West Nile virus

References

Key articles

Hayes EB, Sejvar JJ, Zaki SR, et al. Virology, pathology, and clinical manifestations of West Nile virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1174-1179. Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile virus in the United States: guidelines for surveillance, prevention, and control. June 2013 [internet publication].Full text

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile virus disease therapeutics: review of the literature for healthcare providers. February 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Mostashari F, Bunning ML, Kitsutani PT, et al. Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet. 2001;358:261-264. Abstract

2. Pridjian G, Sirois PA, McRae S, et al. Prospective study of pregnancy and newborn outcomes in mothers with West nile illness during pregnancy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2016;106:716-723.Full text  Abstract

3. Campbell GL, Marfin AA, Lanciotti RS, et al. West Nile virus. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:519-529. Abstract

4. Petersen LR, Marfin AA. West Nile virus: a primer for the clinician. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:173-179.Full text  Abstract

5. Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, et al. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1807-1814.Full text  Abstract

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Provisional surveillance summary of the West Nile virus epidemic - United States, January-November 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:1129-1133.Full text  Abstract

7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Statistics and maps. June 2022 [internet publication].Full text

8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West nile virus and other domestic nationally notifiable arboviral diseases- United States, 2020. May 2022 [internet publication].Full text

9. McDonald E, Martin SW, Landry K, et al. West Nile virus and other domestic nationally notifiable arboviral diseases - United States, 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Aug 9;68(31):673-678.Full text  Abstract

10. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Epidemiological update: West Nile virus transmission season in Europe, 2018. December 2018 [internet publication].Full text

11. Public Health England. HAIRS risk assessment: West Nile virus. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

12. Hayes EB, Komar N, Nasci RS, et al. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1167-1173. Abstract

13. Beasley DW, Davis CT, Whiteman M, et al. Molecular determinants of virulence of West Nile virus in North America. Arch Virol Suppl. 2004;(18):35-41. Abstract

14. Groves JA, Shafi H, Nomura JH, et al. A probable case of West Nile virus transfusion transmission. Transfusion. 2017 Mar;57(3pt2):850-856. Abstract

15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Laboratory-acquired West Nile virus infections - United States, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:1133-1135.Full text  Abstract

16. Iwamoto M, Jernigan DB, Guasch A, et al. Transmission of West Nile virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2196-2203.Full text  Abstract

17. Biggerstaff BJ, Petersen LR. Estimated risk of West Nile virus transmission through blood transfusion in the United States, 2002. Transfusion. 2003;43:1007-1017. Abstract

18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Intrauterine West Nile virus infection - New York, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:1135-1136.Full text  Abstract

19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Possible West Nile virus transmission to an infant through breast-feeding - Michigan, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:877-878.Full text  Abstract

20. Hayes EB, Sejvar JJ, Zaki SR, et al. Virology, pathology, and clinical manifestations of West Nile virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1174-1179. Abstract

21. Sampson BA, Ambrosi C, Charlot A, et al. The pathology of human West Nile Virus infection. Hum Pathol. 2000;31:527-531. Abstract

22. Shieh WJ, Guarner J, Layton M, et al. The role of pathology in an investigation of an outbreak of West Nile encephalitis in New York, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:370-372.Full text  Abstract

23. Kumar D, Prasad GV, Zaltzman J, et al. Community-acquired West Nile virus infection in solid-organ transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2004;77:399-402. Abstract

24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). West Nile virus infections in organ transplant recipients - New York and Pennsylvania, August-September, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005;54:1021-1023.Full text  Abstract

25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Arboviral diseases, neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive 2015 case definition. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

26. Lee BY, Biggerstaff BJ. Screening the United States blood supply for West Nile Virus: a question of blood, dollars, and sense. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e99.Full text  Abstract

27. Korves CT, Goldie SJ, Murray MB. Cost-effectiveness of alternative blood-screening strategies for West Nile Virus in the United States. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e21.Full text  Abstract

28. National Institutes of Health. NIH-funded vaccine for West Nile virus enters human clinical trials. July 2015 [internet publication].Full text

29. Pierce KK, Whitehead SS, Kirkpatrick BD, et al. A live attenuated chimeric West Nile virus vaccine, rWN/DEN4Δ30, is well tolerated and immunogenic in flavivirus-naive older adult volunteers. J Infect Dis. 2017 Jan 1;215(1):52-55.Full text  Abstract

30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile virus in the United States: guidelines for surveillance, prevention, and control. June 2013 [internet publication].Full text

31. Chan CK, Limstrom SA, Tarasewicz DG, et al. Ocular features of West Nile virus infection in North America: a study of 14 eyes. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1539-1546. Abstract

32. Sejvar JJ, Bode AV, Marfin AA, et al. West Nile virus-associated flaccid paralysis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1021-1027.Full text  Abstract

33. Miller JM, Binnicker MJ, Campbell S, et al. A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 31;67(6):e1-e94.Full text  Abstract

34. Marfin AA, Gubler DJ. West Nile encephalitis: an emerging disease in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1713-1719. Abstract

35. Martin DA, Muth DA, Brown T, et al. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1823-1826.Full text  Abstract

36. Roehrig JT, Nash D, Maldin B, et al. Persistence of virus-reactive serum immunoglobulin M antibody in confirmed West Nile virus encephalitis cases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:376-379.Full text  Abstract

37. Kapoor H, Signs K, Somsel P, et al. Persistence of West Nile Virus (WNV) IgM antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with CNS disease. J Clin Virol. 2004;31:289-291. Abstract

38. Lustig Y, Mannasse B, Koren R, et al. Superiority of West Nile virus RNA detection in whole blood for diagnosis of acute infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54:2294-2297.Full text  Abstract

39. Lanciotti RS, Kerst AJ, Nasci RS, et al. Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:4066-4071.Full text  Abstract

40. Sejvar JJ, Haddad MB, Tierney BC, et al. Neurologic manifestations and outcome of West Nile virus infection. JAMA. 2003;290:511-515. Erratum in: JAMA. 2003;290:1318.Full text  Abstract

41. Watson JT, Pertel PE, Jones RC, et al. Clinical characteristics and functional outcomes of West Nile Fever. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141:360-365. Abstract

42. Hayes EB, Gubler DJ. West Nile virus: epidemiology and clinical features of an emerging epidemic in the United States. Ann Rev Med. 2006;57:181-194. Abstract

43. Sejvar JJ, Leis AA, Stokic DS, et al. Acute flaccid paralysis and West Nile virus infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:788-793.Full text  Abstract

44. Li J, Loeb JA, Shy ME, et al. Asymmetric flaccid paralysis: a neuromuscular presentation of West Nile virus infection. Ann Neurol. 2003;53:703-710. Abstract

45. Weiss D, Carr D, Kellachan J, et al. Clinical findings of West Nile virus infection in hospitalized patients, New York and New Jersey, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 Jul-Aug;7(4):654-8.Full text  Abstract

46. Pepperell C, Rau N, Krajden S, et al. West Nile virus infection in 2002: morbidity and mortality among patients admitted to hospital in southcentral Ontario. CMAJ. 2003 May 27;168(11):1399-405.Full text  Abstract

47. Ferguson DD, Gershman K, LeBailly A, et al. Characteristics of the rash associated with West Nile virus fever. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1204-1207. Abstract

48. Georges AJ, Lesbordes JL, Georges-Courbot MC, et al. Fatal hepatitis from West Nile virus. Ann Inst Pasteur Virol. 1987;138:237-244.

49. Perelman A, Stern J. Acute pancreatitis in West Nile fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1974;23:1150-1152. Abstract

50. Carson PJ, Konewko P, Wold KS, et al. Long-term clinical and neuropsychological outcomes of West Nile virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:723-730. Abstract

51. Leis AA, Stokic DS. Neuromuscular manifestations of human West Nile virus infection. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2005;7:15-22. Abstract

52. Jeha LE, Sila CA, Lederman RJ. West Nile virus infection: a new acute paralytic illness. Neurology. 2003;61:55-59. Abstract

53. Ahmed S, Libman R, Wesson K, et al. Guillain-Barre syndrome: an unusual presentation of West Nile virus infection. Neurology. 2000;55:144-146. Abstract

54. Rawal A, Gavin PJ, Sturgis CD. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in seasonal epidemic West Nile virus meningo-encephalitis. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34:127-129. Abstract

55. Tyler KL, Pape J, Goody RJ, et al. CSF findings in 250 patients with serologically confirmed West Nile virus meningitis and encephalitis. Neurology. 2006;66:361-365. Abstract

56. Aksamit AJ. Herpes simplex encephalitis in adults and older children. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2005;7:145-150. Abstract

57. Cinque P, Cleator GM, Weber T, et al. The role of laboratory investigation in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected herpes simplex encephalitis: a consensus report. The EU Concerted Action on Virus Meningitis and Encephalitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1996;61:339-345.Full text  Abstract

58. Luby JP. Infections of the central nervous system. Am J Med Sci. 1992;304:379-391. Abstract

59. Tsai TF. Arboviral infections in the United States. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1991;5:73-102. Abstract

60. Fitch MT, van de Beek D. Emergency diagnosis and treatment of adult meningitis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:191-200. Abstract

61. Bicanic T, Harrison TS. Cryptococcal meningitis. Br Med Bull. 2005 Apr 18;72:99-118.Full text  Abstract

62. Bhigjee AI, Padayachee R, Paruk H, et al. Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis: clinical and laboratory parameters. Int J Infect Dis. 2007;11:348-354. Abstract

63. Sejvar JJ, Marfin AA. Manifestations of West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Rev Med Virol. 2006;16:209-224. Abstract

64. Wilske B, Fingerle V, Schulte-Spechtel U. Microbiological and serological diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;49:13-21. Abstract

65. Pachner AR, Steiner I. Lyme neuroborreliosis: infection, immunity, and inflammation. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:544-552. Abstract

66. Helmick CG, Bernard KW, D'Angelo LJ. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological features of 262 cases. J Infect Dis. 1984;150:480-488. Abstract

67. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky mountain spotted fever and other spotted fever group rickettsioses, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis — United States. June 2017 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

68. Cunha BA. The atypical pneumonias: clinical diagnosis and importance. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 May;12 Suppl 3:12-24. Abstract

69. Tatter SB. Neurosurgical management of brain tumors. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1999;9:779-799. Abstract

70. Kastrup O, Wanke I, Maschke M. Neuroimaging of infections. NeuroRx. 2005;2:324-332.Full text  Abstract

71. Castillo PR, Miller DA, Meschia JF. Choice of neuroimaging in perioperative acute stroke management. Neurol Clin. 2006;24:807-820. Abstract

72. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Arboviral diseases, neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive 2015 case definition. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

73. Hayes EB. West Nile virus disease in children. Pediatric Infect Dis J. 2006;25:1065-1066. Abstract

74. Rimon A, Straussberg R, Amir J. West Nile encephalitis mimicking herpes encephalitis. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;35:62-64. Abstract

75. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile virus disease therapeutics: review of the literature for healthcare providers. February 2018 [internet publication].Full text

76. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. West Nile virus in the United States: guidelines for surveillance, prevention, and control. June 2013 [internet publication].Full text

77. Chowers MY, Lang R, Nassar F, et al. Clinical characteristics of the West Nile fever outbreak, Israel, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:675-678. Abstract

78. Pepperell C, Rau N, Krajden S, et al. West Nile virus infection in 2002: morbidity and mortality among patients admitted to hospital in southcentral Ontario. CMAJ. 2003;168:1399-1405.Full text  Abstract

79. Hart J Jr, Tillman G, Kraut MA, et al. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease: neurological manifestations and prospective longitudinal outcomes. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 May 9;14:248.Full text  Abstract

80. Petersen LR, Marfin AA, Gubler DJ. West Nile virus. JAMA. 2003;290:524-528. Abstract

81. Gelfand MS. West Nile virus infection. What you need to know about this emerging threat. Postgrad Med. 2003;114:31-38. Abstract

82. Bosanko CM, Gilroy J, Wang AM, et al. West Nile virus encephalitis involving the substantia nigra: neuroimaging and pathologic findings with literature review. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:1448-1452.Full text  Abstract

83. Johnson RT, Cornblath DR. Poliomyelitis and flaviviruses. Ann Neurol. 2003;53:691-692. Abstract

84. Zaltzman R, Klein C, Gordon CR. Opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia associated with West Nile virus infection: A dramatic presentation with benign prognosis? J Neurol Sci. 2017;376:38-41. Abstract

85. Samaan Z, McDermid Vaz S, et al. Neuropsychological Impact of West Nile virus infection: an extensive neuropsychiatric assessment of 49 cases in Canada. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0158364.Full text  Abstract

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