Fungal meningitis

References

Key articles

Johnson RH, Einstein HE. Coccidioidal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 1;42(1):103-7.Full text  Abstract

Beale MA, Sabiiti W, Robertson EJ, et al. Genotypic diversity is associated with clinical outcome and phenotype in cryptococcal meningitis across Southern Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Jun 25;9(6):e0003847.Full text  Abstract

Jarvis JN, Bicanic T, Loyse A, et al. Determinants of mortality in a combined cohort of 501 patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: implications for improving outcomes. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Mar;58(5):736-45.Full text  Abstract

Chayakulkeeree M, Perfect JR. Cryptococcosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;20(3):507-44. Abstract

Müller M, Wandel S, Colebunders R, et al. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in patients starting antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Apr;10(4):251-61. Abstract

Yuanije Z, Jianghan C, Nan X, et al. Cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent children. Mycoses. 2012 Mar;55(2):168-71. Abstract

Day JN, Chau TT, Wolbers M, et al. Combination antifungal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 4;368(14):1291-1302.Full text  Abstract

Boulware DR, Meya DB, Muzoora C, et al; COAT Trial Team. Timing of antiretroviral therapy after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 26;370(26):2487-98.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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10. Johnson RH, Einstein HE. Coccidioidal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 1;42(1):103-7.Full text  Abstract

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13. Beale MA, Sabiiti W, Robertson EJ, et al. Genotypic diversity is associated with clinical outcome and phenotype in cryptococcal meningitis across Southern Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Jun 25;9(6):e0003847.Full text  Abstract

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17. Jarvis JN, Bicanic T, Loyse A, et al. Determinants of mortality in a combined cohort of 501 patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: implications for improving outcomes. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Mar;58(5):736-45.Full text  Abstract

18. Rajasingham R, Smith RM, Park BJ, et al. Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an updated analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Aug;17(8):873-81. Abstract

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28. Wheat LJ, Musial CE, Jenny-Avital E. Diagnosis and management of central nervous system histoplasmosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Mar 15;40(6):844-52.Full text  Abstract

29. Chiller TM, Galgani JN, Stevens DA. Coccidioidomycosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2003 Mar;17(1):41-57. Abstract

30. DiCaudo DJ. Coccidioidomycosis: a review and update. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Dec;55(6):929-42. Abstract

31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coccidioidomycosis - Arizona, 1990-1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996 Dec 13;45(49):1069-73.Full text  Abstract

32. Ampel NM, Mosley DG, England B, et al. Coccidioidomycosis in Arizona: increase in incidence from 1990 to 1995. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Dec;27(6):1528-30. Abstract

33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increase in coccidioidomycosis - Arizona, 1998-2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Feb 14;52(6):109-12.Full text  Abstract

34. Ampel MA. Coccidiodomycosis in persons infected with HIV type 1. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Oct 15;41(8):1174-8.Full text  Abstract

35. Ampel NM, Dols CL, Galgiani JN. Coccidioidomycosis during human immunodeficiency virus infection: results of a prospective study in a coccidioidal endemic area. Am J Med. 1993 Mar;94(3):235-40. Abstract

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37. Buchs S. Candida meningitis: a growing threat to premature and fullterm infants. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1985 Mar-Apr;4(2):122-3. Abstract

38. Fernandez M, Moylett EH, Noyola DE, et al. Candidal meningitis in neonates: a 10-year review. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;31(2):458-63.Full text  Abstract

39. Lipton SA, Hickey WF, Morris JH, et al. Candidal infection in the central nervous system. Am J Med. 1984 Jan;76(1):101-8. Abstract

40. Voice RA, Bradley SF, Sangeorzan JA, et al. Chronic candidal meningitis: an uncommon manifestation of candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Jul;19(1):60-6. Abstract

41. Chiou CC, Wong TT, Lin HH, et al. Fungal infection of ventriculoperitoneal shunts in children. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Dec;19(6):1049-53. Abstract

42. Sánchez-Portocarrero J, Martin-Rabadán P, Saldaña CJ, et al. Candida cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection. Report of two new cases and review of the literature. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994 Sep;20(1):33-40. Abstract

43. Nguyen MH, Yu VL. Meningitis caused by Candida species: an emerging problem in neurosurgical patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Aug;21(2):323-7. Abstract

44. Kainer MA, Reagan DR, Nguyen DB, et al; Tennessee Fungal Meningitis Investigation Team. Fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone in Tennessee. N Engl J Med. 2012 Dec 6;367(23):2194-2203.Full text  Abstract

45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections – case count. Oct 2015 [internet publication].Full text

46. Chayakulkeeree M, Perfect JR. Cryptococcosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;20(3):507-44. Abstract

47. Sánchez-Portocarrero J, Pérez-Cecilia E, Corral O, et al. The central nervous system and infection by Candida species. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000 Jul;37(3):169-79. Abstract

48. Antinori S, Corbellino M, Meroni L, et al. Aspergillus meningitis: a rare clinical manifestation of central nervous system aspergillosis - case report and review of 92 cases. J Infect. 2013 Mar;66(3):218-38. Abstract

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50. Garcia-Hermoso D, Janbon G, Dromer F. Epidemiological evidence for dormant Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Oct;37(10):3204-9.Full text  Abstract

51. Casadevall A, Steenbergen JN, Nosanchuk JD. 'Ready made' virulence and 'dual use' virulence factors in pathogenic environmental fungi - the Cryptococcus neoformans paradigm. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2003 Aug;6(4):332-7. Abstract

52. McKinsey DS, Spiegel RA, Hutwagner L, et al. Prospective study of histoplasmosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: incidence, risk factors, and pathophysiology. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Jun;24(6):1195-1203. Abstract

53. van der Horst C, Saag MS, Cloud GA, et al. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 3;337(1):15-21.Full text  Abstract

54. Pappas PG, Perfect JR, Cloud GA, et al. Cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in the era of effective azole therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Sep 1;33(5):690-9.Full text  Abstract

55. Einstein HE, Johnson RH. Coccidioidomycosis: new aspects of epidemiology and therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Mar;16(3):349-54. Abstract

56. Crum NF, Lederman ER, Stafford CM, et al. Coccidioidomycosis: a descriptive survey of a reemerging disease. Clinical characteristics and current controversies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2004 May;83(3):149-75. Abstract

57. Casado JL, Quereda C, Oliva J, et al. Candidal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: analysis of 14 cases. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Sep;25(3):673-6. Abstract

58. del Pozo MM, Bermejo F, Molina JA, et al. Chronic neutrophilic meningitis caused by Candida albicans. Neurologia. 1998 Aug-Sep;13(7):362-6. Abstract

59. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcal disease in HIV-infected adults, adolescents and children: supplement to the 2016 consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. Mar 2018 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

60. Awotiwon AA, Johnson S, Rutherford GW, et al. Primary antifungal prophylaxis for cryptococcal disease in HIV-positive people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 29;(8):CD004773.Full text  Abstract

61. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. May 2020 [internet publication].Full text

62. Galgiani JN, Ampel NM, Blair JE, et al. 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) clinical practice guideline for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 15;63(6):e112-46.Full text  Abstract

63. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

64. Blyth CC, Barzi F, Hale K, Isaacs D. Chemoprophylaxis of neonatal fungal infections in very low birthweight infants: efficacy and safety of fluconazole and nystatin. J Paediatr Child Health. 2012 Sep;48(9):846-51. Abstract

65. Müller M, Wandel S, Colebunders R, et al. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in patients starting antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Apr;10(4):251-61. Abstract

66. Bayer AS, Edwards JE, Seidel JS, et al. Candida meningitis. Report of seven cases and review of the English literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 1976 Nov;55(6):477-86. Abstract

67. Yuanije Z, Jianghan C, Nan X, et al. Cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent children. Mycoses. 2012 Mar;55(2):168-71. Abstract

68. Ashbee HR, Evans EG, Viviani MA, et al. Histoplasmosis in Europe: report on an epidemiological survey from the European Confederation of Medical Mycology Working Group. Med Mycol. 2008 Feb;46(1):57-65. Abstract

69. Sharma P, Mukherjee A, Karunanithi S, et al. Potential role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with fungal infections. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014 Jul;203(1):180-9. Abstract

70. Chong GM, Maertens JA, Lagrou K, et al. Diagnostic performance of galactomannan antigen testing in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 Feb;54(2):428-31.Full text  Abstract

71. Garber S, Penar P. Treatment of indolent, nonencapsulated cryptococcal meningitis associated with hydrocephalus. Clin Pract. 2012 Jan 27;2(1):e22.Full text  Abstract

72. Litvintseva AP, Lindsley MD, Gade L, et al. Utility of (1-3)-beta-D-glucan testing for diagnostics and monitoring response to treatment during the multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Mar;58(5):622-30. Abstract

73. Brouwer AE, Rajanuwong A, Chierakul W, et al. Combination antifungal therapies for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2004 May 29;363(9423):1764-7. Abstract

74. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections: resources for laboratories. Oct 2015 [internet publication].Full text

75. Steiner I, Schmutzhard E, Sellner J, et al; European Federation of Neurological Sciences; European Neurologic Society. EFNS-ENS guidelines for the use of PCR technology for the diagnosis of infections of the nervous system. Eur J Neurol. 2012 Oct;19(10):1278-91. Abstract

76. Thwaites GE, Caws M, Chau TT, et al. Comparison of conventional bacteriology with nucleic acid amplification (amplified mycobacterium direct test) for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis before and after inception of antituberculosis chemotherapy. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Mar;42(3):996-1002.Full text  Abstract

77. Patterson TF, Thompson GR 3rd, Denning DW, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of aspergillosis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 15;63(4):e1-60.Full text  Abstract

78. Botero Aguirre JP, Restrepo Hamid AM. Amphotericin B deoxycholate versus liposomal amphotericin B: effects on kidney function. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 23;(11):CD010481.Full text  Abstract

79. Day JN, Chau TT, Wolbers M, et al. Combination antifungal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 4;368(14):1291-1302.Full text  Abstract

80. Beardsley J, Wolbers M, Kibengo FM, et al; CryptoDex Investigators. Adjunctive dexamethasone in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2016 Feb 11;374(6):542-54.Full text  Abstract

81. Saag MS, Cloud GA, Graybill JR, et al. A comparison of itraconazole versus fluconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Feb;28(2):291-6.Full text  Abstract

82. Powderly WG, Saag MS, Cloud GA, et al. A controlled trial of fluconazole or amphotericin B to prevent relapse of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1992 Mar 19;326(12):793-8. Abstract

83. Mdodo R, Moser SA, Jaoko W, et al. Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans cerebrospinal fluid isolates from AIDS patients in Kenya. Mycoses. 2011 Sep;54(5):e438-42. Abstract

84. Boulware DR, Meya DB, Muzoora C, et al; COAT Trial Team. Timing of antiretroviral therapy after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 26;370(26):2487-98.Full text  Abstract

85. Eshun-Wilson I, Okwen MP, Richardson M, et al. Early versus delayed antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive people with cryptococcal meningitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jul 24;(7):CD009012.Full text  Abstract

86. Graybill JR, Sobel J, Saag M, et al. Diagnosis and management of increased intracranial pressure in patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Jan;30(1):47-54.Full text  Abstract

87. Macsween KF, Bicanic T, Brouwer AE, et al. Lumbar drainage for control of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in cryptococcal meningitis: case report and review. J Infect. 2005 Nov;51(4):e221-4. Abstract

88. Johnson PC, Wheat LJ, Cloud GA, et al; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Safety and efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B compared with conventional amphotericin B for induction therapy of histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Jul 16;137(2):105-9.Full text  Abstract

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90. Goldman M, Zackin R, Fichtenbaum CJ, et al. Safety of discontinuation of maintenance therapy for disseminated histoplasmosis after immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 15;38(10):1485-9.Full text  Abstract

91. Galgiani JN, Catanzaro A, Cloud GA, et al. Fluconazole therapy for coccidioidal meningitis. The NIAID-Mycoses Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Jul 1;119(1):28-35. Abstract

92. Restrepo A, Tobón A, Clark B, et al. Salvage treatment of histoplasmosis with posaconazole. J Infect. 2007 Apr;54(4):319-27. Abstract

93. Cortez KJ, Walsh TJ, Bennett JE. Successful treatment of coccidioidal meningitis with voriconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Jun 15;36(12):1619-22.Full text  Abstract

94. Proia LA, Tenorio AR. Successful use of voriconazole for treatment of Coccidioides meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Jun;48(6):2341.Full text  Abstract

95. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections: resources for clinicians. Oct 2015 [internet publication].Full text

96. Smith RM, Tipple M, Chaudry MN, et al. Relapse of fungal meningitis associated with contaminated methylprednisolone. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jun 27;368(26):2535-6.Full text  Abstract

97. Dan M. Mucormycosis of the head and neck. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2011 Apr;13(2):123-31. Abstract

98. Branch RA. Prevention of amphotericin B-induced renal impairment. A review on the use of sodium supplementation. Arch Intern Med. 1988 Nov;148(11):2389-94. Abstract

99. Bicanic T, Wood R, Meintjes G, et al. High-dose amphotericin B with flucytosine for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jul 1;47(1):123-30.Full text  Abstract

100. Stevens DA, Shatsky SA. Intrathecal amphotericin in the management of coccidioidal meningitis. Semin Respir Infect. 2001 Dec;16(4):263-9. Abstract

101. Kambugu AD, Kamya M, Mayanja-Kizza H, et al. The high mortality of HIV associated Cryptococcal meningitis despite high dose amphotericin B therapy in Uganda. 41st Annual Meeting of The Infectious Diseases Society of America. San Diego, 2003. Abstract 629.

102. Imwidthaya P, Poungvarin N. Cryptococcosis in AIDS. Postgrad Med J. 2000 Feb;76(892):85-8. Abstract

103. Lu CH, Chen HL, Chang WN, et al. Assessing the chronic neuropsychologic sequelae of human immunodeficiency virus-negative cryptococcal meningitis by using diffusion tensor imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Aug;32(7):1333-9.Full text  Abstract

104. Dewsnup DH, Galgiani JN, Graybill JR, et al. Is it ever safe to stop azole therapy for Coccidioides immitis meningitis? Ann Intern Med. 1996 Feb 1;124(3):305-10. Abstract

105. Lee BE, Cheung PY, Robinson JL, et al. Comparative study of mortality and morbidity in premature infants (birth weight <1,250 g) with candidaemia or candidal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Sep;27(3):559-65. Abstract

106. Buchs S, Pfister P. Candida meningitis. Course, prognosis and mortality before and after introduction of the new antimycotics. Mykosen. 1983 Feb;26(2):73-81. Abstract

107. Porter SD, Noble MA, Rennie R. A single strain of Candida albicans associated with separate episodes of fungemia and meningitis. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Jul;34(7):1813-4.Full text  Abstract

108. Panackal AA, Komori M, Kosa P, et al. Spinal arachnoiditis as a complication of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in non-HIV previously healthy adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 1;64(3):275-83. Abstract

109. Shelburne SA 3rd, Darcourt J, White AC Jr, et al. The role of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in AIDS-related Cryptococcus neoformans disease in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 1;40(7):1049-52.Full text  Abstract

110. Lortholary O, Sitbon K, Dromer F; French Cryptococcosis Study Group. Evidence for human immunodeficiency virus and Cryptococcus neoformans interactions in the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in blood during AIDS-associated cryptococcosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005 Apr;11(4):296-300.Full text  Abstract

111. Lawn SD, Bekker LG, Myer L, et al. Cryptococcocal immune reconstitution disease: a major cause of early mortality in a South African antiretroviral programme. AIDS. 2005 Nov 18;19(17):2050-52. Abstract

112. Berkeley JL, Nath A, Pardo CA. Fatal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome with human immunodeficiency virus infection and Candida meningitis: case report and review of the literature. J Neurovirol. 2008 May;14(3):267-76. Abstract

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