High altitude related illness

References

Key articles

Roach RC, Bärtsch P, Oelz O, et al; Lake Louise Consensus Committee. The Lake Louise acute mountain sickness scoring system. In: Sutton JR, Houston CS, Coates G, eds. Hypoxia and molecular medicine. Burlington, VT: Charles S. Houston, 1993:272-274.

Luks AM, McIntosh SE, Grissom CK, et al. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness: 2014 update. Wilderness Environ Med. 2014 Dec;25(4 Suppl):S4-14.Full text  Abstract

Donegani E, Paal P, Küpper T, et al. Drug use and misuse in the mountains: a UIAA MedCom consensus guide for medical professionals. High Alt Med Biol. 2016 Sep;17(3):157-184.Full text  Abstract

Ritchie ND, Baggott AV, Andrew Todd WT. Acetazolamide for the prevention of acute mountain sickness - a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Travel Med. 2012 Sep-Oct;19(5):298-307.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Roach RC, Bärtsch P, Oelz O, et al; Lake Louise Consensus Committee. The Lake Louise acute mountain sickness scoring system. In: Sutton JR, Houston CS, Coates G, eds. Hypoxia and molecular medicine. Burlington, VT: Charles S. Houston, 1993:272-274.

2. Wright AD, Brearley SP, Imray CH. High hopes at high altitudes: pharmacotherapy for acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral and pulmonary oedema. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008 Jan;9(1):119-27. Abstract

3. Hultgren H. High altitude medicine. Stamford, CT: Hultgren Publications; 2001.

4. Honigman B, Theis MK, Koziol-McLain J, et al. Acute mountain sickness in a general tourist population at moderate altitudes. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Apr 15;118(8):587-92. Abstract

5. Hackett PH, Roach RC. High altitude illness. New Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 12;345(2):107-14. Abstract

6. Maggiorini M, Bärtsch P, Walter M, et al. Prevalence of acute mountain sickness in the Swiss Alps. BMJ. 1990 Oct 13;301(6756):853-5.Full text  Abstract

7. Vardy J, Vardy J, Judge K, et al. Acute mountain sickness and ascent rate in trekkers above 2500m in the Nepali Himalaya. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006 Jul;77(7):742-4. Abstract

8. Murdoch DR. Altitude illness among tourists flying to 3740 meters elevation in the Nepal Himalayas. J Trav Med. 1995 Dec 1;2(4):255-256.Full text  Abstract

9. Purkayastha SS, Ray US, Arora BS, et al. Acclimatization at high altitude in gradual and acute induction. J Appl Physiol. 1995 Aug;79(2):487-92. Abstract

10. Basnyat B, Subedi D, Sleggs J, et al. Disoriented and ataxic pilgrims: an epidemiological study of acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral edema at a sacred lake at 4300m in the Nepal Himalayas. Wilderness Environ Med. 2000 Summer;11(2):89-93. Abstract

11. Gabry AL, Ledoux X, Mozziconacci M, et al. High altitude pulmonary edema at moderate altitude (<2,400m; 7,870 feet): a series of 52 patients. Chest. 2003 Jan;123(1):49-53. Abstract

12. Hackett PH, Roach RC. High altitude cerebral oedema. High Alt Med Biol. 2004 Summer;5(2):136-46. Abstract

13. Wilson MH, Newman S, Imray CH. The cerebral effects of ascent to high altitudes. Lancet Neurol. 2009 Feb;8(2):175-91. Abstract

14. Sanchez del Rio M, Moskowitz MA. High altitude headache: lessons from headaches at sea level. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;474:145-53. Abstract

15. Bärtsch P, Bailey DM, Berger MM, Knauth M, et al. Acute mountain sickness: controversies and advances. High Alt Med Biol. 2004 Summer;5(2):110-24. Abstract

16. Bärtsch P, Roach RC. Acute mountain sickness. In: Hornbein TF, Schoene RB, eds. High altitude: an exploration of human adaptation, vol 161. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2001:731-776.

17. Jensen JB, Wright AD, Lassen NA, et al. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness. J Appl Physiol. 1990 Aug;69(2):430-3. Abstract

18. Schoene RB. Unraveling the mechanism of high altitude pulmonary edema. High Alt Med Biol. 2004 Summer;5(2):125-35. Abstract

19. Maggiorini M. High altitude-induced pulmonary edema. Cardiovasc Res. 2006 Oct 1;72(1):41-50. Abstract

20. Dehnert C, Risse F, Ley S, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of uneven pulmonary perfusion in hypoxia in humans. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2006 Nov 15;174(10):1132-8. Abstract

21. Hackett PH, Yarnell PR, Hill R, et al. High altitude cerebral edema evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. JAMA. 1998 Dec 9;280(22):1920-5. Abstract

22. Sartori C, Lepori M, Maggiorini M, et al. Impairment of amiloride-sensitive sodium transport in individuals susceptible to HAPE. In: Roach RC, Wagner P, Hackett PH, eds. Hypoxia into the next millennium. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum; 1999:426.

23. Sartori C, Allemann Y, Duplain H, et al. Salmeterol for the prevention of high altitude pulmonary edema. New Engl J Med. 2002 May 23;346(21):1631-6. Abstract

24. Hackett PH, Rennie D. The incidence, importance and prophylaxis of acute mountain sickness. Lancet. 1976 Nov 27;2(7996):1149-55. Abstract

25. Singh I, Kapila C, Khanna P, et al. High altitude pulmonary edema. Lancet. 1965 Jan 30;1(7379):229-34. Abstract

26. Burtscher M, Brandstätter E, Gatterer H. Preacclimatization in simulated altitudes. Sleep Breath. 2008 May;12(2):109-14. Abstract

27. Richalet J-P, Keromes A, Dersch B, et al. Caracteristiques physiologiques des alpinistes de haute altitude. Sci Sports. 1988;3:89-108.

28. Luks AM, McIntosh SE, Grissom CK, et al. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness: 2014 update. Wilderness Environ Med. 2014 Dec;25(4 Suppl):S4-14.Full text  Abstract

29. Schneider M, Bernasch D, Weymann J, et al. Acute mountain sickness: influence of susceptibility, pre-exposure and ascent rate. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Dec;34(12):1886-91. Abstract

30. Ziaee V, Yunesian M, Ahmadinejad Z, et al. Acute mountain sickness in Iranian trekkers around Mt Damavand in Iran. Wilderness Environ Med. 2003 Winter;14(4):214-9. Abstract

31. Graham J, Potyk D. Age and acute mountain sickness - examining the data. JAGS. 2005 Apr;53(4):735. Abstract

32. Vearrier D, Greenberg MI. Occupational health of miners at altitude: adverse health effects, toxic exposures, pre-placement screening, acclimatization, and worker surveillance. Clin Toxicol (PA). 2011 Aug;49(7):629-40. Abstract

33. Roach RC, Maes D, Sandoval D, et al. Exercise exacerbates acute mountain sickness at simulated altitude. J Appl Physiol. 2000 Feb;88(2):581-5.Full text  Abstract

34. Gaillard S, Dellasanta P, Lautan L, et al. Awareness, prevalence, medication use and risk factors of acute mountain sickness in tourists trekking around the Annapurna in Nepal: a 12 year follow-up. High Alt Med Biol. 2004 Winter;5(4):410-9. Abstract

35. Basnyat B, Gertsch JH, Holck PS, et al. Acetazolamide 125mg BD is not significantly different from 37mg BD in the prevention of acute mountain sickness: the prophylactic acetazolamide dosage comparison for efficacy (PACE) TRIAL. High Alt Med Biol Spr. 2006;7:17-27. Abstract

36. Dumont L, Mardirosoff C, Tramèr MR. Efficacy and harm of pharmacological prevention of acute mountain sickness: quantitative systematic review. BMJ. 2000;321:267-272.Full text  Abstract

37. Williamson J, Oakeshott P, Dallimore J. Altitude sickness and acetazolamide. BMJ. 2018 May 31;361:k2153.Full text  Abstract

38. Donegani E, Paal P, Küpper T, et al. Drug use and misuse in the mountains: a UIAA MedCom consensus guide for medical professionals. High Alt Med Biol. 2016 Sep;17(3):157-184.Full text  Abstract

39. Nieto Estrada VH, Molano Franco D, Medina RD, et al. Interventions for preventing high altitude illness: Part 1. Commonly-used classes of drugs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jun 27;6:CD009761.Full text  Abstract

40. Gonzalez Garay A, Molano Franco D, Nieto Estrada VH, et al. Interventions for preventing high altitude illness: Part 2. Less commonly-used drugs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 12;3:CD012983.Full text  Abstract

41. Molano Franco D, Nieto Estrada VH, Gonzalez Garay AG, et al. Interventions for preventing high altitude illness: Part 3. Miscellaneous and non-pharmacological interventions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Apr 23;4:CD013315.Full text  Abstract

42. Tsai TY, Wang SH, Lee YK, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract for prevention of acute mountain sickness: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 17;8(8):e022005.Full text  Abstract

43. Bärtsch P, Maggiorini M, Ritter M, et al. Prevention of high-altitude pulmonary edema by nifedipine. N Engl J Med. 1991 Oct 31;325(18):1284-9.Full text  Abstract

44. Yaron M, Niermeyer S. Travel to high altitude with young children: an approach for clinicians. High Alt Med Biol. 2008 Winter;9(4):265-9.Full text  Abstract

45. Maggiorini M, Bärtsch P, Oelz O.Association between raised body temperature and acute mountain sickness: cross sectional study. BMJ. 1997 Aug 16;315(7105):403-4.Full text  Abstract

46. Bärtsch P, Shaw S, Franciolli M, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide in acute mountain sickness. J Appl Physiol. 1988 Nov;65(5):1929-37. Abstract

47. Bircher HP, Eichenberger U, Maggiorini M, et al. Relationship of mountain sickness to physical fitness and exercise intensity during ascent. J Wilderness Med. 1994;5:302-311.

48. Roach RC, Greene ER, Schoene RB, et al. Arterial oxygen saturation for prediction of acute mountain sickness. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1998 Dec;69(12):1182-5. Abstract

49. Schoene RB, Swenson ER, Hultgren HN. High altitude pulmonary edema. In: Hornbein TF, Schoene RB, eds. High altitude: an exploration of human adaptation. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2001:777-814.

50. Menon ND. High altitude pulmonary edema: a clinical study. New Engl J Med. 1965 Jul 8;273:66-73. Abstract

51. Ward MP, Milledge JS, West JB. High altitude medicine and physiology. 3rd ed. London: Arnold; 2000.

52. Vock P, Fretz C, Franciolli M, et al. High altitude pulmonary edema; findings at high altitude chest radiography and physical examination. Radiology. 1989 Mar;170(3 Pt 1):661-6. Abstract

53. Fagenholz PJ, Gutman JA, Murray AF, et al. Treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema at 4240 m in Nepal. High Alt Med Biol. 2007 Summer;8(2):139-46. Abstract

54. Marticorena E, Tapia FA, Dyer J, et al. Pulmonary edema by ascending to high altitudes. Dis Chest. 1964 Mar;45:273-83. Abstract

55. Houston CS. Acute pulmonary edema of high altitude. New Engl J Med. 1960 Sep 8;263:478-80. Abstract

56. Fagenholz PJ, Gutman JA, Murray AF, et al. Chest ultrasonography for the diagnosis and monitoring of high altitude pulmonary edema. Chest. 2007 Apr;131(4):1013-8. Abstract

57. Allemann Y, Hutter D, Lipp E, et al. Patent foramen ovale and high altitude pulmonary edema. JAMA. 2006 Dec 27;296(24):2954-8.Full text  Abstract

58. Houston CS, Dickinson J. Cerebral form of high altitude illness. Lancet. 1975 Oct 18;2(7938):758-61. Abstract

59. Windsor JS, Rodway GW. Supplemental oxygen and sleep at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 2006;7:307-311. Abstract

60. Hultgren H, Honigman B, Theis K, et al. High altitude pulmonary edema in a ski resort. West J Med. 1996;164:222-227. Abstract

61. Cogo A, Fischer R, Schoene R. Respiratory disease and high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 2004 Winter;5(4):435-44. Abstract

62. Faulhaber M, Flatz M, Gatterer, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among alpine skiers and hikers in the Austrian Alps. High Alt Med Biol. 2007 Fall;8(3):245-52. Abstract

63. Lipman GS. Carbon monoxide toxicity at high altitude. Wilderness Environ Med. 2006 Summer;17(2):144-5. Abstract

64. Ahmad H. Diabetic ketoacidosis in an undiagnosed diabetic precipitated by high altitude pulmonary edema. High Alt Med Biol. 2006 Spring;7(1):84-6. Abstract

65. Speedy DB, Noakes TD, Rogers IR, et al. Hyponatraemia in ultradistance triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Jun;31(6):809-15. Abstract

66. Schmidt W, Rojas J, Boning D, et al. Plasma electrolytes in natives to hypoxia after marathon races at different altitudes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Oct;31(10):1406-13. Abstract

67. Baumgartner RW, Siegel AM, Hackett PH. Going high with preexisting neurological conditions. High Alt Med Biol. 2007 Summer;8(2):108-16. Abstract

68. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC health information for international travel (yellow book): the pretravel consultation - altitude illness. June 2017. [internet publication].Full text

69. Barry PW, Pollard AJ. Altitude illness. BMJ. 2003 Apr 26;326(7395):915-9.Full text  Abstract

70. Rock PB, Johnson TS, Larsen RF, et al. Dexamethasone as prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness. Effects of dose level. Chest. 1989 Mar;95(3):568-73. Abstract

71. Subedi BH, Pokharel J, Goodman TL, et al. Complications of steroid use on Mt. Everest. Wilderness Environ Med. 2010 Dec;21(4):345-8. Abstract

72. Low EV, Avery AJ, Gupta V, et al. Identifying the lowest effective dose of acetazolamide for the prophylaxis of acute mountain sickness: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012 Oct 18;345:e6779.Full text  Abstract

73. Ritchie ND, Baggott AV, Andrew Todd WT. Acetazolamide for the prevention of acute mountain sickness - a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Travel Med. 2012 Sep-Oct;19(5):298-307.Full text  Abstract

74. Seupaul RA, Welch JL, Malka ST, et al. Pharmacologic prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness: a systematic shortcut review. Ann Emerg Med. 2012 Apr;59(4):307-317. Abstract

75. Ferrazzini G, Maggiorini M, Kriemler S, et al. Successful treatment of acute mountain sickness with dexamethasone. BMJ. 1987 May 30;294(6584):1380-2.Full text  Abstract

76. Wu TY, Ding SQ, Liu JL, et al. High-altitude gastrointestinal bleeding: an observation in Qinghai-Tibetan railroad construction workers on Mountain Tanggula. World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Feb 7;13(5):774-80. Abstract

77. Burtscher M, Likar R, Nachbauer W, et al. Aspirin for prophylaxis against headache at high altitudes: randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 1998 Apr 4;316(7137):1057-8.Full text  Abstract

78. Simancas-Racines D, Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Osorio D, et al. Interventions for treating acute high altitude illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jun 30;6:CD009567.Full text  Abstract

79. Grissom CK, Roach RC, Samquist FH, et al. Acetazolamide in the treatment of acute mountain sickness: clinical efficacy and effect on gas exchange. Ann Intern Med. 1992 Mar 15;116(6):461-5. Abstract

80. Wright AD, Winterborn MH, Forster PJ, et al. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition in the immediate therapy of acute mountain sickness. J Wilderness Med. 1994;5:49-55.

81. Dumont L, Mardirosoff C, Tramèr MR. Efficacy and harm of pharmacological prevention of acute mountain sickness: quantitative systematic review. BMJ. Jul 29;321(7256):267-72.Full text  Abstract

82. Nerin MA, Palop J, Montano JA, et al. Acute mountain sickness: influence of fluid intake. Wilderness Environ Med. 2006 Winter;17(4):215-20. Abstract

83. Basnyat B, Gertsch JH, Holck PS, et al. Acetazolamide 125mg BD is not significantly different from 37mg BD in the prevention of acute mountain sickness: the prophylactic acetazolamide dosage comparison for efficacy (PACE) TRIAL. High Alt Med Biol Spr. 2006 Spring;7(1):17-27. Abstract

84. Keller HR, Maggiorini M, Bärtsch P, et al. Simulated descent vs dexamethasone in treatment of AMS - a randomized trial. BMJ. 1995 May 13;310(6989):1232-5.Full text  Abstract

85. Weil JV. Sleep at altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 2004 Summer;5(2):180-9. Abstract

86. Beaumont M, Goldenberg F, Lejeune D, et al. Effect of zolpidem on sleep an ventilatory patterns at simulated altitude of 4000m. Am J Crit Care Med. 1996 Jun;153(6 Pt 1):1864-9. Abstract

87. Dubowitz G. Effect of temazepam on oxygen saturation and sleep quality at high altitude: randomized placebo controlled crossover trial. BMJ. 1998 Feb 21;316(7131):587-9.Full text  Abstract

88. Rodway GW, Windsor JS, Hart ND, Caudwell Xtreme Everest Research Group. Supplemental oxygen and hyperbaric treatment at high altitude: cardiac and respiratory response. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007 Jun;78(6):613-7. Abstract

89. Oelz O, Maggiorini M, Ritter M, et al. Nifedipine for high altitude pulmonary edema. Lancet. 1989 Nov 25;2(8674):1241-4. Abstract

90. Ghofrani HA, Reichenberger F, Kohstall MG. Sildenafil increased exercise capacity during hypoxia at low altitudes and at Mount Everest base camp: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Aug 3;141(3):169-77. Abstract

91. Richalet JP, Gratadour P, Robach P, et al. Sildenafil inhibits altitude-induced hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension. Am J Resp Crit Care. 2005 Feb 1;171(3):275-81.Full text  Abstract

92. Maggiorini M, Brunner-La Rocca HP, Peth S, et al. Both tadalafil and dexamethasone may reduce the incidence of high altitude pulmonary edema. Ann Int Med. 2006 Oct 3;145(7):497-506. Abstract

93. van Patot MC, Keyes LE, Leadbetter G 3rd, et al. Ginkgo biloba for prevention of acute mountain sickness: does it work? High Alt Med Biol. 2009 Spring;10(1):33-43. Abstract

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