Complex regional pain syndrome

References

Key articles

Harden RN, Bruehl SP, Stanton-Hicks M, et al. Proposed new diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome. Pain Med. 2007 May-Jun;8(4):326-31. Abstract

Harden RN, Bruehl SP, Stanton-Hicks M, et al. Proposed new diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome. Pain Med. 2007;8:326-331. Abstract

Birklein F, Dimova V. Complex regional pain syndrome-up-to-date. Pain Rep. 2017 Oct 5;2(6):e624.Full text  Abstract

Cossins L, Okell RW, Cameron H, et al. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome in adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials published from June 2000 to February 2012. Eur J Pain. 2013 Feb;17(2):158-73. Abstract

O'Connell NE, Wand BM, McAuley J, et al. Interventions for treating pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Apr 30;(4):CD009416.Full text  Abstract

Albazaz R, Wong YT, Homer-Vanniasinkam S. Complex regional pain syndrome: a review. Ann Vasc Surg. 2008 Mar;22(2):297-306. Abstract

Reference articles

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16. Oaklander AL, Fields HL. Is reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome type I a small fiber neuropathy? Ann Neurol. 2009 Jun;65(6):629-38. Abstract

17. Birklein F, Schmelz M. Neuropeptides, neurogenic inflammation and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Neurosci Lett. 2008 Jun 6;437(3):199-202. Abstract

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21. Parkitny L, McAuley JH, Di Pietro F, et al. Inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurology. 2013 Jan 1;80(1):106-17.Full text  Abstract

22. Birklein F, Drummond P, Li W, et al. Activation of cutaneous immune responses in complex regional pain syndrome. J Pain. 2014 May;15(5):485-95.Full text  Abstract

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24. Tékus V, Hajna Z, Borbély É, et al. A CRPS-IgG-transfer-trauma model reproducing inflammatory and positive sensory signs associated with complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2014 Feb;155(2):299-308. Abstract

25. Li WW, Guo TZ, Shi X, et al. Autoimmunity contributes to nociceptive sensitization in a mouse model of complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2014 Nov;155(11):2377-89.Full text  Abstract

26. Kohr D, Singh P, Tschernatsch M, et al. Autoimmunity against the β2 adrenergic receptor and muscarinic-2 receptor in complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2011 Dec;152(12):2690-700. Abstract

27. Maihöfner C, Baron R, DeCol R, et al. The motor system shows adaptive changes in complex regional pain syndrome. Brain. 2007 Oct;130(Pt 10):2671-87.Full text  Abstract

28. Oaklander AL, Birklein F. Factor I: sensory changes - pathophysiology and measurement. In: Wilson PR, Stanton-Hicks M, Harden RN, eds. CRPS: current diagnosis and therapy. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 2005:59-79.

29. Wasner G, Baron R. Factor II: vasomotor changes - pathophysiology and measurement. In: Wilson PR, Stanton-Hicks M, Harden RN, eds. CRPS: current diagnosis and therapy. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 2005:81-106.

30. Lima MC, Fregni F. Motor cortex stimulation for chronic pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Neurology. 2008 Jun 10;70(24):2329-37. Abstract

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32. Terkelsen AJ, Bach FW, Jensen TS. Experimental forearm immobilization in humans induces cold and mechanical hyperalgesia. Anesthesiology. 2008 Aug;109(2):297-307.Full text  Abstract

33. Shenker N, Goebel A, Rockett M, et al. Establishing the characteristics for patients with chronic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: the value of the CRPS-UK Registry. Br J Pain. 2015 May;9(2):122-8.Full text  Abstract

34. Aïm F, Klouche S, Frison A, et al. Efficacy of vitamin C in preventing complex regional pain syndrome after wrist fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2017 May;103(3):465-70.Full text  Abstract

35. Lewis JS, Schweinhardt P. Perceptions of the painful body: the relationship between body perception disturbance, pain and tactile discrimination in complex regional pain syndrome. Eur J Pain. 2012 Oct;16(9):1320-30. Abstract

36. Kuttikat A, Noreika V, Chennu S, et al. Altered neurocognitive processing of tactile stimuli in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. J Pain. 2018 Apr;19(4):395-409. Abstract

37. van Velzen GA, Perez RS, van Gestel MA, et al. Health-related quality of life in 975 patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2014 Mar;155(3):629-34. Abstract

38. Goebel A, Barker C, Birklein F, et al. Standards for the diagnosis and management of complex regional pain syndrome: results of a European Pain Federation task force. Eur J Pain. 2019 Apr;23(4):641-51.Full text  Abstract

39. Oaklander AL, Rissmiller JG, Gelman LB, et al. Evidence of focal small-fiber axonal degeneration in complex regional pain syndrome-I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy). Pain. 2006 Feb;120(3):235-43. Abstract

40. Wüppenhorst N, Maier C, Frettlöh J, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-phase bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome of the upper extremity. Clin J Pain. 2010 Mar-Apr;26(3):182-9. Abstract

41. Oehler N, Rolvien T, Schmidt T, et al. Bone microstructure is significantly altered in CRPS-affected distal tibiae as detected by HR-pQCT: a retrospective cross-sectional study. J Bone Miner Metab. 2019 Jul;37(4):741-8. Abstract

42. Krämer HH, Hofbauer LC, Szalay G, et al. Osteoprotegerin: a new biomarker for impaired bone metabolism in complex regional pain syndrome? Pain. 2014 May;155(5):889-95. Abstract

43. Bazika-Gerasch B, Maier C, Kumowski N, et al. Compared to limb pain of other origin, ultrasonographic osteodensitometry reveals loss of bone density in complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2019 Jun;160(6):1261-9. Abstract

44. Nishida Y, Saito Y, Yokota T, et al. Skeletal muscle MRI in complex regional pain syndrome. Intern Med. 2009;48(4):209-12.Full text  Abstract

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47. Ringer R, Wertli M, Bachmann LM, et al. Concordance of qualitative bone scintigraphy results with presence of clinical complex regional pain syndrome 1: meta-analysis of test accuracy studies. Eur J Pain. 2012 Nov;16(10):1347-56.Full text  Abstract

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50. Wasner G, Schattschneider J, Heckmann K, et al. Vascular abnormalities in reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS I): mechanisms and diagnostic value. Brain. 2001 Mar;124(Pt 3):587-99.Full text  Abstract

51. Sandroni P, Wilson PR. Factor III: sudomotor changes and edema - pathophysiology and measurement. In: Wilson PR, Stanton-Hicks M, Harden RN, eds. CRPS: current diagnosis and therapy. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 2005:107-18.

52. Harden RN, Bruehl SP, Stanton-Hicks M, et al. Proposed new diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome. Pain Med. 2007;8:326-331. Abstract

53. Harden RN, Oaklander AL, Burton AW, et al. Complex regional pain syndrome: practical diagnostic and treatment guidelines, 4th edition. Pain Med. 2013 Feb;14(2):180-229.Full text  Abstract

54. Royal College of Physicians. Complex regional pain syndrome in adults: UK guidelines for diagnosis, referral and management in primary and secondary care. Jul 2018 [internet publication].Full text

55. Birklein F, Dimova V. Complex regional pain syndrome-up-to-date. Pain Rep. 2017 Oct 5;2(6):e624.Full text  Abstract

56. Daly AE, Bialocerkowski AE. Does evidence support physiotherapy management of adult complex regional pain syndrome type one? A systematic review. Eur J Pain. 2009 Apr;13(4):339-53. Abstract

57. Viezi IE, Chelimsky TC, Janata JW. Complex regional pain syndrome: what specialized rehabilitation services do patients require? Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2012 Apr;16(2):139-46. Abstract

58. Cossins L, Okell RW, Cameron H, et al. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome in adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials published from June 2000 to February 2012. Eur J Pain. 2013 Feb;17(2):158-73. Abstract

59. O'Connell NE, Wand BM, McAuley J, et al. Interventions for treating pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Apr 30;(4):CD009416.Full text  Abstract

60. Smart KM, Wand BM, O'Connell NE. Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Feb 24;(2):CD010853.Full text  Abstract

61. Schilder JC, Sigtermans MJ, Schouten AC, et al. Pain relief is associated with improvement in motor function in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled study on the effects of ketamine. J Pain. 2013 Nov;14(11):1514-21. Abstract

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63. Harden RN, Swan M, King A, et al. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: functional restoration. Clin J Pain. 2006 Jun;22(5):420-4. Abstract

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66. Bruehl S. Complex regional pain syndrome. BMJ. 2015 Jul 29;351:h2730. Abstract

67. Bruehl S, Chung OY. Psychological and behavioral aspects of complex regional pain syndrome management. Clin J Pain. 2006 Jun;22(5):430-7. Abstract

68. Zyluk A, Puchalski P. Treatment of early complex regional pain syndrome type 1 by a combination of mannitol and dexamethasone. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2008 Apr;33(2):130-6. Abstract

69. Sharma A, Williams K, Raja SN. Advances in treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: recent insights on a perplexing disease. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2006 Oct;19(5):566-72. Abstract

70. Yanow J, Pappagallo M, Pillai L. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS/RSD) and neuropathic pain: role of intravenous bisphosphonates as analgesics. ScientificWorldJournal. 2008 Feb 25;8:229-36.Full text  Abstract

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84. Cepeda MS, Lau J, Carr DB. Defining the therapeutic role of local anesthetic sympathetic blockade in complex regional pain syndrome: a narrative and systematic review. Clin J Pain. 2002 Jul-Aug;18(4):216-33. Abstract

85. O'Connell NE, Wand BM, Gibson W, et al. Local anaesthetic sympathetic blockade for complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 28;(7):CD004598.Full text  Abstract

86. Straube S, Derry S, Moore RA, et al. Cervico-thoracic or lumbar sympathectomy for neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Sep 2;(9):CD002918.Full text  Abstract

87. de Oliveira Rocha R, Teixeira MJ, Yeng LT, et al. Thoracic sympathetic block for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I: a double-blind randomized controlled study. Pain. 2014 Nov;155(11):2274-81. Abstract

88. Albazaz R, Wong YT, Homer-Vanniasinkam S. Complex regional pain syndrome: a review. Ann Vasc Surg. 2008 Mar;22(2):297-306. Abstract

89. Stanton-Hicks M, Rauck RL, Hendrickson M, et al. Miscellaneous and experimental therapies. In: Wilson PR, Stanton-Hicks M, Harden RN, eds. CRPS: current diagnosis and therapy. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 2005:255-74.

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91. Turner JA, Loeser JD, Deyo RA, et al. Spinal cord stimulation for patients with failed back surgery syndrome or complex regional pain syndrome: a systematic review of effectiveness and complications. Pain. 2004 Mar;108(1-2):137-47. Abstract

92. Taylor RS, Van Buyten JP, Buchser E. Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome: a systematic review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness literature and assessment of prognostic factors. Eur J Pain. 2006 Feb;10(2):91-101. Abstract

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97. Stanton-Hicks M. Complex regional pain syndrome: manifestations and the role of neurostimulation in its management. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006 Apr;31(4 Suppl):S20-4. Abstract

98. Atalay NS, Ercidogan O, Akkaya N, et al. Prednisolone in complex regional pain syndrome. Pain Physician. 2014 Mar-Apr;17(2):179-85.Full text  Abstract

99. Carroll I, Clark JD, Mackey S. Sympathetic block with botulinum toxin to treat complex regional pain syndrome. Ann Neurol. 2009 Mar;65(3):348-51.Full text  Abstract

100. Lee Y, Lee CJ, Choi E, et al. Lumbar sympathetic block with botulinum toxin type A and type B for the complex regional pain syndrome. Toxins (Basel). 2018 Apr 19;10(4).Full text  Abstract

101. Cohen SP, Bhatia A, Buvanendran A, et al. Consensus guidelines on the use of intravenous ketamine infusions for chronic pain from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018 Jul;43(5):521-46.Full text  Abstract

102. Zhao J, Wang Y, Wang D. The effect of ketamine infusion in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2018 Feb 5;22(2):12. Abstract

103. Perez RS, Zuurmond WW, Bezemer PD, et al. The treatment of complex regional pan syndrome type I with free radical scavengers: a randomized controlled study. Pain. 2003 Apr;102(3):297-307. Abstract

104. Perez RS, Zollinger PE, Dijkstra PU, et al. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1. BMC Neurol. 2010 Mar 31;10:20.Full text  Abstract

105. Dirckx M, Stronks DL, Groeneweg G, et al. Effect of immunomodulating medications in complex regional pain syndrome: a systematic review. Clin J Pain. 2012 May;28(4):355-63. Abstract

106. Goebel A, Bisla J, Carganillo R, et al. Low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for long-standing complex regional pain syndrome: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Oct 3;167(7):476-83.Full text  Abstract

107. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neuropathic pain in adults: pharmacological management in non-specialist settings. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

108. de Mos M, Huygen FJ, van der Hoeven-Borgman M, et al. Outcome of the complex regional pain syndrome. Clin J Pain. 2009 Sep;25(7):590-7. Abstract

109. Schwartzman RJ, Erwin KL, Alexander GM. The natural history of complex regional pain syndrome. Clin J Pain. 2009 May;25(4):273-80. Abstract

110. Wertli M, Bachmann LM, Weiner SS, et al. Prognostic factors in complex regional pain syndrome 1: a systematic review. J Rehabil Med. 2013 Mar;45(3):225-31.Full text  Abstract

111. Gierthmühlen J, Binder A, Baron R. Mechanism-based treatment in complex regional pain syndromes. Nat Rev Neurol. 2014 Sep;10(9):518-28. Abstract

112. Birklein F, O’Neill D, Schlereth T. Complex regional pain syndrome: an optimistic perspective. Neurology. 2015 Jan 6;84(1):89-96. Abstract

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