Febrile seizure

References

Key articles

American Academy of Pediatrics: Subcommittee on Febrile Seizures. Clinical practice guideline: neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with a simple febrile seizure. Pediatrics. 2011 Feb;127(2):389-94.Full text  Abstract

American Academy of Pediatrics. Febrile seizures: clinical practice guideline for the long-term management of the child with simple febrile seizures. Pediatrics. 2008 Jun;121(6):1281-6.Full text  Abstract

Millichap JG, Millichap JJ. Role of viral infections in the etiology of febrile seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Sep;35(3):165-72. Abstract

Fetveit A. Assessment of febrile seizures in children. Eur J Pediatr. 2008 Jan;167(1):17-27. Abstract

Graves RC, Oehler K, Tingle LE. Febrile seizures: risks, evaluation, and prognosis. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Jan 15;85(2):149-53.Full text  Abstract

Capovilla G, Mastrangelo M, Romeo A, et al. Recommendations for the management of "febrile seizures": Ad Hoc Task Force of LICE Guidelines Commission. Epilepsia. 2009 Jan; 50(1 suppl):S2-6.Full text  Abstract

Natsume J, Hamano SI, Iyoda K, et al. New guidelines for management of febrile seizures in Japan. Brain Dev. 2017 Jan;39(1):2-9. Abstract

Nordli DR Jr. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005 Nov 18;46(9 suppl):48-56.Full text  Abstract

Wilmshurst JM, Gaillard WD, Vinayan KP, et al. Summary of recommendations for the management of infantile seizures: task force report for the ILAE Commission of Pediatrics. Epilepsia. 2015 Aug;56(8):1185-97.Full text  Abstract

Dunlop S, Taitz J. Retrospective review of the management of simple febrile convulsions at a tertiary paediatric institution. J Paediatr Child Health. 2005 Dec;41(12):647-51. Abstract

Kimia AA, Bachur RG, Torres A, et al. Febrile seizures: emergency medicine perspective. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015 Jun;27(3):292-7. Abstract

Rosenbloom E, Finkelstein Y, Adams-Webber T, et al. Do antipyretics prevent the recurrence of febrile seizures in children? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2013 Nov;17(6):585-8. Abstract

Offringa M, Newton R, Nevitt SJ, et al. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jun 16;(6):CD003031.Full text  Abstract

Baumann RJ, Duffner PK; American Academy of Pediatrics. Treatment of children with simple febrile seizures: the AAP practice parameter. Pediatr Neurol. 2000 Jul;23(1):11-7. Abstract

Whelan H, Harmelink M, Chou E, et al. Complex febrile seizures: a systematic review. Dis Mon. 2017 Jan;63(1):5-23.Full text  Abstract

Shinnar S, Glauser TA. Febrile seizures. J Child Neurol. 2002 Jan;17(1 suppl):S44-52. Abstract

Camfield P, Camfield C. Febrile seizures and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Epileptic Disord. 2015 Jun;17(2):124-33. Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Academy of Pediatrics: Subcommittee on Febrile Seizures. Clinical practice guideline: neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with a simple febrile seizure. Pediatrics. 2011 Feb;127(2):389-94.Full text  Abstract

2. American Academy of Pediatrics. Febrile seizures: clinical practice guideline for the long-term management of the child with simple febrile seizures. Pediatrics. 2008 Jun;121(6):1281-6.Full text  Abstract

3. Fisher RS, Cross JH, French JA, et al. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):522-30.Full text  Abstract

4. Patel N, Ram D, Swiderska N, et al. Febrile seizures. BMJ. 2015 Aug 18;351:h4240. Abstract

5. Hesdorffer DC, Benn EK, Bagiella E, et al: FEBSTAT Study Team. Distribution of febrile seizure duration and associations with development. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jul;70(1):93-100. Abstract

6. Waruiru C, Appleton R. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child. 2004 Aug;89(8):751-6.Full text  Abstract

7. Millichap JG, Madsen JA, Aledort LM. Studies in febrile seizures V: a clinical and electroencephalographic study in unselected patients. Neurology. 1960 Jul;10:643-53. Abstract

8. Shinnar S, Pellock JM, Berg AT, et al. Short-term outcomes of children with febrile status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 2001 Jan;42(1):47-53. Abstract

9. Shinnar S, Hesdorffer DC, Nordli DR Jr, et al; FEBSTAT Study Team. Phenomenology of prolonged febrile seizures: results of the FEBSTAT study. Neurology. 2008 Jul 15;71(3):170-6. Abstract

10. Chiu SS, Tse CY, Lau YL, et al. Influenza A infection is an important cause of febrile seizures. Pediatrics. 2001 Oct;108(4):E63.Full text  Abstract

11. Millichap JG, Millichap JJ. Role of viral infections in the etiology of febrile seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Sep;35(3):165-72. Abstract

12. Millichap JG. Febrile convulsions. New York, NY: Macmillan Company; 1968.

13. Reid CA, Hildebrand MS, Mullen SA, et al. Synaptic Zn2+ and febrile seizure susceptibility. Br J Pharmacol. 2017 Jan;174(2):119-25.Full text  Abstract

14. Shah SS, Alpern ER, Zwerling L, et al. Low risk of bacteremia in children with febrile seizures. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 May;156(5):469-72. Abstract

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21. Millichap JG. Studies in febrile seizures. I. Height of body temperature as a measure of the febrile seizure threshold. Pediatrics. 1959 Jan;23(1 Pt 1):76-85. Abstract

22. Berg AT, Shinnar S, Shapiro ED, et al. Risk factors for a first febrile seizure: a matched case-control study. Epilepsia. 1995 Apr;36(4):334-41. Abstract

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26. Mefford HC. Heating up: the genetics of febrile seizures. Sci Trans Med. 2014 Nov;6(263):263ec200.Full text

27. Kwon A, Kwak BO, Kim K, et al. Cytokine levels in febrile seizure patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Seizure. 2018 Jul;59:5-10. Abstract

28. Barlow WE, Davis RL, Glasser JW, et al. CDC and Prevention Vaccine Safety Datalink Working Group. The risk of seizures after receipt of whole-cell pertussis or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 30;345(9):656-61. Abstract

29. Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti A, Marchione P, et al. Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Nov 22;(11):CD004407.Full text  Abstract

30. Le Saux N, Barrowman NJ, Moore DL, et al. Decrease in hospital admissions for febrile seizures and reports of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes presenting to hospital emergency departments since switching to acellular pertussis vaccine in Canada: a report from IMPACT. Pediatrics. 2003 Nov;112(5):e348.Full text  Abstract

31. Klein NP, Fireman B, Yih WK, et al. Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella combination vaccine and the risk of febrile seizures. Pediatrics. 2010 Jul;126(1):e1-8. Abstract

32. Sun Y, Christensen J, Hviid A, et al. Risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type B. JAMA. 2012 Feb 22;307(8):823-31. Abstract

33. Rowhani-Rahbar A, Fireman B, Lewis E, et al. Effect of age on the risk of fever and seizures following immunization with measles-containing vaccines in children. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Dec;167(12):1111-7. Abstract

34. Vestergaard M, Wisborg K, Henriksen TB, et al. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures. Pediatrics. 2005 Nov;116(5):1089-94. Abstract

35. Daoud AS, Batieha A, Abu-Ekteish F, et al. Iron status: a possible risk factor for the first febrile seizure. Epilepsia. 2002 Jul;43(7):740-3. Abstract

36. Kwak BO, Kim K, Kim SN, et al. Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Seizure. 2017 Nov;52:27-34. Abstract

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39. Visser AM, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, et al. Fetal growth retardation and risk of febrile seizures. Pediatrics. 2010 Oct;126(4):e919-25. Abstract

40. Forsgren L, Sidenvall R, Blomquist HK, et al. Pre- and perinatal factors in febrile convulsions. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1991 Feb;80(2):218-25. Abstract

41. Millichap JJ, Millichap JG. Methods of investigation and management of infections causing febrile seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Dec;39(6):381-6. Abstract

42. Fetveit A. Assessment of febrile seizures in children. Eur J Pediatr. 2008 Jan;167(1):17-27. Abstract

43. Graves RC, Oehler K, Tingle LE. Febrile seizures: risks, evaluation, and prognosis. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Jan 15;85(2):149-53.Full text  Abstract

44. Najaf-Zadeh A, Dubos F, Hue V, et al. Risk of bacterial meningitis in young children with a first seizure in the context of fever: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e55270.Full text  Abstract

45. Guedj R, Chappuy H, Titomanlio L, et al. Do all children who present with a complex febrile seizure need a lumbar puncture? Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jul;70(1):52-62. Abstract

46. Joint Working Group of the Research Unit of the Royal College of Physicians and the British Paediatric Association. Guidelines for the management of convulsions with fever. BMJ. 1991 Sep 14;303(6803):634-6.Full text  Abstract

47. Shaked O, Peña BM, Linares MY, et al. Simple febrile seizures: are the AAP guidelines regarding lumbar puncture being followed? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009 Jan;25(1):8-11. Abstract

48. Kimia AA, Capraro AJ, Hummel D, et al. Utility of lumbar puncture for first simple febrile seizure among children 6 to 18 months of age. Pediatrics. 2009 Jan;123(1):6-12. Abstract

49. Chung S. Febrile seizures. Korean J Pediatr. 2014 Sep;57(9):384-95.Full text  Abstract

50. Oluwabusi T, Sood SK. Update on the management of simple febrile seizures: emphasis on minimal intervention. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012 Apr;24(2):259-65. Abstract

51. Mittal R. Recent advances in febrile seizures. Indian J Pediatr. 2014 Sep;81(9):909-16. Abstract

52. Nordli DR Jr, Moshe SL, Shinnar S, et al. Acute EEG findings in children with febrile status epilepticus: results of the FEBSTAT study. Neurology. 2012 Nov 27;79(22):2180-6. Abstract

53. Shah PB, James S, Elayaraja S. EEG for children with complex febrile seizures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Apr 9;(4):CD009196.Full text  Abstract

54. Lavi R, Yarnitsky D, Rowe JM, et al. Standard vs atraumatic Whitacre needle for diagnostic lumbar puncture: a randomized trial. Neurology. 2006 Oct 24;67(8):1492-4. Abstract

55. Arendt K, Demaerschalk BM, Wingerchuk DM, et al. Atraumatic lumbar puncture needles: after all these years, are we still missing the point? Neurologist. 2009 Jan;15(1):17-20. Abstract

56. Nath S, Koziarz A, Badhiwala JH, et al. Atraumatic versus conventional lumbar puncture needles: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Mar 24;391(10126):1197-204. Abstract

57. Rochwerg B, Almenawer SA, Siemieniuk RAC, et al. Atraumatic (pencil-point) versus conventional needles for lumbar puncture: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 May 22;361:k1920.Full text  Abstract

58. Ahmed SV, Jayawarna C, Jude E. Post lumbar puncture headache: diagnosis and management. Postgrad Med J. 2006 Nov;82(973):713-6.Full text  Abstract

59. Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Ciapponi A, Roqué i Figuls M, et al. Posture and fluids for preventing post-dural puncture headache. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 7;(3):CD009199.Full text  Abstract

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62. Natsume J, Hamano SI, Iyoda K, et al. New guidelines for management of febrile seizures in Japan. Brain Dev. 2017 Jan;39(1):2-9. Abstract

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78. Dunlop S, Taitz J. Retrospective review of the management of simple febrile convulsions at a tertiary paediatric institution. J Paediatr Child Health. 2005 Dec;41(12):647-51. Abstract

79. Kimia AA, Bachur RG, Torres A, et al. Febrile seizures: emergency medicine perspective. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015 Jun;27(3):292-7. Abstract

80. Warden CR, Zibulewsky J, Mace S, et al. Evaluation and management of febrile seizures in the out-of-hospital and emergency department settings. Ann Emerg Med. 2003 Feb;41(2):215-22. Abstract

81. Rosenbloom E, Finkelstein Y, Adams-Webber T, et al. Do antipyretics prevent the recurrence of febrile seizures in children? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2013 Nov;17(6):585-8. Abstract

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83. Offringa M, Newton R, Nevitt SJ, et al. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jun 16;(6):CD003031.Full text  Abstract

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87. Hirabayashi Y, Okumura A, Kondo T, et al. Efficacy of a diazepam suppository at preventing febrile seizure recurrence during a single febrile illness. Brain Dev. 2009 Jun;31(6):414-8. Abstract

88. Whelan H, Harmelink M, Chou E, et al. Complex febrile seizures: a systematic review. Dis Mon. 2017 Jan;63(1):5-23.Full text  Abstract

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96. Camfield P, Camfield C. Febrile seizures and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Epileptic Disord. 2015 Jun;17(2):124-33. Abstract

97. Rajadhyaksha S, Shah KN. Controversies in febrile seizures. Indian J Pediatr. 2000 Jan;67(1 suppl):S71-9. Abstract

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101. Hirtz D, Berg A, Bettis D, et al. Practice parameter: treatment of the child with a first unprovoked seizure. Neurology. 2003 Jan 28;60(2):166-75.Full text  Abstract

102. Wheless JW, Clarke DF, Arzimanoglou A, et al. Treatment of pediatric epilepsy: European expert opinion, 2007. Epileptic Disord. 2007 Dec;9(4):353-412.Full text  Abstract

103. Cross JH. Fever and fever-related epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2012 Sep;53(4 suppl):3-8.Full text  Abstract

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107. Knudsen FU. Febrile seizures: treatment and prognosis. Epilepsia. 2000 Jan;41(1):2-9. Abstract

108. Huang CC, Chang YC. The long-term effects of febrile seizures on the hippocampal neuronal plasticity - clinical and experimental evidence. Brain Dev. 2009 May;31(5):383-7. Abstract

109. Hesdorffer DC, Chan S, Tian H, et al. Are MRI-detected brain abnormalities associated with febrile seizure type? Epilepsia. 2008 May;49(5):765-71.Full text  Abstract

110. Auer T, Barsi P, Bone B, et al. History of simple febrile seizures is associated with hippocampal abnormalities in adults. Epilepsia. 2008 Sep;49(9):1562-9.Full text  Abstract

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112. Dreier JW, Pedersen CB, Cotsapas C, et al. Childhood seizures and risk of psychiatric disorders in adolescence and early adulthood: a Danish nationwide cohort study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2019 Feb;3(2):99-108.Full text  Abstract

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115. Pavlidou E, Panteliadis C. Prognostic factors for subsequent epilepsy in children with febrile seizures. Epilepsia. 2013 Dec;54(12):2101-7. Abstract

116. Sapir D, Leitner Y, Harel S, et al. Unprovoked seizures after complex febrile seizures. Brain Dev. 2000 Dec;22(8):484-6. Abstract

117. Okumura A, Ishiguro Y, Sofue A, et al. Treatment and outcome in patients with febrile convulsion associated with epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography. Brain Dev. 2004 Jun;26(4):241-4. Abstract

118. Cendes F. Febrile seizures and mesial temporal sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2004 Apr;17(2):161-4. Abstract

119. Chang YC, Huang CC, Huang SC. Long-term neuroplasticity effects of febrile seizures in the developing brain. Chang Gung Med J. 2008 Mar-Apr;31(2):125-35. Abstract

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122. Bender RA, Dubé C, Baram TZ. Febrile seizures and mechanisms of epileptogenesis: insights from an animal model. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2004;548:213-25.Full text  Abstract

123. Leaffer EB, Hinton VJ, Hesdorffer DC. Longitudinal assessment of skill development in children with first febrile seizure. Epilepsy Behav. 2013 Jul;28(1):83-7.Full text  Abstract

124. Martinos MM, Yoong M, Patil S, et al. Recognition memory is impaired in children after prolonged febrile seizures. Brain. 2012 Oct;135(Pt 10):3153-64.Full text  Abstract

125. Hawksworth DL. Simple febrile convulsions: evidence for best practice. J Child Health Care. 2000 Winter;4(4):149-53. Abstract

126. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Childhood vaccines and febrile seizures. Jan 2020 [internet publication].Full text

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