Tonsillitis

References

Key articles

Shaikh N, Swaminathan N, Hooper EG, et al. Accuracy and precision of the signs and symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis in children: a systematic review. J Pediatr. 2012 Mar;160(3):487-93. Abstract

Aalbers J, O'Brien KK, Chan WS, et al. Predicting streptococcal pharyngitis in adults in primary care: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs and validation of the Centor score. BMC Med. 2011 Jun 1;9:67.Full text  Abstract

Spinks A, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(11):CD000023.Full text  Abstract

Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 15;55(10):e86-102.Full text  Abstract

de Cassan S, Thompson MJ, Perera R, et al. Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 1;5(5):CD008268.Full text  Abstract

Burton MJ, Glasziou PP, Chong LY, et al. Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy versus non-surgical treatment for chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 19;(11):CD001802.Full text  Abstract

Windfuhr JP, Toepfner N, Steffen G, et al. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis II. Surgical management. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Apr;273(4):989-1009. Abstract

Windfuhr JP, Toepfner N, Steffen G, et al. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis I. Diagnostics and nonsurgical management. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Apr;273(4):973-8. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Wessels MR. Clinical practice. Streptococcal pharyngitis. N Engl J Med. 2011 Feb 17;364(7):648-55.Full text  Abstract

2. Miller JM, Binnicker MJ, Campbell S, et al. A guide to utilization of the microbiology laboratory for diagnosis of infectious diseases: 2018 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiology. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 31;67(6):e1-94.Full text  Abstract

3. Georgalas CC, Tolley NS, Narula PA. Tonsillitis. BMJ Clin Evid. 2014 Jul 22;2014:0503.Full text  Abstract

4. Sykes EA, Wu V, Beyea MM, et al. Pharyngitis: approach to diagnosis and treatment. Can Fam Physician. 2020 Apr;66(4):251-7.Full text  Abstract

5. Wald ER, Green MD, Schwartz B, et al. A streptococcal score card revisited. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1998 Apr;14(2):109-11. Abstract

6. Gershburg E, Pagano JS. Epstein-Barr virus infections: prospects for treatment. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Aug;56(2):277-81.Full text  Abstract

7. Oliver J, Malliya Wadu E, Pierse N, et al. Group A Streptococcus pharyngitis and pharyngeal carriage: A meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Mar;12(3):e0006335.Full text  Abstract

8. Lindbaek M, Høiby EA, Lermark G, et al. Clinical symptoms and signs in sore throat patients with large colony variant beta-haemolytic streptococci groups C or G versus group A. Br J Gen Pract. 2005 Aug;55(517):615-9.Full text  Abstract

9. Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases, 9th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2019.

10. Snellman LW, Stang HJ, Stang JM, et al. Duration of positive throat cultures for group A streptococci after initiation of antibiotic therapy. Pediatrics. 1993;91:1166-70. Abstract

11. Shaikh N, Swaminathan N, Hooper EG, et al. Accuracy and precision of the signs and symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis in children: a systematic review. J Pediatr. 2012 Mar;160(3):487-93. Abstract

12. Aalbers J, O'Brien KK, Chan WS, et al. Predicting streptococcal pharyngitis in adults in primary care: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs and validation of the Centor score. BMC Med. 2011 Jun 1;9:67.Full text  Abstract

13. ESCMID Sore Throat Guideline Group; Pelucchi C, Grigoryan L, Galeone C, et al. Guideline for the management of acute sore throat. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Apr;18(suppl 1):1-28. Abstract

14. McIsaac WJ, White D, Tannenbaum D, et al. A clinical score to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with sore throat. CMAJ. 1998 Jan 13;158(1):75-83.Full text  Abstract

15. Cohen JF, Bertille N, Cohen R, et al. Rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 4;7(7):CD010502.Full text  Abstract

16. Ebell MH. Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Oct 1;70(7):1279-87.Full text  Abstract

17. Ebell MH, Call M, Shinholser J, et al. Does this patient have infectious mononucleosis? The rational clinical examination systematic review. JAMA. 2016 Apr 12;315(14):1502-9. Abstract

18. Gerber MA, Baltimore RS, Eaton CB, et al. Prevention of rheumatic fever and diagnosis and treatment of acute Streptococcal pharyngitis: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, the Interdisciplinary Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology, and the Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation. 2009 Mar 24;119(11):1541-51.Full text  Abstract

19. Komaroff AL, Pass TM, Aronson MD, et al. The prediction of streptococcal pharyngitis in adults. J Gen Intern Med. 1986 Jan-Feb;1(1):1-7. Abstract

20. Centor RM, Witherspoon JM, Dalton HP, et al. The diagnosis of strep throat in adults in the emergency room. Med Decis Making. 1981;1:239. Abstract

21. Cohen JF, Pauchard JY, Hjelm N, et al. Efficacy and safety of rapid tests to guide antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jun 4;6(6):CD012431.Full text  Abstract

22. Gahleitner C, Hofauer B, Stark T, et al. Predisposing factors and management of complications in acute tonsillitis. Acta Otolaryngol. 2016 Sep;136(9):964-8. Abstract

23. Windfuhr JP, Toepfner N, Steffen G, et al. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis I. Diagnostics and nonsurgical management. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Apr;273(4):973-8. Abstract

24. Thomas M, Del Mar C, Glasziou P. How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat? Br J Gen Pract. 2000 Oct;50(459):817-20.Full text  Abstract

25. Schachtel BP, McCabe D, Berger M, et al. Efficacy of low-dose celecoxib in patients with acute pain. J Pain. 2011 Jul;12(7):756-63. Abstract

26. Orlowski JP, Hanhan UA, Fiallos MR. Is aspirin a cause of Reye's syndrome? A case against. Drug Saf. 2002;25(4):225-31. Abstract

27. McNally D, Simpson M, Morris C, et al. Rapid relief of acute sore throat with AMC/DCBA throat lozenges: randomised controlled trial. Int J Clin Pract. 2010 Jan;64(2):194-207. Abstract

28. de Mey C, Peil H, Kölsch S, et al. Efficacy and safety of ambroxol lozenges in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sore throat. EBM-based clinical documentation. Arzneimittelforschung. 2008;58(11):557-68. Abstract

29. Spinks A, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(11):CD000023.Full text  Abstract

30. Altamimi S, Khalil A, Khalaiwi KA, et al. Short-term late-generation antibiotics versus longer term penicillin for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15;(8):CD004872.Full text  Abstract

31. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 15;55(10):e86-102.Full text  Abstract

32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pharyngitis (Strep Throat). November 2018 [internet publication].Full text

33. van Driel ML, De Sutter AI, Habraken H, et al. Different antibiotic treatments for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 11;(9):CD004406.Full text  Abstract

34. Skoog Ståhlgren G, Tyrstrup M, Edlund C, et al. Penicillin V four times daily for five days versus three times daily for 10 days in patients with pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci: randomised controlled, open label, non-inferiority study. BMJ. 2019 Oct 4;367:l5337.Full text  Abstract

35. Chen LE, Shen YZ, Jiang DY, et al. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in treating children with suppurative tonsillitis. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017 Jul-Sep;31(3):625-9. Abstract

36. Casey JR, Pichichero ME. Meta-analysis of cephalosporin versus penicillin treatment of group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children. Pediatrics. 2004 Apr;113(4):866-82. Abstract

37. Pichichero ME, Zagursky R. Penicillin and cephalosporin allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014 May;112(5):404-12. Abstract

38. Munck H, Jørgensen AW, Klug TE. Antibiotics for recurrent acute pharyngo-tonsillitis: systematic review. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 Jul;37(7):1221-30. Abstract

39. Aertgeerts B, Agoritsas T, Siemieniuk RAC, et al. Corticosteroids for sore throat: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2017 Sep 20;358:j4090.Full text  Abstract

40. Kent S, Hennedige A, McDonald C, et al. Systematic review of the role of corticosteroids in cervicofacial infections. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Apr;57(3):196-206.Full text  Abstract

41. de Cassan S, Thompson MJ, Perera R, et al. Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 1;5(5):CD008268.Full text  Abstract

42. Sadeghirad B, Siemieniuk RAC, Brignardello-Petersen R, et al. Corticosteroids for treatment of sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2017 Sep 20;358:j3887.Full text  Abstract

43. Terreri MT, Bernardo WM, Len CA, et al. Guidelines for the management and treatment of periodic fever syndromes: periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis syndrome. Rev Bras Reumatol Engl Ed. 2016 Jan-Feb;56(1):52-7.Full text  Abstract

44. Mitchell RB, Archer SM, Ishman SL, et al. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillectomy in children (update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019 Feb;160(suppl 1):S1-42.Full text  Abstract

45. Morad A, Sathe NA, Francis DO, et al. Tonsillectomy versus watchful waiting for recurrent throat infection: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2017 Feb;139(2). pii: e20163490.Full text  Abstract

46. Burton MJ, Glasziou PP, Chong LY, et al. Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy versus non-surgical treatment for chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 19;(11):CD001802.Full text  Abstract

47. Thong G, Davies K, Murphy E, et al. Significant improvements in quality of life following paediatric tonsillectomy: a prospective cohort study. Ir J Med Sci. 2017 May;186(2):419-25. Abstract

48. Burton MJ, Pollard AJ, Ramsden JD, et al. Tonsillectomy for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis syndrome (PFAPA). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Dec 30;12(12):CD008669.Full text  Abstract

49. Gorman D, Ogston S, Hussain SS. Improvement in symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea in children following tonsillectomy versus tonsillotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Otolaryngol. 2017 Apr;42(2):275-82. Abstract

50. Kim JS, Kwon SH, Lee EJ, et al. Can intracapsular tonsillectomy be an alternative to classical tonsillectomy? A meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 Aug;157(2):178-89. Abstract

51. Windfuhr JP, Toepfner N, Steffen G, et al. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis II. Surgical management. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Apr;273(4):989-1009. Abstract

52. Siempos II, Dimopoulos G, Falagas ME. Meta-analyses on the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;23(2):331-53. Abstract

53. Wilcox CR, Stuart B, Leaver H, et al. Effectiveness of the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 for the treatment and/or prevention of sore throat: a systematic review. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019 Jun;25(6):673-80.Full text  Abstract

54. Windfuhr JP, Toepfner N, Steffen G, et al. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis I. Diagnostics and nonsurgical management. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Apr;273(4):973-8. Abstract

55. Klug TE, Rusan M, Fuursted K, et al. Peritonsillar abscess: complication of acute tonsillitis or Weber's glands infection? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Aug;155(2):199-207. Abstract

56. Chang BA, Thamboo A, Burton MJ, et al. Needle aspiration versus incision and drainage for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 23;(12):CD006287.Full text  Abstract

57. Shulman ST. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci (PANDAS): update. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009 Feb;21(1):127-30. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer