Tendinopathy

References

Key articles

Almekinders LC, Temple JD. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of tendonitis: an analysis of the literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998 Aug;30(8):1183-90. Abstract

Beaudreuil J, Dhénain M, Coudane H, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the surgical management of rotator cuff tears in adults. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2010 Apr;96(2):175-9.Full text  Abstract

Schepsis AA, Jones H, Haas AL. Achilles tendon disorders in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2002 Mar-Apr;30(2):287-305. Abstract

Kukkonen J, Joukainen A, Lehtinen J, et al. Treatment of nontraumatic rotator cuff tears: a randomized controlled trial with two years of clinical and imaging follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015 Nov 4;97(21):1729-37. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Järvinen M, Józsa L, Kannus P, et al. Histopathological findings in chronic tendon disorders. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1997 Apr;7(2):86-95. Abstract

3. Almekinders LC, Temple JD. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of tendonitis: an analysis of the literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998 Aug;30(8):1183-90. Abstract

4. Maffulli N, Khan KM, Puddu G. Overuse tendon conditions: time to change a confusing terminology. Arthroscopy. 1998 Nov-Dec;14(8):840-3. Abstract

5. Kountouris A, Cook J. Rehabilitation of Achilles and patellar tendinopathies. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Apr;21(2):295-316. Abstract

6. Khan KM, Cook JL, Kannus P, et al. Time to abandon the "tendonitis" myth. BMJ. 2002 Mar 16;324(7338):626-7. Abstract

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9. Maffulli N, Wong J, Almekinders LC. Types and epidemiology of tendinopathy. Clin Sports Med. 2003 Oct;22(4):675-92. Abstract

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11. Lopes AD, Hespanhol Júnior LC, Yeung SS, et al. What are the main running-related musculoskeletal injuries? A Systematic Review. Sports Med. 2012 Oct 1;42(10):891-905.Full text  Abstract

12. Hyman J, Rodeo SA, Wickiewicz T. Patellofemoral tendinopathy. In: DeLee JC, Drez D, Miller MD, eds. DeLee & Drez's orthopaedic sports medicine: principles and practice. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2003:1840-56.

13. Johnson GW, Cadwallader K, Scheffel SB, et al. Treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Sep 15;76(6):843-8. Abstract

14. Wang JH, Iosifidis M, Fu F. Biomechanical basis of tendinopathy. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006 Feb;443:320-32. Abstract

15. Riley G. The pathogenesis of tendinopathy. A molecular perspective. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004 Feb;43(2):131-42.Full text  Abstract

16. Nichols AEC, Oh I, Loiselle AE. Effects of type II diabetes mellitus on tendon homeostasis and healing. J Orthop Res. 2020 Jan;38(1):13-22.Full text  Abstract

17. Khan DM, Maffulli N. Tendinopathy: an Achilles' heel for athletes and clinicians. Clin J Sport Med. 1998 Jul;8(3):151-4. Abstract

18. Alfredson H, Ohberg L. Sclerosing injections to areas of neo-vascularisation reduce pain in chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005 May;13(4):338-44. Abstract

19. Alfredson H, Ohberg L, Forsgren S. Is vasculo-neural ingrowth the cause of pain in chronic Achilles tendinosis? An investigation using ultrasonography and colour Doppler, immunohistochemistry, and diagnostic injections. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2003 Sep;11(5):334-8. Abstract

20. Cook JL, Malliaras P, De Luca J, et al. Neovascularization and pain in abnormal patellar tendons of active jumping athletes. Clin J Sports Med. 2004 Sep;14(5):296-9. Abstract

21. Forno PC, Guy JA. Overuse injuries. In: Johnson DL, Mair SD, eds. Clinical sports medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2006:215-9.

22. Ferretti A, Puddu G, Mariani PP, et al. The natural history of jumper's knee. Patellar or quadriceps tendonitis. Int Orthop. 1985;8(4):239-42. Abstract

23. Kannus P, Niittymäki S, Järvinen M, et al. Sports injuries in elderly athletes: a three-year prospective, controlled study. Age Ageing. 1989 Jul;18(4):263-70. Abstract

24. Riel H, Lindstrøm CF, Rathleff MS, et al. Prevalence and incidence rate of lower-extremity tendinopathies in a Danish general practice: a registry-based study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 May 22;20(1):239.Full text  Abstract

25. Albers IS, Zwerver J, Diercks RL, et al. Incidence and prevalence of lower extremity tendinopathy in a Dutch general practice population: a cross sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016 Jan 13;17:16.Full text  Abstract

26. Alves C, Mendes D, Marques FB. Fluoroquinolones and the risk of tendon injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2019 Oct;75(10):1431-43. Abstract

27. van der Linden PD, Sturkenboom MC, Herings RM, et al. Fluoroquinolones and risk of Achilles tendon disorders: case-control study. BMJ. 2002 Jun 1;324(7349):1306-7.Full text  Abstract

28. Lee WT, Collins JF. Ciprofloxacin associated bilateral Achilles tendon rupture. Aust NZ J Med. 1992 Oct;22(5):500. Abstract

29. Knoll GA, Humar A, Fergusson D, et al. Levofloxacin for BK virus prophylaxis following kidney transplantation: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014 Nov 26;312(20):2106-14.Full text  Abstract

30. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria®: chronic elbow pain. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

31. Fox MG, Chang EY, Amini B, et al; Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging. ACR appropriateness criteria®: chronic knee pain. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 Nov;15(11s):S302-12.Full text  Abstract

32. Chang EY, Tadros AS, Amini B, et al; Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging. ACR appropriateness criteria®: chronic ankle pain. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 May;15(5s):S26-38.Full text  Abstract

33. Small KM, Adler RS, Shah SH, et al; Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging. ACR appropriateness criteria®: shoulder pain - atraumatic. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 Nov;15(11s):S388-402.Full text  Abstract

34. Sanders TG, Fults-Ganey C. Imaging of sports-related injuries. In: DeLee JC, Drez D, Miller MD, eds. DeLee & Drez's orthopaedic sports medicine: principles and practice. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2003:557-96.

35. Ottenheijm RP, Jansen MJ, Staal JB, et al. Accuracy of diagnostic ultrasound in patients with suspected subacromial disorders: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 2010 Oct;91(10):1616-25.Full text  Abstract

36. Beaudreuil J, Nizard R, Thomas T, et al. Contribution of clinical tests to the diagnosis of rotator cuff disease: a systematic literature review. Joint Bone Spine. 2009 Jan;76(1):15-9. Abstract

37. Nho SJ, Yadav H, Shindle MK, et al. Rotator cuff degeneration: etiology and pathogenesis. Am J Sports Med. 2008 May;36(5):987-93. Abstract

38. Kainberger F, Mittermaier F, Seidl G, et al. Imaging of tendons - adaptation, degeneration, rupture. Euro J Radiol. 1997 Nov;25(3):209-22. Abstract

39. Beaudreuil J, Dhénain M, Coudane H, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the surgical management of rotator cuff tears in adults. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2010 Apr;96(2):175-9.Full text  Abstract

40. Andres BM, Murrell GA. Treatment of tendinopathy: what works, what does not, and what is on the horizon. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 Jul;466(7):1539-54.Full text  Abstract

41. Leadbetter WB. Cell-matrix response in tendon injury. Clin Sports Med. 1992 Jul;11(3):533-78. Abstract

42. Pieters L, Lewis J, Kuppens K, et al. An update of systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of conservative physical therapy interventions for subacromial shoulder pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2020 Mar;50(3):131-41.Full text  Abstract

43. Bisset LM, Collins NJ, Offord SS. Immediate effects of 2 types of braces on pain and grip strength in people with lateral epicondylalgia: a randomized controlled trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014 Feb;44(2):120-8. Abstract

44. Schepsis AA, Jones H, Haas AL. Achilles tendon disorders in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2002 Mar-Apr;30(2):287-305. Abstract

45. Kearney R, Costa ML. Insertional achilles tendinopathy management: a systematic review. Foot Ankle Int. 2010 Aug;31(8):689-94. Abstract

46. Keene JS. Tendon injuries of the foot and ankle. In: DeLee JC, Drez D, Miller MD, eds. DeLee & Drez's orthopaedic sports medicine: principles and practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2003:2409-46.

47. Pattanittum P, Turner T, Green S, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for treating lateral elbow pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 May 31;(5):CD003686.Full text  Abstract

48. Boudreault J, Desmeules F, Roy JS, et al. The efficacy of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Rehabil Med. 2014 Apr;46(4):294-306.Full text  Abstract

49. Lucado AM, Dale RB, Vincent J, et al. Do joint mobilizations assist in the recovery of lateral elbow tendinopathy? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hand Ther. 2019 Apr - Jun;32(2):262-276.e1. Abstract

50. Cullinane FL, Boocock MG, Trevelyan FC. Is eccentric exercise an effective treatment for lateral epicondylitis? A systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2014 Jan;28(1):3-19. Abstract

51. Peterson M, Butler S, Eriksson M, et al. A randomized controlled trial of eccentric vs. concentric graded exercise in chronic tennis elbow (lateral elbow tendinopathy). Clin Rehabil. 2014 Sep;28(9):862-72. Abstract

52. Malliaras P, Maffulli N, Garau G. Eccentric training programmes in the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy. Disabil Rehabil. 2008;30(20-22):1590-6. Abstract

53. Magnussen RA, Dunn WR, Thomson AB. Nonoperative treatment of midportion Achilles tendinopathy: a systematic review. Clin J Sport Med. 2009 Jan;19(1):54-64. Abstract

54. Curwin S, Stanish WD. Tendinitis: its etiology and treatment. Lexington, MA: Collamore Press; 1984.

55. Wilson J, Best TM. Common overuse tendon problems: a review and recommendations for treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Sep 1;72(5):811-8. Abstract

56. Littlewood C, Ashton J, Chance-Larsen K, et al. Exercise for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review. Physiotherapy. 2012 Jun;98(2):101-9. Abstract

57. Loew LM, Brosseau L, Tugwell P, et al. Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 8;(11):CD003528.Full text  Abstract

58. Gaujoux-Viala C, Dougados M, Gossec L. Efficacy and safety of steroid injections for shoulder and elbow tendonitis: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Dec;68(12):1843-9.Full text  Abstract

59. Coombes BK, Bisset L, Vicenzino B, et al. Efficacy and safety of corticosteroid injections and other injections for management of tendinopathy: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 2010 Nov 20;376(9754):1751-67. Abstract

60. Lin MT, Chiang CF, Wu CH, et al. Comparative effectiveness of injection therapies in rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review, pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019 Feb;100(2):336-49.e15. Abstract

61. Morrey BF, Regan WD. Tendinopathies about the elbow. In: DeLee JC, Drez D, Miller MD, eds. DeLee & Drez's orthopaedic sports medicine: principles and practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2003:1221-6.

62. Houck DA, Kraeutler MJ, Thornton LB, et al. Treatment of lateral epicondylitis with autologous blood, platelet-pich plasma, or corticosteroid injections: a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses. Orthop J Sports Med. 2019 Mar;7(3):2325967119831052.Full text  Abstract

63. Ben-Nafa W, Munro W. The effect of corticosteroid versus platelet-rich plasma injection therapies for the management of lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review. SICOT J. 2018;4:11.Full text  Abstract

64. Olaussen M, Holmedal O, Lindbaek M, et al. Treating lateral epicondylitis with corticosteroid injections or non-electrotherapeutical physiotherapy: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2013 Oct 29;3(10):e003564.Full text  Abstract

65. Coombes BK, Bisset L, Brooks P, et al. Effect of corticosteroid injection, physiotherapy, or both on clinical outcomes in patients with unilateral lateral epicondylalgia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2013 Feb 6;309(5):461-9.Full text  Abstract

66. Everhart JS, Cole D, Sojka JH, et al. Treatment options for patellar tendinopathy: a systematic review. Arthroscopy. 2017 Apr;33(4):861-72. Abstract

67. Chen PC, Wu KT, Chou WY, et al. Comparative effectiveness of different nonsurgical treatments for patellar tendinopathy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Arthroscopy. 2019 Nov;35(11):3117-31.e2. Abstract

68. Gambito ED, Gonzalez-Suarez CB, Oquinena TI, et al. Evidence on the effectiveness of topical nitroglycerin in the treatment of tendinopathies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 2010 Aug;91(8):1291-305.Full text  Abstract

69. Challoumas D, Kirwan PD, Borysov D, et al. Topical glyceryl trinitrate for the treatment of tendinopathies: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2019 Feb;53(4):251-62.Full text  Abstract

70. Saltychev M, Johansson J, Kemppi V, et al. Effectiveness of topical glyceryl trinitrate in treatment of tendinopathy - systematic review and meta-analysis. Disabil Rehabil. 2021 Jul 30 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

71. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for Achilles tendinopathy. Dec 2016 [internet publication].Full text

72. Liao CD, Xie GM, Tsauo JY, et al. Efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for knee tendinopathies and other soft tissue disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018 Aug 2;19(1):278.Full text  Abstract

73. Yao G, Chen J, Duan Y, et al. Efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2020;2020:2064781.Full text  Abstract

74. Liao CD, Tsauo JY, Chen HC, et al. Efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for lower-limb tendinopathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Sep;97(9):605-19.Full text  Abstract

75. Al-Abbad H, Simon JV. The effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a systematic review. Foot Ankle Int. 2013 Jan;34(1):33-41. Abstract

76. van der Worp H, Zwerver J, Hamstra M, et al. No difference in effectiveness between focused and radial shockwave therapy for treating patellar tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014 Sep;22(9):2026-32. Abstract

77. Huisstede BM, Gebremariam L, van der Sande R, et al. Evidence for effectiveness of extracorporal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) to treat calcific and non-calcific rotator cuff tendinosis - a systematic review. Man Ther. 2011 Oct;16(5):419-33. Abstract

78. Kolk A, Yang KG, Tamminga R, et al. Radial extracorporeal shock-wave therapy in patients with chronic rotator cuff tendinitis: a prospective randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre trial. Bone Joint J. 2013 Nov;95-B(11):1521-6. Abstract

79. Verstraelen FU, In den Kleef NJ, Jansen L, et al. High-energy versus low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy for calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder: which is superior? A meta-analysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 Sep;472(9):2816-25.Full text  Abstract

80. Wu YC, Tsai WC, Tu YK, et al. Comparative effectiveness of nonoperative treatments for chronic calcific tendinitis of the shoulder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2017 Aug;98(8):1678-92. Abstract

81. Louwerens JK, Veltman ES, van Noort A, et al. The effectiveness of high-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy versus ultrasound-guided needling versus arthroscopic surgery in the management of chronic calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review. Arthroscopy. 2016 Jan;32(1):165-75. Abstract

82. de Witte PB, Selten JW, Navas A, et al. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: a randomized controlled trial of ultrasound-guided needling and lavage versus subacromial corticosteroids. Am J Sports Med. 2013 Jul;41(7):1665-73. Abstract

83. Stover D, Fick B, Chimenti RL, et al. Ultrasound-guided tenotomy improves physical function and decreases pain for tendinopathies of the elbow: a retrospective review. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2019 Dec;28(12):2386-93. Abstract

84. Mendonça LM, Leite HR, Zwerver J, et al. How strong is the evidence that conservative treatment reduces pain and improves function in individuals with patellar tendinopathy? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials including GRADE recommendations. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Jan;54(2):87-93. Abstract

85. Fitzpatrick J, Bulsara M, Zheng MH. The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of tendinopathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Am J Sports Med. 2017 Jan;45(1):226-33. Abstract

86. Huang K, Giddins G, Wu LD. Platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injections in the management of elbow epicondylitis and plantar fasciitis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2020 Aug;48(10):2572-85. Abstract

87. Zhang YJ, Xu SZ, Gu PC, et al. Is platelet-rich plasma injection effective for chronic Achilles tendinopathy? A meta-analysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2018 Aug;476(8):1633-41.Full text  Abstract

88. Chen X, Jones IA, Togashi R, et al. Use of platelet-rich plasma for the improvement of pain and function in rotator cuff tears: a systematic review and meta-analysis with bias assessment. Am J Sports Med. 2020 Jul;48(8):2028-41.Full text  Abstract

89. Le ADK, Enweze L, DeBaun MR, et al. Platelet-rich plasma. Clin Sports Med. 2019 Jan;38(1):17-44. Abstract

90. Vander Doelen T, Jelley W. Non-surgical treatment of patellar tendinopathy: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Sci Med Sport. 2020 Feb;23(2):118-24. Abstract

91. Andriolo L, Altamura SA, Reale D, et al. Nonsurgical treatments of patellar tendinopathy: multiple injections of platelet-rich plasma are a suitable option: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2019 Mar;47(4):1001-18. Abstract

92. Scott A, LaPrade RF, Harmon KG, et al. Platelet-rich plasma for patellar tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial of leukocyte-rich PRP or leukocyte-poor PRP versus saline. Am J Sports Med. 2019 Jun;47(7):1654-61. Abstract

93. Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins RA, Joensen J, et al. A systematic review with procedural assessments and meta-analysis of low level laser therapy in lateral elbow tendinopathy (tennis elbow). BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008 May 29;9:75.Full text  Abstract

94. Tumilty S, Munn J, McDonough S, et al. Low level laser treatment of tendinopathy: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Photomed Laser Surg. 2010 Feb;28(1):3-16. Abstract

95. Martimbianco ALC, Ferreira RES, Latorraca COC, et al. Photobiomodulation with low-level laser therapy for treating Achilles tendinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil. 2020 Jun;34(6):713-22. Abstract

96. Challoumas D, Clifford C, Kirwan P, et al. How does surgery compare to sham surgery or physiotherapy as a treatment for tendinopathy? A systematic review of randomised trials. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2019;5(1):e000528.Full text  Abstract

97. Dan M, Phillips A, Johnston RV, et al. Surgery for patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Sep 23;(9):CD013034.Full text  Abstract

98. Wolf BR, Dunn WR, Wright RW. Indications for repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Am J Sports Med. 2007 Jun;35(6):1007-16. Abstract

99. Nho SJ, Adler RS, Tomlinson DP, et al. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: prospective evaluation with sequential ultrasonography. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Oct;37(10):1938-45. Abstract

100. Deutsch A. Arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007 Mar-Apr;16(2):193-201. Abstract

101. Bedi A, Dines J, Warren RF, et al. Massive tears of the rotator cuff. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Aug 4;92(9):1894-908. Abstract

102. Kukkonen J, Joukainen A, Lehtinen J, et al. Treatment of nontraumatic rotator cuff tears: a randomized controlled trial with two years of clinical and imaging follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015 Nov 4;97(21):1729-37. Abstract

103. Eyigor C, Eyigor S, Kivilcim KO, et al. Are intra-articular corticosteroid injections better than conventional TENS in treatment of rotator cuff tendinitis in the short run? A randomized study. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2010 Sep;46(3):315-24. Abstract

104. Smidt N, van der Windt D, Assendelft W, et al. Corticosteroid injections, physiotherapy, or a wait and see policy for lateral epicondylitis: a randomized control trial. Lancet. 2002 Feb 23;359(9307):657-62. Abstract

105. Paoloni JA, Appleyard RC, Nelson J, et al. Topical glyceryl trinitrate application in the treatment of chronic supraspinatus tendinopathy: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Am J Sports Med. 2005 Jun;33(6):806-13. Abstract

106. Alford JW, Nicholson G, Romeo AA. Rotator cuff disorders. In: Johnson DL, Mair SD, eds. Clinical sports medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2006:246-8.

107. Moosmayer S, Lund G, Seljom US, et al. Tendon repair compared with physiotherapy in the treatment of rotator cuff tears: a randomized controlled study in 103 cases with a five-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Sep 17;96(18):1504-14. Abstract

108. Paoloni JA, Appleyard RC, Nelson J, et al. Topical nitric oxide application in the treatment of chronic extensor tendinosis at the elbow: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Am J Sports Med. 2003 Nov-Dec;31(6):915-20. Abstract

109. Karkhanis S, Frost A, Maffulli N. Operative management of tennis elbow: a quantitative review. Br Med Bull. 2008;88(1):171-88.Full text  Abstract

110. Sayegh ET, Strauch RJ. Does nonsurgical treatment improve longitudinal outcomes of lateral epicondylitis over no treatment? A meta-analysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Mar;473(3):1093-107. Abstract

111. Brockmeier SF, Klimkiewicz JJ. Overuse injuries. In: Johnson DL, Mair SD, eds. Clinical sports medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2006:625-30.

112. Bahr R, Fossan B, Løken S, et al. Surgical treatment compared with eccentric training for patellar tendinopathy (Jumper's Knee). A randomized, controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Aug;88(8):1689-98. Abstract

113. Blazina ME, Kerlan RK, Jobe FW, et al. Jumper's knee. Orthop Clin North Am. 1973 Jul;4(3):665-78. Abstract

114. Krämer R, Lorenzen J, Vogt PM, et al. Systematic review about eccentric training in chronic achilles tendinopathy [in German]. Sportverletz Sportschaden. 2010 Dec;24(4):204-11. Abstract

115. Beyer R, Kongsgaard M, Hougs Kjær B, et al. Heavy slow resistance versus eccentric training as treatment for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2015 Jul;43(7):1704-11. Abstract

116. Paoloni JA, Appleyard RC, Nelson J, et al. Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 May;86-A(5):916-22. Abstract

117. Rees JD, Maffulli N, Cook J. Management of tendinopathy. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Sep;37(9):1855-67. Abstract

118. Ebenbichler GR, Erdogmus CB, Resch KL, et al. Ultrasound therapy for calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. N Engl J Med. 1999 May 20;340(20):1533-8.Full text  Abstract

119. Tsikopoulos K, Tsikopoulos A, Natsis K. Autologous whole blood or corticosteroid injections for the treatment of epicondylopathy and plantar fasciopathy? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther Sport. 2016 Nov;22:114-22. Abstract

120. Dong W, Goost H, Lin XB, et al. Injection therapies for lateral epicondylalgia: a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2016 Aug;50(15):900-8. Abstract

121. Pas HI, Moen MH, Haisma HJ, et al. No evidence for the use of stem cell therapy for tendon disorders: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2017 Jul;51(13):996-1002.Full text  Abstract

122. van den Boom NAC, Winters M, Haisma HJ, et al. Efficacy of stem cell therapy for tendon disorders: a systematic review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2020 Apr;8(4):2325967120915857.Full text  Abstract

123. van Ark M, Zwerver J, van den Akker-Scheek I. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy. Br J Sports Med. 2011 Oct;45(13):1068-76. Abstract

124. Hoksrud AF, Bahr R. Injectable agents derived from or targeting vascularity: has clinical acceptance in managing tendon disorders superseded scientific evidence? J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2011 Jun;11(2):174-84.Full text  Abstract

125. Alfredson H, Cook J. A treatment algorithm for managing Achilles tendinopathy: new treatment options. Br J Sports Med. 2007 Apr;41(4):211-6. Abstract

126. Wilde B, Havill A, Priestley L, et al. The efficacy of sclerosing injections in the treatment of painful tendinopathy. Phys Ther Rev. 2011;16(4):244-60.Full text

127. Kannus P, Józsa L. Histopathological changes preceding spontaneous rupture of a tendon: a controlled study of 891 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1991 Dec;73(10):1507-25. Abstract

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