Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (episodic mouth ulcers)


Key articles

Scully C. Clinical practice. Aphthous ulceration. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 13;355(2):165-72. Abstract

Scully C, Gorsky M, Lozada-Nur F. The diagnosis and management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a consensus approach. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003 Feb;134(2):200-7. Abstract

Brocklehurst P, Tickle M, Glenny AM, et al. Systemic interventions for recurrent aphthous stomatitis (mouth ulcers). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD005411.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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27. Hietanen J, Häyrinen-Immonen R, Al-Samadi A, et al. Recurrent aphthous ulcers - a Toll-like receptor-mediated disease? J Oral Pathol Med. 2012 Feb;41(2):158-64. Abstract

28. Gallo Cde B, Mimura MA, Sugaya NN. Psychological stress and recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(7):645-8.Full text  Abstract

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33. Femiano F, Lanza A, Buonaiuto C, et al. Oral aphthous-like lesions, PFAPA syndrome: a review. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008 Jul;37(6):319-23. Abstract

34. Scully C, Hodgson T. Recurrent oral ulceration: aphthous-like ulcers in periodic syndromes. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008 Dec;106(6):845-52. Abstract

35. Rehberger A, Puspok A, Stallmeister T, et al. Crohn's disease masquerading as aphthous ulcers. Eur J Dermatol. 1998 Jun;8(4):274-6. Abstract

36. Shotts RH, Scully C, Avery CM, et al. Nicorandil-induced severe oral ulceration:a newly recognized drug reaction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1999 Jun;87(6):706-7. Abstract

37. Lopez-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, Martos N. Hematological study of patients with aphthous stomatitis. Int J Dermatol. 2014 Feb;53(2):159-63. Abstract

38. Campisi G, Di Liberto C, Carroccio A, et al. Coeliac disease: oral ulcer prevalence, assessment of risk and association with gluten-free diet in children. Dig Liver Dis. 2008 Feb;40(2):104-7. Abstract

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41. Femiano F, Gombos F, Scully C. Sweet's syndrome: recurrent oral ulceration, pyrexia, thrombophlebitis, and cutaneous lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003 Mar;95(3):324-7. Abstract

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44. Tarakji B, Gazal G, Al-Maweri SA, et al. Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis for dental practitioners. J Int Oral Health. 2015 May;7(5):74-80.Full text  Abstract

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47. Gulcan E, Toker S, Hatipoğlu H, et al. Cyanocobalamin may be beneficial in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers even when vitamin B12 levels are normal. Am J Med Sci. 2008 Nov;336(5):379-82. Abstract

48. Liu HL, Chiu S, Chen KH. Effectiveness of vitamin B12 on recurrent aphthous stomatitis in long term care: a systematic review. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2013 Feb;11(2):281-307.Full text

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50. Liu C, Zhou Z, Liu G, et al. Efficacy and safety of dexamethasone ointment on recurrent aphthous ulceration. Am J Med. 2012 Mar;125(3):292-301. Abstract

51. Addy M, Tapper-Jones L, Seal M. Trial of astringent and antibacterial mouthwashes in the management of recurrent aphthous ulceration. Br Dent J. 1974 Jun 4;136(11):452-5. Abstract

52. Addy M, Carpenter R, Roberts WR. Management of recurrent aphthous ulceration: a trial of chlorhexidine gluconate gel. Br Dent J. 1976 Aug 17;141(4):118-20. Abstract

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55. Graykowski EA, Kingman A. Double-blind trial of tetracycline in recurrent aphthous ulceration. J Oral Pathol. 1978;7(6):376-82. Abstract

56. Häyrinen-Immonen R, Sorsa T, Pettila J, et al. Effect of tetracyclines on collagenase activity in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers. J Oral Pathol Med. 1994 Jul;23(6):269-72. Abstract

57. Vennila V, Madhu V, Rajesh R, et al. Tetracycline-induced discoloration of deciduous teeth: case series. J Int Oral Health. 2014 Jun;6(3):115-9.Full text  Abstract

58. Brocklehurst P, Tickle M, Glenny AM, et al. Systemic interventions for recurrent aphthous stomatitis (mouth ulcers). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD005411.Full text  Abstract

59. Hello M, Barbarot S, Bastuji-Garin S, et al. Use of thalidomide for severe recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a multicenter cohort analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2010 May;89(3):176-82.Full text  Abstract

60. Toader MP, Esanu IM, Taranu T, et al. Colchicine in the treatment of refractory aphthous ulcerations: review of the literature and two case reports. Exp Ther Med. 2021 Mar;21(3):281.Full text  Abstract

61. Taylor J, Glenny AM, Walsh T, et al. Interventions for managing oral ulcers in Behçet's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Sep 25;(9):CD011018.Full text  Abstract

62. Revuz J, Guillaume JC, Janier M, et al. Crossover study of thalidomide vs placebo in severe recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Arch Dermatol. 1990 Jul;126(7):923-7. Abstract

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65. Matthews RW, Scully CM, Levers BG, et al. Clinical evaluation of benzydamine, chlorhexidine, and placebo mouthwashes in the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987 Feb;63(2):189-91. Abstract

66. O'Neill ID, Scully C. Biologics in oral medicine: principles of use and practical considerations. Oral Dis. 2012 Sep;18(6):525-36.Full text  Abstract

67. O'Neill ID, Scully C. Biologics in oral medicine: ulcerative disorders. Oral Dis. 2013 Jan;19(1):37-45. Abstract

68. Robinson ND, Guitart J. Recalcitrant, recurrent aphthous stomatitis treated with etanercept. Arch Dermatol. 2003 Oct;139(10):1259-62.Full text  Abstract

69. Vujevich J, Zirwas M. Treatment of severe, recalcitrant, major aphthous stomatitis with adalimumab. Cutis. 2005 Aug;76(2):129-32. Abstract

70. O'Neill ID. Off-label use of biologicals in the management of inflammatory oral mucosal disease. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008 Nov;37(10):575-81. Abstract

71. Leao JC, Duarte A, Gueiros LA, et al. Severe oral epithelial dysplasia in a patient receiving adalimumab therapy. J Oral Pathol Med. 2005 Aug;34(7):447-8. Abstract

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73. Lalla RV, Choquette LE, Feinn RS, et al. Multivitamin therapy for recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Dent Assoc. 2012 Apr;143(4):370-6.Full text  Abstract

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