Urethritis

References

Key articles

Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021 Jul 23;70(4):1-187.Full text  Abstract

Horner PJ, Blee K, Falk L, et al; International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2016 European guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis. Int J STD AIDS. 2016 Oct;27(11):928-37.Full text  Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for the laboratory-based detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae - 2014. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014 Mar 14;63(RR-02):1-19.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021 Jul 23;70(4):1-187.Full text  Abstract

2. Babu TM, Urban MA, Augenbraun MH. Urethritis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, Inc; 2020:107;1452-61;e2.

3. Mayor MT, Roett MA, Uduhiri KA. Diagnosis and management of gonococcal infections. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Nov 15;86(10):931-8.Full text  Abstract

4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2019. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

5. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

6. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

7. Totten PA, Schwartz MA, Sjostrom KE, et al. Association of Mycoplasma genitalium with nongonococcal urethritis in heterosexual men. J Infect Dis. 2001 Jan 15;183(2):269-76.Full text  Abstract

8. Bradshaw CS, Tabrizi SN, Read TR, et al. Etiologies of nongonococcal urethritis: bacteria, viruses, and the association with orogenital exposure. J Infect Dis. 2006 Feb 1;193(3):336-45.Full text  Abstract

9. Bachmann LH, Manhart LE, Martin DH, et al. Advances in the understanding and treatment of male urethritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15;61(suppl 8):S763-9.Full text  Abstract

10. Ito S, Hanaoka N, Shimuta K, et al. Male non-gonococcal urethritis: from microbiological etiologies to demographic and clinical features. Int J Urol. 2016 Apr;23(4):325-31.Full text  Abstract

11. Sarier M, Kukul E. Classification of non-gonococcal urethritis: a review. Int Urol Nephrol. 2019 Jun;51(6):901-7. Abstract

12. Jordan SJ, Toh E, Williams JA, et al. Aetiology and prevalence of mixed-infections and mono-infections in non-gonococcal urethritis in men: a case-control study. Sex Transm Infect. 2020 Jun;96(4):306-11.Full text  Abstract

13. Feneley RC, Hopley IB, Wells PN. Urinary catheters: history, current status, adverse events and research agenda. J Med Eng Technol. 2015;39(8):459-70.Full text  Abstract

14. Quillin SJ, Seifert HS. Neisseria gonorrhoeae host adaptation and pathogenesis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018 Apr;16(4):226-40.Full text  Abstract

15. Gibbs CP, Meyer TF. Genome plasticity in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996 Dec 1;145(2):173-9.Full text  Abstract

16. Unemo M, Shafer WM. Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: origin, evolution, and lessons learned for the future. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Aug;1230:E19-28.Full text  Abstract

17. Elwell C, Mirrashidi K, Engel J. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016 Jun;14(6):385-400.Full text  Abstract

18. Darville T, Hiltke TJ. Pathogenesis of genital tract disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis. J Infect Dis. 2010 Jun 15;201(suppl 2):S114-25.Full text  Abstract

19. Horner P, Thomas B, Gilroy C, et al. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis heat-shock protein 60 kDa and detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum are associated independently with chronic nongonococcal urethritis. Sex Transm Dis. 2003 Feb;30(2):129-33.Full text  Abstract

20. Chacko MR, Lovchik JC. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active adolescents: prevalence and risk factors. Pediatrics. 1984 Jun;73(6):836-40. Abstract

21. Martin DH, Bowie WR. Urethritis in males. In: Holmes KK, Sparling PF, Mardh P, et al., eds. Sexually transmitted diseases. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1999:833-45.

22. Smith GL, Greenup R, Takafuji E. Circumcision as a risk factor for urethritis in racial groups. Am J Public Health. 1987 Apr;77(4):452-4.Full text  Abstract

23. Van Howe RS. Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted urethritis and circumcision: a meta-analysis. Int J STD AIDS. 2007 Dec;18(12):799-809. Abstract

24. Rothenberg R, Judson FN. The clinical diagnosis of urethral discharge. Sex Transm Dis. 1983 Jan-Mar;10(1):24-8. Abstract

25. Brill JR. Diagnosis and treatment of urethritis in men. Am Fam Physician. 2010 Apr 1;81(7):873-8.Full text  Abstract

26. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on urological infections. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

27. Horner PJ, Blee K, Falk L, et al; International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2016 European guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis. Int J STD AIDS. 2016 Oct;27(11):928-37.Full text  Abstract

28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for the laboratory-based detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae - 2014. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014 Mar 14;63(RR-02):1-19.Full text  Abstract

29. Unemo M, Ross Jdc, Serwin AB, et al. 2020 European guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea in adults. Int J STD AIDS. 2020 Oct 29 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

30. Meyer T, Buder S. The laboratory diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: current testing and future demands. Pathogens. 2020 Jan 31;9(2):91.Full text  Abstract

31. Meyer T. Diagnostic procedures to detect Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Microorganisms. 2016 Aug 5;4(3):25.Full text  Abstract

32. Soni S, Horner P, Rayment M, et al. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV national guideline for the management of infection with Mycoplasma genitalium (2018). Int J STD AIDS. 2019 Sep;30(10):938-50. Abstract

33. Horner P, Donders G, Cusini M, et al. Should we be testing for urogenital Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum in men and women? - a position statement from the European STI Guidelines Editorial Board. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2018 Nov;32(11):1845-51. Abstract

34. Black CM. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1997 Jan;10(1):160-84.Full text  Abstract

35. Gaydos CA, Manhart LE, Taylor SN, et al. Molecular testing for Mycoplasma genitalium in the United States: results from the AMES prospective multicenter clinical study. J Clin Microbiol. 2019 Oct 23;57(11):e01125-19.Full text  Abstract

36. Schwebke JR, Hook EW 3rd. High rates of Trichomonas vaginalis among men attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic: Implications for screening and urethritis management. J Infect Dis. 2003 Aug 1;188(3):465-8.Full text  Abstract

37. Parker CT, Thomas D. Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2000 Feb;100(2):101-4. Abstract

38. US Preventive Services Task Force., Davidson KW, Barry MJ, et al. Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2021 Sep 14;326(10):949-56.Full text  Abstract

39. Public Health Agency of Canada. Canadian guidelines on sexually transmitted infections. 2020 [internet publication].Full text

40. Horner P, Blee K, O'Mahony C, et al; Clinical Effectiveness Group of the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV. 2015 UK national guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis. Int J STD AIDS. 2016 Feb;27(2):85-96.Full text  Abstract

41. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV. Update to the 2015 BASHH UK national guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis. November 2018 [internet publication].Full text

42. Hogben M. Partner notification for sexually transmitted diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 1;44(suppl 3):S160-74.Full text  Abstract

43. Golden MR, Whittington WL, Handsfield HH, et al. Effect of expedited treatment of sex partners on recurrent or persistent gonorrhea or chlamydial infection. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 17;352(7):676-85.Full text  Abstract

44. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 737: expedited partner therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jun;131(6):e190-3.Full text  Abstract

45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases: expedited partner therapy. April 2021 [internet publication].Full text

46. Seña AC, Lensing S, Rompalo A, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections in men with nongonococcal urethritis: predictors and persistence after therapy. J Infect Dis. 2012 Aug 1;206(3):357-65.Full text  Abstract

47. Gottlieb SL, Johnston C. Future prospects for new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb;30(1):77-86.Full text  Abstract

48. US National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov. Statens Serum Institut: safety of chlamydia vaccine CTH522 in healthy women aged 18 to 45 years. August 2017 [internet publication].Full text

49. Rice PA. Gonococcal arthritis (disseminated gonococcal infection). Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2005 Dec;19(4):853-61.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer