HIV infection

References

Key articles

World Health Organization. Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Sep 2015 [internet publication].Full text

US Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in adults and adolescents living with HIV. Jan 2022 [internet publication].Full text

World Health Organization. WHO case definitions of HIV for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV-related disease in adults and children. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2007 [internet publication].Full text

World Health Organization. Update of recommendations on first- and second-line antiretroviral regimens. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV infection: detection, counseling, and referral. In: Workowski KA, Bolan GA (eds). Sexually transmitted treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR. 2015 5 June;(64):21-5.Full text

2. World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS: online QA. Nov 2017 [internet publication].Full text

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4. Wilson D, Naidoo S, Bekker LG, et al. Handbook of HIV medicine. South Africa: Oxford University Press; 2002.

5. Robertson DL, Anderson JP, Bradac JL, et al. HIV-1 nomenclature proposal. Science. 2000 Apr 7;288(5463):55-6. Abstract

6. Hemelaar J, Elangovan R, Yun J, et al. Global and regional molecular epidemiology of HIV-1, 1990-2015: a systematic review, global survey, and trend analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Nov 30. pii: S1473-3099(18)30647-9. Abstract

7. Yamaguchi J, McArthur C, Vallari A, et al. Complete genome sequence of CG-0018a-01 establishes HIV-1 subtype L. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2020 Mar 1;83(3):319-22. Abstract

8. Wymant C, Bezemer D, Blanquart F, et al. A highly virulent variant of HIV-1 circulating in the Netherlands. Science. 2022 Feb 4;375(6580):540-5.Full text  Abstract

9. Gottlieb GS, Raugi DN, Smith RA. 90-90-90 for HIV-2? Ending the HIV-2 epidemic by enhancing care and clinical management of patients infected with HIV-2. Lancet HIV. 2018 Jul;5(7):e390-9. Abstract

10. Fidler S, Fox J. Primary HIV infection: a medical and public health emergency requiring rapid specialist management. Clin Med (Lond). 2016 Apr;16(2):180-3.Full text  Abstract

11. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. UNAIDS data 2021. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

12. GBD 2017 HIV collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2017, and forecasts to 2030, for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017. Lancet HIV. 2019 Dec;6(12):e831-9.Full text  Abstract

13. Li Z, Purcell DW, Sansom SL, et al. Vital signs: HIV transmission along the continuum of care - United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Mar 22;68(11):267-72.Full text  Abstract

14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Estimated annual number of HIV infections - United States, 1981-2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jun 4:70(22);801-6.Full text

15. Dailey AF, Gant Z, Hu X, et al. Association between social vulnerability and rates of HIV diagnoses among black adults, by selected characteristics and region of residence - United States, 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:167-70.Full text  Abstract

16. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe. HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe 2021 – 2020 data. Stockholm: ECDC; 2021.Full text

17. Martin V, Shah A, Mackay N, et al. HIV testing, new HIV diagnoses, outcomes and quality of care for people accessing HIV services: 2021 report. The annual official statistics data release (data to end of December 2020). Dec 2021, UK Health Security Agency, London.Full text

18. Nyamweya S, Hegedus A, Jaye A, et al. Comparing HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection: lessons for viral immunopathogenesis. Rev Med Virol. 2013 Jul;23(4):221-40. Abstract

19. Pope M, Hause AT. Transmission, acute HIV-1 infection and the quest to prevent infection. Nat Med. 2003 Jul;9(7):847-52. Abstract

20. Gupta R, Hill A, Sawyer AW, et al. Emergence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected patients after receipt of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review of clinical trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Sep 1;47(5):712-22.Full text  Abstract

21. Morris L, Cilliers T. Viral structure, replication, tropism, pathogenesis and natural history. In: Abdool Karim SS, Abdool Karim Q, eds. HIV/AIDS in South Africa. Cambridge University Press; 2005:79-89.

22. Kaplan EH, Heimer R. HIV incidence among New Haven needle exchange participants: updated estimates from syringe tracking and testing data. J Acquir Immune Def Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Oct 1;10(2):175-6. Abstract

23. Varghese B, Maher JE, Peterman TA, et al. Reducing the risk of sexual HIV transmission: quantifying the per-act risk for HIV on the basis of choice of partner, sex act, and condom use. Sex Transm Dis. 2002 Jan;29(1):38-43. Abstract

24. European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. Comparison of female to male and male to female transmission of HIV in 563 stable couples. BMJ. 1992 Mar 28;304(6830):809-13.Full text  Abstract

25. Bell DM. Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in health care workers: an overview. Am J Med. 1997 May 19;102(5B):9-15. Abstract

26. Cooper ER, Charurat M, Mofenson L, et al; Women and Infants' Transmission Study Group. Combination antiretroviral strategies for the treatment of pregnant HIV-1-infected women and prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Apr 15;29(5):484-94. Abstract

27. Polis CB, Curtis KM, Hannaford PC, et al. An updated systematic review of epidemiological evidence on hormonal contraceptive methods and HIV acquisition in women. AIDS. 2016 Nov 13;30(17):2665-83.Full text  Abstract

28. Tepper NK, Curtis KM, Cox S, et al. Update to US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016: updated recommendations for the use of contraception among women at high risk for HIV infection. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 10;69(14):405-10.Full text  Abstract

29. World Health Organization. Contraceptive eligibility for women at high risk of HIV: guidance statement - recommendations on contraceptive methods used by women at high risk of HIV. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

30. Looker KJ, Elmes JAR, Gottlieb SL, et al. Effect of HSV-2 infection on subsequent HIV acquisition: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Dec;17(12):1303-16.Full text  Abstract

31. Looker KJ, Welton NJ, Sabin KM, et al. Global and regional estimates of the contribution of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection to HIV incidence: a population attributable fraction analysis using published epidemiological data. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Feb;20(2):240-9.Full text  Abstract

32. Marfatia YS, Pandya I, Mehta K. Condoms: Past, present, and future. Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2015 Jul-Dec;36(2):133-9.Full text  Abstract

33. Hanum N, Cambiano V, Sewell J, et al. Use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in England: data from the AURAH2 prospective study. Lancet Public Health. 2020 Sep;5(9):e501-11.Full text  Abstract

34. Riddell J 4th, Amico KR, Mayer KH. HIV preexposure prophylaxis: a review. JAMA. 2018 Mar 27;319(12):1261-8. Abstract

35. Delaugerre C, Rodriguez C, Capitant C, et al. Drug resistance among patients who acquired HIV infection in a preexposure prophylaxis trial. AIDS. 2018;32(16):2353-61. Abstract

36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States - 2021 update: a clinical practice guideline. Dec 2021 [internet publication].Full text

37. US Preventive Services Task Force, Owens DK, Davidson KW, et al. Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2019 Jun 11;321(22):2203-13.Full text  Abstract

38. World Health Organization. Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Sep 2015 [internet publication].Full text

39. Cohen SE, Sachdev D, Lee SA, et al. Acquisition of tenofovir-susceptible, emtricitabine-resistant HIV despite high adherence to daily pre-exposure prophylaxis: a case report. Lancet HIV. 2018 Nov 29 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

40. Tumarkin E, Siedner MJ, Bogoch II. The BMJ 10-minute consultation: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). BMJ. 2019 Jan 17;364:k4681. Abstract

41. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves first injectable treatment for HIV pre-exposure prevention. Dec 2021 [internet publication].Full text

42. Marshall BDL, Goedel WC, King MRF, et al. Potential effectiveness of long-acting injectable pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men: a modelling study. Lancet HIV. 2018 Sep;5(9):e498-505.Full text  Abstract

43. HIV Prevention Trials Network. Long-acting injectable cabotegravir is highly effective for the prevention of HIV infection in cisgender men and transgender women who have sex with men. May 2020 [internet publication].Full text

44. HIV Prevention Trials Network. HPTN 084 study demonstrates superiority of CAB LA to oral FTC/TDF for the prevention of HIV. Nov 2020 [internet publication].Full text

45. Saag MS, Gandhi RT, Hoy JF, et al. Antiretroviral drugs for treatment and prevention of HIV infection in adults: 2020 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. JAMA. 2020 Oct 27;324(16):1651-69.Full text  Abstract

46. Antoni G, Tremblay C, Delaugerre C, et al. On-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine among men who have sex with men with less frequent sexual intercourse: a post-hoc analysis of the ANRS IPERGAY trial. Lancet HIV. 2020 Feb;7(2):e113-20. Abstract

47. Grulich AE, Guy R, Amin J, et al. Population-level effectiveness of rapid, targeted, high-coverage roll-out of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men: the EPIC-NSW prospective cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2018 Nov;5(11):e629-37. Abstract

48. Grulich AE, Jin F, Bavinton BR, et al; Expanded PrEP Implementation in Communities New South Wales (EPIC-NSW) research group. Long-term protection from HIV infection with oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in gay and bisexual men: findings from the expanded and extended EPIC-NSW prospective implementation study. Lancet HIV. 2021 Jun 30:S2352-3018(21)00074-6. Abstract

49. Holt M, Lea T, Mao L, et al. Community-level changes in condom use and uptake of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis by gay and bisexual men in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia: results of repeated behavioural surveillance in 2013-17. Lancet HIV. 2018 Aug;5(8):e448-56. Abstract

50. Finlayson T, Cha S, Xia M, et al; National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Study Group. Changes in HIV preexposure prophylaxis awareness and use among men who have sex with men - 20 urban areas, 2014 and 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Jul 12;68(27):597-603.Full text  Abstract

51. Obiero J, Ogongo P, Mwethera PG, et al. Topical microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Mar 13;3:CD007961.Full text  Abstract

52. Nel A, van Niekerk N, Kapiga S, et al. Safety and efficacy of a dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV prevention in women. N Engl J Med. 2016 Dec 1;375(22):2133-43.Full text  Abstract

53. Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim SS, Frohlich JA, et al. Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. Science. 2010 Sep 3;329(5996):1168-74.Full text  Abstract

54. Anglemyer A, Rutherford GW, Horvath T, et al. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Apr 30;(4):CD009153.Full text  Abstract

55. Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011 Aug 11;365(6):493-505.Full text  Abstract

56. Rodger AJ, Cambiano V, Bruun T, et al; PARTNER Study Group. Sexual activity without condoms and risk of HIV transmission in serodifferent couples when the HIV-positive partner is using suppressive antiretroviral therapy. JAMA. 2016 Jul 12;316(2):171-81.Full text  Abstract

57. Bavinton BR, Pinto AN, Phanuphak N, et al; Opposites Attract Study Group. Viral suppression and HIV transmission in serodiscordant male couples: an international, prospective, observational, cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2018 Aug;5(8):e438-47. Abstract

58. PARTNER Study Group. HIV transmission risk through condomless sex in gay couples with suppressive ART: the PARTNER2 Study extended results in gay men. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

59. Rodger AJ, Cambiano V, Bruun T, et al; PARTNER Study Group. Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study. Lancet. 2019 Jun 15;393(10189):2428-38.Full text  Abstract

60. LeMessurier J, Traversy G, Varsaneux O, et al. Risk of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus with antiretroviral therapy, suppressed viral load and condom use: a systematic review. CMAJ. 2018 Nov 19;190(46):E1350-60.Full text  Abstract

61. US Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in adults and adolescents living with HIV. Jan 2022 [internet publication].Full text

62. Sharma SC, Raison N, Khan S, et al. Male circumcision for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition: a meta-analysis. BJU Int. 2018 Apr;121(4):515-26.Full text  Abstract

63. Yuan T, Fitzpatrick T, Ko NY, et al. Circumcision to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of global data. Lancet Glob Health. 2019 Apr;7(4):e436-47.Full text  Abstract

64. Delany-Moretlwe S, Gray G, Kagee A, et al. AIDS prevention in South Africa. South Afr J HIV Med. 2006;23:13-7.

65. Rubens M, Ramamoorthy V, Saxena A, et al. HIV vaccine: recent advances, current roadblocks, and future directions. J Immunol Res. 2015;2015:560347.Full text  Abstract

66. Leal L, Lucero C, Gatell JM, et al. New challenges in therapeutic vaccines against HIV infection. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2017 Jun;16(6):587-600. Abstract

67. Baden LR, Stieh DJ, Sarnecki M, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of two heterologous HIV vaccine regimens in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults (TRAVERSE): a randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1/2a study. Lancet HIV. 2020 Oct;7(10):e688-98.Full text  Abstract

68. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of HIV infection: updated recommendations. Jun 2014 [internet publication].Full text

69. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Revised surveillance case definition for HIV infection: United States, 2014. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014;63(RR-03):1-10.Full text  Abstract

70. World Health Organization. WHO case definitions of HIV for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV-related disease in adults and children. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2007 [internet publication].Full text

71. UNAIDS, World Health Organization. UNAIDS/WHO policy statement on HIV testing. Jun 2004 [internet publication].Full text

72. World Health Organization. HIV drug resistance report 2019. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

73. Shepher J, Quinn T. Laboratory testing for HIV infection. In: Volberding P, Sande M, Lange J, et al., eds. Global HIV/AIDS medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2008:101-7.

74. Deeks SG, Gange SJ, Kitahata MM, et al. Trends in multidrug treatment failure and subsequent mortality among antiretroviral therapy-experienced patients with HIV infection in North America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Nov 15;49(10):1582-90.Full text  Abstract

75. Aves T, Tambe J, Siemieniuk RA, et al. Antiretroviral resistance testing in HIV-positive people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 9;(11):CD006495.Full text  Abstract

76. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines: sexual assault and abuse and STDs. Jun 2015 [internet publication].Full text

77. Ochodo EA, Olwanda EE, Deeks JJ, et al. Point‐of‐care viral load tests to detect high HIV viral load in people living with HIV/AIDS attending health facilities. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022 Mar 10;3(3):CD013208.Full text  Abstract

78. World Health Organization. Guidelines for managing advanced HIV disease and rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Jul 2017 [internet publication].Full text

79. Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006 Sep 22;55(RR-14):1-17;quiz CE1-4.Full text  Abstract

80. DiNenno EA, Prejean J, Irwin K, et al. Recommendations for HIV screening of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men - United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Aug 11;66(31):830-2.Full text  Abstract

81. Pitasi MA, Oraka E, Clark H, et al. HIV testing among transgender women and men - 27 states and Guam, 2014-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Aug 25;66(33):883-7.Full text  Abstract

82. Pitasi MA, Delaney KP, Oraka E, et al. Interval since last HIV test for men and women with recent risk for HIV infection - United States, 2006-2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jun 22;67(24):677-81.Full text  Abstract

83. US Preventive Services Task Force, Owens DK, Davidson KW, et al. Screening for HIV infection: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2019 Jun 18;321(23):2326-36.Full text  Abstract

84. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC health information for international travel (the Yellow Book): HIV infection. Jun 2019 [internet publication].Full text

85. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2018 quick reference guide: recommended laboratory HIV testing algorithm for serum or plasma specimens. Jan 2018 [internet publication].Full text

86. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines: HIV infection - detection, counseling, and referral. Jun 2015 [internet publication].Full text

87. World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

88. World Health Organization. Guidelines on HIV self-testing and partner notification: supplement to consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services. Dec 2016 [internet publication].Full text

89. World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, testing, treatment, service delivery and monitoring: recommendations for a public health approach. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

90. The Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Efficacy Study Group. Efficacy of voluntary HIV-1 counselling and testing in individuals and couples in Kenya, Tanzania and Trinidad: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2000 Jul 8;356(9224):103-12. Abstract

91. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

92. Grobler L, Siegfried N, Visser ME, et al. Nutritional interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality in people with HIV. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Feb 28;(2):CD004536.Full text  Abstract

93. Olsen MF, Abdissa A, Kaestel P, et al. Effects of nutritional supplementation for HIV patients starting antiretroviral treatment: randomised controlled trial in Ethiopia. BMJ. 2014 May 15;348:g3187.Full text  Abstract

94. Visser ME, Durao S, Sinclair D, et al. Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 18;(5):CD003650.Full text  Abstract

95. Teixeira NDSCCA, Pereira BM, Oliveira IKF, et al. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on HIV-infected adults: a systematic review. Nutr Hosp. 2019 Oct 17;36(5):1205-12.Full text  Abstract

96. Muzembo BA, Ngatu NR, Januka K, et al. Selenium supplementation in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2019 Dec;34:1-7.Full text  Abstract

97. US Department of Health and Human Services. HIV and immunizations. Aug 2021 [internet publication].Full text

98. Lundgren JD, Babiker AG, Gordin F, et al. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy in early asymptomatic HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 2015 Aug 27;373(9):795-807.Full text  Abstract

99. Mateo-Urdiales A, Johnson S, Smith R, et al. Rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jun 17;(6):CD012962.Full text  Abstract

100. Feng Q, Zhou A, Zou H, et al. Quadruple versus triple combination antiretroviral therapies for treatment naive people with HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2019 Jul 8;366:l4179.Full text  Abstract

101. National Institute for Health Research. NIHR Signal: four-drug treatment for HIV offers no benefit over standard three-drug treatment. Sep 2019 [internet publication].Full text

102. Cahn P, Madero JS, Arribas J, et al. Non-inferior efficacy of dolutegravir (DTG) plus lamivudine (3TC) versus DTG plus tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) fixed-dose combination in antiretroviral treatment-naive adults with HIV-1 infection - 48-week results from the GEMINI studies. Paper presented at: 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018). 2018. Amsterdam, Netherlands.Full text

103. World Health Organization. Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

104. Wang H, Lu X, Yang X, et al. The efficacy and safety of tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in antiretroviral regimens for HIV-1 therapy: meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Oct;95(41):e5146.Full text  Abstract

105. Tao X, Lu Y, Zhou Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of the regimens containing tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in fixed-dose single-tablet regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Apr;93:108-17.Full text  Abstract

106. World Health Organization. Guidelines on the public health response to pretreatment HIV drug resistance: supplement to the 2016 consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: second edition June 2016. Jul 2017 [internet publication].Full text

107. Lennox JL, Landovitz RJ, Ribaudo HJ, et al; ACTG A5257 Team. Efficacy and tolerability of 3 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing antiretroviral regimens for treatment-naive volunteers infected with HIV-1: a randomized, controlled equivalence trial. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Oct 7;161(7):461-71.Full text  Abstract

108. Lederman MM, Calabrese L, Funderburg NT, et al. Immunologic failure despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy is related to activation and turnover of memory CD4 cells. J Infect Dis. 2011 Oct 15;204(8):1217-26.Full text  Abstract

109. Lindegren ML, Kennedy CE, Bain-Brickley D, et al. Integration of HIV/AIDS services with maternal, neonatal and child health, nutrition, and family planning services. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD010119.Full text  Abstract

110. Islam FM, Wu J, Jansson J, et al. Relative risk of cardiovascular disease among people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis. HIV Med. 2012 Sep;13(8):453-68. Abstract

111. Segarra-Newnham M. Osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency in HIV-positive patients. J Pharm Technol. 2011;27:251-7.

112. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Cabotegravir with rilpivirine for treating HIV-1. Jan 2022 [internet publication].Full text

113. Rizzardini G, Overton ET, Orkin C, et al. Long-acting injectable cabotegravir + rilpivirine for HIV maintenance therapy: week 48 pooled analysis of phase 3 ATLAS and FLAIR trials. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2020 Dec 1;85(4):498-506.Full text  Abstract

114. Lataillade M, Lalezari JP, Kozal M, et al. Safety and efficacy of the HIV-1 attachment inhibitor prodrug fostemsavir in heavily treatment-experienced individuals: week 96 results of the phase 3 BRIGHTE study. Lancet HIV. 2020 Nov;7(11):e740-51.Full text  Abstract

115. Emu B, Fessel J, Schrader S, et al. Phase 3 study of ibalizumab for multidrug-resistant HIV-1. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 16;379(7):645-54.Full text  Abstract

116. Gilead Sciences. Study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of lenacapavir in combination with an optimized background regimen in heavily treatment experienced participants living with HIV-1 infection with multidrug resistance (CAPELLA). Feb 2021 [internet publication].Full text

117. Li L, Tian JH, Yang K, et al. Humanized PA14 (a monoclonal CCR5 antibody) for treatment of people with HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jul 26;(7):CD008439.Full text  Abstract

118. Lalezari JP, Latiff GH, Brinson C, et al. Safety and efficacy of the HIV-1 attachment inhibitor prodrug BMS-663068 in treatment-experienced individuals: 24 week results of AI438011, a phase 2b, randomised controlled trial. Lancet HIV. 2015 Oct;2(10):e427-37. Abstract

119. Murgatroyd C, Pirrie L, Tran F, et al. Structure-activity relationships of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 maturation inhibitor PF-46396. J Virol. 2016 Aug 26;90(18):8181-97.Full text  Abstract

120. US National Library of Medicine. Study to evaluate the safety of a gene and cell therapy product in participants with HIV that is well-controlled on antiretroviral therapy. Sep 2020 [internet publication].Full text

121. US Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in pediatric HIV infection. Apr 2022 [internet publication].Full text

122. Feinstein MJ, Hsue PY, Benjamin LA, et al. Characteristics, prevention, and management of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019 Jul 9;140(2):e98.Full text  Abstract

123. US Department of Health and Human Services. Guidance for non-HIV-specialized providers caring for persons with HIV who have been displaced by disasters (such as hurricane). Sep 2018 [internet publication].Full text

124. Bruce RD, Merlin J, Lum PJ, et al. 2017 HIVMA of IDSA clinical practice guideline for the management of chronic pain in patients living with HIV. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Oct 30;65(10):e1-37.Full text  Abstract

125. Tan DHS, Hull MW, Yoong D, et al; Biomedical HIV Prevention Working Group of the CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network. Canadian guideline on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis. CMAJ. 2017 Nov 27;189(47):E1448-58.Full text  Abstract

126. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for HIV prevention with adults and adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014. Dec 2014 (amended Dec 2016) [internet publication].Full text

127. World Health Organization. Update of recommendations on first- and second-line antiretroviral regimens. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

128. World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on person-centred HIV patient monitoring and case surveillance. Jun 2017 [internet publication].Full text

129. World Health Organization. Integrating collaborative TB and HIV services within a comprehensive package of care for people who inject drugs. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

130. European AIDS Clinical Society. European AIDS Clinical Society guidelines: version 10.1. Oct 2020 [internet publication].Full text

131. Nel J, Dlamini S, Meintjes G, et al. Southern African HIV Clinicians Society guidelines for antiretroviral therapy in adults: 2020 update. South Afr J HIV Med. 2020;21(1):1115.Full text  Abstract

132. British HIV Association. BHIVA guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-positive adults with antiretroviral therapy 2015 (2016 interim update). Aug 2016 [internet publication].Full text

133. World Health Organization. Updated recommendations on service delivery for the treatment and care of people living with HIV. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

134. Thompson MA, Horberg MA, Agwu AL, et al. Primary care guidance for persons with human immunodeficiency virus: 2020 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 6 [Epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

135. Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N, et al. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Arch Intern Med. 2003 May 12;163(9):1009-21.Full text  Abstract

136. O'Connor J, Smith C, Lampe FC, et al. Durability of viral suppression with first-line antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV in the UK: an observational cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2017 Jul;4(7):e295-302.Full text  Abstract

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