References

Key articles

Mazanec D, Reddy A. Medical management of cervical spondylosis. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jan;60(1 Supp1 1):S43-50.Abstract external link opens in a new window

Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Guidelines for the surgical management of cervical degenerative disease. 2009 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

Nikolaidis I, Fouyas IP, Sandercock PA, et al. Surgery for cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD001466.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

North American Spine Society. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical radiculopathy from degenerative disorders. 2010 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

Graham N, Gross A, Goldsmith CH, et al. Mechanical traction for neck pain with or without radiculopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD006408.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Boselie TF, Willems PC, van Mameren H, et al. Arthroplasty versus fusion in single-level cervical degenerative disc disease: a Cochrane review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Aug 1;38(17):E1096-107.Abstract external link opens in a new window

Gao F, Mao T, Sun W, et al. An updated meta-analysis comparing artificial cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease (CDDD). Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Dec;40(23):1816-23.Abstract external link opens in a new window

Reference articles

1. Matsumoto M, Fujimura Y, Suzuki N, et al. MRI of cervical intervertebral discs in asymptomatic subjects. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1998 Jan;80(1):19-24.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

2. Guzman J, Haldeman S, Carroll LJ, et al. Clinical practice implications of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders: from concepts and findings to recommendations. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 Feb;32(2 Suppl):S227-43.Abstract external link opens in a new window

3. Braga-Baiak A, Shah A, Pietrobon R, et al. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of MRI examination of intervertebral disc abnormalities in patients with cervical myelopathy. Eur J Radiol. 2008 Jan;65(1):91-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

4. Siivola SM, Levoska S, Tervonen O, et al. MRI changes of cervical spine in asymptomatic and symptomatic young adults. Eur Spine J. 2002 Aug;11(4):358-63.Abstract external link opens in a new window

5. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: chronic neck pain. 2013 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

6. Binder AI. Neck pain. BMJ Clin Evid. 2008 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

7. Binder AI. Cervical spondylosis and neck pain. BMJ. 2007 Mar 10;334(7592):527-31.Abstract external link opens in a new window

8. Rao RD, Currier BL, Albert TJ, et al. Degenerative cervical spondylosis: clinical syndromes, pathogenesis and management. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Jun;89(6):1360-78.Abstract external link opens in a new window

9. Matz PG. Does nonoperative management play a role in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy? Spine J. 2006 Nov-Dec;6(6 Suppl):175S-81.Abstract external link opens in a new window

10. Mazanec D, Reddy A. Medical management of cervical spondylosis. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jan;60(1 Supp1 1):S43-50.Abstract external link opens in a new window

11. Patil PG, Turner DA, Pietrobon R. National trends in surgical procedures for degenerative cervical spine disease: 1990-2000. Neurosurgery. 2005 Oct;57(4):753-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

12. Rao RD, Gourab K, David KS. Operative treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. J Bone Surg Am. 2006 Jul;88(7):1619-40.Abstract external link opens in a new window

13. Salt E, Wright C, Kelly S, Dean A. A systematic literature review on the effectiveness of non-invasive therapy for cervicobrachial pain. Man Ther. 2011 Feb;16(1):53-65.Abstract external link opens in a new window

14. Williams FM, Sambrook PN. Neck and back pain and intervertebral disc degeneration: role of occupational factors. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011 Feb;25(1):69-79.Abstract external link opens in a new window

15. Patel AA, Spiker WR, Daubs M, et al. Evidence of an inherited predisposition for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Jan 1;37(1):26-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

16. Haldeman S, Carroll L, Cassidy JD. Findings from the bone and joint decade 2000 to 2010 task force on neck pain and its associated disorders. J Occup Environ Med. 2010 Apr;52(4):424-7.Abstract external link opens in a new window

17. Gross AR, Goldsmith C, Hoving JL, et al.; Cervical Overview Group. Conservative management of mechanical neck disorders: a systematic review. J Rheumatol. 2007 May;34(5):1083-102.Abstract external link opens in a new window

18. Hush JM. Prognosis of acute idiopathic neck pain is poor: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 May;92(5):824-9.Abstract external link opens in a new window

19. Van Zundert J, Huntoon M, Patijn J, et al. 4. Cervical radicular pain. Pain Pract. 2010 Jan-Feb;10(1):1-17.Abstract external link opens in a new window

20. Bono CM, Ghiselli G, Gilbert TJ, et al; North American Spine Society. An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of cervical radiculopathy from degenerative disorders. Spine J. 2011 Jan;11(1):64-72.Abstract external link opens in a new window

21. Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Guidelines for the surgical management of cervical degenerative disease. 2009 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

22. Cook CE, Hegedus E, Pietrobon R, et al. A pragmatic neurological screen for patients with suspected cord compressive myelopathy. Phys Ther. 2007 Sep;87(9):1233-42.Abstract external link opens in a new window

23. Nikolaidis I, Fouyas IP, Sandercock PA, et al. Surgery for cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD001466.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

24. Levin JH. Prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trials in interventional spine: what the highest quality literature tells us. Spine J. 2009 Aug;9(8):690-703.Abstract external link opens in a new window

25. Benatar M. Clinical equipoise and treatment decisions in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Can J Neurol Sci. 2007 Feb;34(1):47-52.Abstract external link opens in a new window

26. Cook CE, Richardson JK, Pietrobon R, et al. Validation of the NHANES ADL scale in a sample of patients with report of cervical pain: factor analysis, item response theory analysis, and line item validity. Disabil Rehabil. 2006 Aug 15;28(15):929-35.Abstract external link opens in a new window

27. North American Spine Society. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical radiculopathy from degenerative disorders. 2010 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

28. Hegmann KT. Cervical and thoracic spine disorders. In: Occupational medicine practice guidelines: evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. 3rd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM); 2011.

29. Evans R, Bronfort G, Nelson B, et al. Two-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of spinal manipulation and two types of exercise for patients with chronic neck pain. Spine. 2002 Nov 1;27(21):2383-9.Abstract external link opens in a new window

30. Gross A, Kay TM, Paquin JP, et al. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jan 28;1:CD004250.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

31. Evans R, Bronfort G, Nelson B, et al. Two-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of spinal manipulation and two types of exercise for patients with chronic neck pain. Spine. 2002;27:2383-2389.Abstract external link opens in a new window

32. Gross A, Kay TM, Paquin JP, et al. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(1):CD004250.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

33. Pietrobon R, Coeytaux RR, Carey TS, et al. Standard scales for the measurement of functional outcome for cervical pain or dysfunction. Spine. 2002 Mar 1;27(5):515-22.Abstract external link opens in a new window

34. Graham N, Gross A, Goldsmith CH, et al. Mechanical traction for neck pain with or without radiculopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD006408.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

35. Gross A, Forget M, St George K, et al. Patient education for neck pain. Cochrane Database Systematic Rev. 2012 Mar 14;(3):CD005106.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

36. Furlan AD, Yazdi F, Tsertsvadze A, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety of selected complementary and alternative medicine for neck and low-back pain. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011 Nov 24;2012:953139.Abstract external link opens in a new window

37. Furlan JC, Kalsi-Ryan S, Kailaya-Vasan A, et al. Functional and clinical outcomes following surgical treatment in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a prospective study of 81 cases. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011 Mar;14(3):348-55.Abstract external link opens in a new window

38. Falco FJ, Erhart S, Wargo BW, et al. Systematic review of diagnostic utility and therapeutic effectiveness of cervical facet joint interventions. Pain Physician. 2009 Mar-Apr;12(2):323-44.Abstract external link opens in a new window

39. Kroeling P, Gross A, Graham N, et al. Electrotherapy for neck pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug 26;(8):CD004251.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

40. Chow RT, Johnson MI, Lopes-Martins RA, et al. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo or active-treatment controlled trials. Lancet. 2009 Dec 5;374(9705):1897-908.Abstract external link opens in a new window

41. Malone D, Baldwin NG, Tomecek FJ, et al. Complications of cervical spine manipulation therapy: 5-year retrospective study in a single-group practice. Neurosurg Focus. 2002 Dec 15;13(6):ecp1.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

42. Benyamin RM, Singh V, Parr AT, et al. Systematic review of the effectiveness of cervical epidurals in the management of chronic neck pain. Pain Physician. 2009 Jan-Feb;12(1):137-57.Abstract external link opens in a new window

43. Canadian Chiropractic Association; Canadian Federation of Chiropractic Regulatory and Education Boards. Clinical practice guideline for the chiropractic treatment of adults with neck pain. March 2014 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

44. Fu LM, Li JT, Wu WS. Randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for neck pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Feb;15(2):133-45.Abstract external link opens in a new window

45. Diwan S, Manchikanti L, Benyamin RM, et al. Effectiveness of cervical epidural injections in the management of chronic neck and upper extremity pain. Pain Physician. 2012 Jul-Aug;15(4):E405-34.Abstract external link opens in a new window

46. Burkus JK, Haid RW, Traynelis VC, et al. Long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of cervical disc replacement with the Prestige disc: results from a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Sep;13(3):308-18.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

47. Boselie TF, Willems PC, van Mameren H, et al. Arthroplasty versus fusion in single-level cervical degenerative disc disease: a Cochrane review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Aug 1;38(17):E1096-107.Abstract external link opens in a new window

48. van Middelkoop M, Rubinstein SM, Ostelo R, et al. Surgery versus conservative care for neck pain: a systematic review. Eur Spine J. 2013 Jan;22(1):87-95.Abstract external link opens in a new window

49. Persson LC, Lilja A. Pain, coping, emotional state and physical function in patients with chronic radicular neck pain. Disabil Rehabil. 2001 May 20;23(8):325-35.Abstract external link opens in a new window

50. Gao F, Mao T, Sun W, et al. An updated meta-analysis comparing artificial cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease (CDDD). Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Dec;40(23):1816-23.Abstract external link opens in a new window

51. Janssen ME, Zigler JE, Spivak JM, et al. ProDisc-C total disc replacement versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for single-level symptomatic cervical disc disease: seven-year follow-up of the prospective randomized US Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015 Nov 4;97(21):1738-47.Abstract external link opens in a new window

52. Shriver MF, Lubelski D, Sharma AM, et al. Adjacent segment degeneration and disease following cervical arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Spine J. 2016 Feb;16(2):168-81.Abstract external link opens in a new window

53. Fehlings MG, Wilson JR, Kopjar B, et al. Efficacy and safety of surgical decompression in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: results of the AOSpine North America prospective multi-center study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Sep 18;95(18):1651-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

54. Smith-Hammond CA, New K, Pietrobon R, et al. Prospective analysis of incidence and risk factors of dysphagia in spine surgery patients: comparison of anterior cervical, posterior cervical and lumbar procedures. Spine. 2004 Jul 1;29(13):1441-6.Abstract external link opens in a new window

55. Vaccaro A, Beutler W, Peppelman W, et al. Clinical outcomes with selectively constrained SECURE-C cervical disc arthroplasty: two-year results from a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter investigational device exemption study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Dec 15;38(26):2227-39.Abstract external link opens in a new window

56. Janssen ME, Zigler JE, Spivak JM, et al. ProDisc-C total disc replacement versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for single-level symptomatic cervical disc disease: Seven-year follow-up of the prospective randomized U.S. Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015 Nov 4;97(21):1738-47.Abstract external link opens in a new window

57. Radcliff K, Davis RJ, Hisey MS, et al. Long-term evaluation of cervical disc arthroplasty with the Mobi-C© cervical disc: A randomized, prospective, multicenter clinical trial with seven-year follow-up. Int J Spine Surg. 2017 Nov 28;11:31.Abstract external link opens in a new window

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer