Anal fissure

References

Key articles

Schouten WR, Briel JW, Auwerda JJ, et al. Ischaemic nature of anal fissure. Br J Surg. 1996;83:63-65. Abstract

Cross KL, Massey EJ, Fowler AL, et al; ACPGBI. The management of anal fissure: ACPGBI position statement. Colorectal Dis. 2008;10(suppl 3):1-7. Abstract

Lund JN, Scholefield JH. A randomised, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of glyceryl trinitrate ointment in treatment of anal fissure. Lancet. 1997;349:11-14. Abstract

Lund JN, Nystrom PO, Coremans G, et al. An evidence-based treatment algorithm for anal fissure. Tech Coloproctol. 2006 Oct;10(3):177-80. Abstract

American Gastroenterological Association. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: diagnosis and care of patients with anal fissure. Gastroenterology. 2003 Jan;124(1):233-4.Full text  Abstract

Altomare DF, Binda GA, Canuti S, et al. The management of patients with primary chronic anal fissure: a position paper. Tech Coloproctol. 2011 Jun;15(2):135-41.Full text  Abstract

Casillas S, Hull TL, Zutshi M, et al. Incontinence after a lateral internal sphincterotomy: are we underestimating it? Dis Colon Rectum. 2005 Jun;48(6):1193-9. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Ayatunde AA, Debrah SA. Current concepts in anal fissures. World J Surgery. 2006;30:2246-60. Abstract

2. Lund JN, Scholefield JH. Aetiology and treatment of anal fissure. Br J Surg. 1996;83:1335-1344. Abstract

3. Collins EE, Lund JN. A review of chronic anal fissure management. Tech Coloproctol. 2007 Sep;11(3):209-23. Abstract

4. Simpson J, Lund JN, Thompson RJ, et al. The use of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in the treatment of chronic anal fissure in children. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9:PI123-PI126. Abstract

5. Schouten WR, Briel JW, Auwerda JJ, et al. Ischaemic nature of anal fissure. Br J Surg. 1996;83:63-65. Abstract

6. Lund JN. Nitric oxide deficiency in the internal anal sphincter of patients with chronic anal fissure. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006;21:673-675. Abstract

7. Cross KL, Massey EJ, Fowler AL, et al; ACPGBI. The management of anal fissure: ACPGBI position statement. Colorectal Dis. 2008;10(suppl 3):1-7. Abstract

8. Klosterhalfen B, Vogel P, Rixen H, et al. Topography of the inferior rectal artery: a possible cause of chronic, primary anal fissure. Dis Colon Rectum. 1989;32:43-52. Abstract

9. Lund JN, Binch C, McGrath J, et al. Topographical distribution of blood supply to the anal canal. Br J Surg. 1999;86:496-498. Abstract

10. Lund JN, Scholefield JH. A randomised, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of glyceryl trinitrate ointment in treatment of anal fissure. Lancet. 1997;349:11-14. Abstract

11. Nelson RL, Thomas K, Morgan J, et al. Non surgical therapy for anal fissure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(2):CD003431.Full text  Abstract

12. Jensen SL. Diet and other risk factors for fissure-in-ano. Prospective case control study. Dis Colon Rectum. 1988;31:770-773. Abstract

13. Lock MR, Thompson JPS. Fissure-in-ano: the initial management and prognosis. Br J Surg. 1977;64:355-358. Abstract

14. Lund JN, Nystrom PO, Coremans G, et al. An evidence-based treatment algorithm for anal fissure. Tech Coloproctol. 2006 Oct;10(3):177-80. Abstract

15. Gough MJ, Lewis A. The conservative treatment of fissure-in-ano. Br J Surg. 1983;70:175-176. Abstract

16. American Gastroenterological Association. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement: diagnosis and care of patients with anal fissure. Gastroenterology. 2003 Jan;124(1):233-4.Full text  Abstract

17. Stewart DB Sr, Gaertner W, Glasgow S, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of anal fissures. Dis Colon Rectum. 2017 Jan;60(1):7-14.Full text  Abstract

18. Altomare DF, Binda GA, Canuti S, et al. The management of patients with primary chronic anal fissure: a position paper. Tech Coloproctol. 2011 Jun;15(2):135-41.Full text  Abstract

19. Nasr M, Ezzat H, Elsebae M. Botulinum toxin injection versus lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a randomized controlled trial. World J Surg. 2010 Nov;34(11):2730-4. Abstract

20. Lewis TH, Corman ML, Prager ED, et al. Long term results of open and closed sphincterotomy for anal fissure. Dic Colon Rectum. 1988 May;31(5):368-71. Abstract

21. Jonas M, Scholefield JH. Anal fissure. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2001 Mar;30(1):167-81. Abstract

22. Christie A, Guest JF. Modelling the economic impact of managing a chronic anal fissure with a proprietary formulation of nitroglycerin (Rectogesic) compared to lateral internal sphincterotomy in the United Kingdom. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2002 Jul;17(4):259-67. Abstract

23. Shao WJ, Li GC, Zhang ZK. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing botulinum toxin injection with lateral internal sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009 Sep;24(9):995-1000. Abstract

24. Schmidt-Lauber M. Blind, randomized clinical study on botulinum toxin in comparison with isosorbide dinitrate ointment for the treatment of anal fissures. Coloproctology. 2010;32:191-2.

25. Nelson RL, Chattopadhyay A, Brooks W, et al. Operative procedures for fissure in ano. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(11):CD002199.Full text  Abstract

26. Casillas S, Hull TL, Zutshi M, et al. Incontinence after a lateral internal sphincterotomy: are we underestimating it? Dis Colon Rectum. 2005 Jun;48(6):1193-9. Abstract

27. Torrabadella L, Salgado G, Burns RW, et al. Manometric study of topical sildenafil (Viagra) in patients with chronic anal fissure: sildenafil reduces anal resting tone. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:733-738. Abstract

28. Alvandipour M, Ala S, Khalvati M, et al. Topical minoxidil versus topical diltiazem for chemical sphincterotomy of chronic anal fissure: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. World J Surg. 2018 Jul;42(7):2252-8.Full text  Abstract

29. Youssef T, Youssef M, Thabet W, et al. Randomized clinical trial of transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation versus lateral internal sphincterotomy for treatment of chronic anal fissure. Int J Surg. 2015;22:143-148. Abstract

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