M, Tabrizi SN, Twin J, et al. Macrolide resistance and azithromycin failure in a Mycoplasma genitalium-infected cohort and response of azithromycin failures to alternative antibiotic regimens. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60:1228-36.Full text  Abstract

79. Pond MJ, Nori AV, Witney AA, et al. High prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in nongonococcal urethritis: the need for routine testing and the inadequacy of current treatment options. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:631-7.Full text  Abstract

80. Salado-Rasmussen K, Jensen JS. Mycoplasma genitalium testing pattern and macrolide resistance: a Danish nationwide retrospective survey. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:24-30.Full text  Abstract

81. Lau A, Bradshaw CS, Lewis D, et al. The Efficacy of Azithromycin for the Treatment of Genital Mycoplasma genitalium: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 1;61(9):1389-99.Full text  Abstract

82. Horner P, Ingle SM, Garrett F, et al. Which azithromycin regimen should be used for treating <i>Mycoplasma genitalium</i>? A meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect. 2018 Feb;94(1):14-20.Full text  Abstract

83. British for Sexual Health and HIV. Update to the 2015 BASHH UK national guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis. Nov 2018 [internet publication].Full text

84. Kikuchi M, Ito S, Yasuda M, et al. Remarkable increase in fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in Japan. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014;69:2376-82.Full text  Abstract

85. Couldwell DL, Tagg KA, Jeoffreys NJ, et al. Failure of moxifloxacin treatment in Mycoplasma genitalium infections due to macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24:822-8. Abstract

86. Suzuki S, Yamazaki T, Narita M, et al. Clinical evaluation of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:709-712.Full text  Abstract

87. Horner P, Ingle SM, Garrett F, et al. Which azithromycin regimen should be used for treating Mycoplasma genitalium? A meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect. 2018 Feb;94(1):14-20.

88. Manhart LE, Jensen JS, Bradshaw CS, et al. Efficacy of antimicrobial therapy for Mycoplasma genitalium Infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(Suppl 8):S802-S817. Abstract

89. Horner P, Blee K, O'Mahony C, et al. 2015 UK national guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis. Int J STD AIDS. 2016;27:85-96.Full text  Abstract

90. Read TRH, Jensen JS, Fairley CK, et al. Use of Pristinamycin for Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma genitalium Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Feb;24(2):328-335.Full text  Abstract

91. Jensen JS, Cusini M, Gomberg M, Moi H. 2016 European guideline on Mycoplasma genitalium infections. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016 Oct;30(10):1650-1656.Full text  Abstract

92. File TM, Goldberg L, Das A, et al. Efficacy and safety of intravenous-to-oral lefamulin, a pleuromutilin antibiotic, for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: the phase III lefamulin evaluation against pneumonia (LEAP 1) trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 13;69(11):1856-67.Full text  Abstract

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96. Walter ND, Grant GB, Bandy U, et al. Community outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: school-based cluster of neurologic disease associated with household transmission of respiratory illness. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1365-1374. Abstract

97. Kannan TR, Hardy RD, Coalson JJ, et al. Fatal outcomes in family transmission of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:225-231. Abstract

98. Scerpella EG, Whimbey EE, Champlin RE, et al. Pericarditis associated with Legionnaires' disease in a bone marrow transplant recipient. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;19:1168-1170. Abstract

99. Khoury T, Abu Rmeileh A, Kornspan JD, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia associated with methemoglobinemia and anemia: an overlooked association? Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015;2:ofv022.Full text  Abstract

100. Grullich C, Baumert TF, Blum HE. Acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection presenting as cholestatic hepatitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:514-515.Full text  Abstract

101. Romero-Gomez M, Otero MA, Sanchez-Munoz D, et al. Acute hepatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without lung involvement in adult patients. J Hepatol. 2006;44:827-828. Abstract

102. Shuvy M, Rav-Acha M, Izhar U, et al. Massive empyema caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in an adult: a case report. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:18. Abstract

103. Narita M, Tanaka H. Two distinct patterns of pleural effusions caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:1069. Abstract

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