Diabetic retinopathy

References

Key articles

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993 Sep 30;329(14):977-86.Full text  Abstract

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ. 1998 Sep 12;317(7160):703-13.Full text  Abstract

Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Photocoagulation treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Clinical application of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS) findings, DRS report number 8. Ophthalmology. 1981 Jul;88(7):583-600. Abstract

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Treatment techniques and clinical guidelines for photocoagulation of diabetic macular edema. ETDRS report number 2. Ophthalmology. 1987 Jul;94(7):761-74. Abstract

American Academy of Ophthalmology. Preferred practice pattern: diabetic retinopathy. Oct 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Nguyen QD, Shah SM, Heier JS, et al. Primary end point (six months) results of the ranibizumab for edema of the mAcula in diabetes (READ-2) study. Ophthalmology. 2009 Nov;116(11):2175-81.e1. Abstract

2. International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th edn. Brussels, Belgium: 2021.Full text

3. Yau JW, Rogers SL, Kawasaki R, et al. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2012 Mar;35(3):556-64.Full text  Abstract

4. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, et al. The Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy II. Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is less than 30 years. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984 Apr;102(4):520-6. Abstract

5. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, et al. The Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. III. Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is 30 or more years. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984 Apr;102(4):527-32. Abstract

6. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, et al. The Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. XIV. Ten-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994 Sep;112(9):1217-28. Abstract

7. Wong TY, Mwamburi M, Klein R,et al. Rates of progression in diabetic retinopathy during different time periods: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2009 Dec;32(12):2307-13.Full text  Abstract

8. Varma R, Torres M, Pena F, et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in adult Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study. Opthalmology. 2004 Jul;111(7):1298-306. Abstract

9. Roy MS. Diabetic retinopathy in African Americans with type 1 diabetes: the New Jersey 725. 1. Methodology, population, frequency of retinopathy, and visual impairment. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000 Jan;118(1):97-104. Abstract

10. Cinar Y, Senyol AM, Duman K. Blood viscosity and blood pressure: role of temperature and hyperglycemia. Am J Hypertens. 2001;14:433-438. Abstract

11. Pecsvarady Z, Fisher TC, Darwin CH, et al. Decreased polymorphonuclear leucocyte deformability in NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1994 Jan;17(1):57-63. Abstract

12. Vaidyula VR, Boden G, Rao AK. Platelet and monocyte activation by hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in healthy subjects. Platelets. 2006;17:577-585. Abstract

13. Forrester JV. Mechanisms of new vessel formation in the retina. Diabet Med. 1987;4:423-430. Abstract

14. Rassam SM, Patel V, Kohner EM. The effect of experimental hypertension on retinal vascular autoregulation in humans: a mechanism for the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Exp Physiol. 1995;80:53-68.Full text  Abstract

15. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. Clustering of long-term complications in families with diabetes in the diabetes control and complications trial. Diabetes. 1997;46:1829-1839. Abstract

16. Moran EP, Wang Z, Chen J, et al. Neurovascular cross talk in diabetic retinopathy: pathophysiological roles and therapeutic implications. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016 Sep 1;311(3):H738-49.Full text  Abstract

17. Aiello LP, Northrup JM, Keyt BA, et al. Hypoxic regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in retinal cells. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Dec;113(12):1538-44. Abstract

18. Tolentino MJ, McLeod DS, Taomoto M, et al. Pathologic features of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced retinopathy in the nonhuman primate. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Mar;133(3):373-85. Abstract

19. Aiello LP, Avery RL, Arrigg PG, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor in ocular fluid of patients with diabetic retinopathy and other retinal disorders. N Engl J Med. 1994 Dec 1;331(22):1480-7.Full text  Abstract

20. Funatsu H, Yamashita H, Nakamura S, et al. Vitreous levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are related to diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology. 2006 Feb;113(2):294-301. Abstract

21. Avery RL, Pearlman J, Pieramici DJ, et al. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Opthalmology. 2006 Oct;113(10):1695.e1-15. Abstract

22. Haritoglou C, Kook D, Neubauer A, et al. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) therapy for persistent diffuse diabetic macular edema. Retina. 2006 Nov-Dec;26(9):999-1005. Abstract

23. Kuo CH, Gillies MC. Role of steroids in the treatment of diabetic macular edema. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2009 Spring;49(2):121-34. Abstract

24. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993 Sep 30;329(14):977-86.Full text  Abstract

25. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998 Sep 12;352(9131):837-53. Abstract

26. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ. 1998 Sep 12;317(7160):703-13.Full text  Abstract

27. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, et al. The Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy: XVII. The 14-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors in type 1 diabetes. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:1801-1815. Abstract

28. Klein R, Moss SE, Klein BE. Is gross proteinuria a risk factor for the incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy? Ophthalmology. 1993;100:1140-1146. Abstract

29. Mathiesen ER, Ronn B, Storm B, et al. The natural course of microalbuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetes: a 10-year prospective study. Diabet Med. 1995;12:482-487. Abstract

30. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS). X. Urinary albumin excretion over 3 years in diet-treated type 2, (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, and with hypertension, hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. Diabetologia. 1993;36:1021-1029. Abstract

31. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, et al. The 10-year incidence of renal insufficiency in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:743-751. Abstract

32. Nelson RG, Wolfe JA, Horton MB, et al. Proliferative retinopathy in NIDDM. Incidence and risk factors in Pima Indians. Diabetes. 1989;38:435-440. Abstract

33. Haffner SM, Fong D, Stern MP, et al. Diabetic retinopathy in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Diabetes. 1988;37:878-884. Abstract

34. Klein BE, Moss SE, Klein R. Effect of pregnancy on progression of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 1990;13:34-40. Abstract

35. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. Effect of pregnancy on microvascular complications in the diabetes control and complications trial. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1084-1091.Full text  Abstract

36. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. 2022 January 01;45 S1-S255Full text

37. Dowler JG, Sehmi KS, Hykin PG, et al. The natural history of macular edema after cataract surgery in diabetes. Ophthalmology. 1999;106:663-668. Abstract

38. Hykin PG, Gregson RM, Stevens JD, et al. Extracapsular cataract extraction in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:394-399. Abstract

39. Klein BE, Moss SE, Klein R, et al. The Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. XIII. Relationship of serum cholesterol to retinopathy and hard exudate. Ophthalmology. 1991;98:1261-1265. Abstract

40. Chew EY, Klein ML, Ferris FL 3rd, et al. Association of elevated serum lipid levels with retinal hard exudate in diabetic retinopathy. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) report 22. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114:1079-1084. Abstract

41. ACCORD Study Group; ACCORD Eye Study Group, Chew EY, et al. Effects of medical therapies on retinopathy progression in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:233-244.Full text  Abstract

42. Chaturvedi N, Porta M, Klein R, et al. Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet. 2008 Oct 18;372(9647):1394-402. Abstract

43. Samara WA, Shahlaee A, Adam MK, et al. Quantification of diabetic macular ischemia using optical coherence tomography angiography and its relationship with visual acuity. Ophthalmology. 2017 Feb;124(2):235-44. Abstract

44. Klein R, Meuer SM, Moss SE, et al. The relationship of retinal microaneurysm counts to the 4-year progression of diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989 Dec;107(12):1780-5. Abstract

45. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Fundus photographic risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report number 12. Ophthalmology. 1991 May;98(5 Suppl):823-33. Abstract

46. Wilkinson CP, Ferris FL 3rd, Klein RE, et al. Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales. Ophthalmology. 2003 Sep;110(9):1677-82. Abstract

47. Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Photocoagulation treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Clinical application of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS) findings, DRS report number 8. Ophthalmology. 1981 Jul;88(7):583-600. Abstract

48. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Grading diabetic retinopathy from stereoscopic color fundus photographs: an extension of the modified Airlie House classification. ETDRS report number 10. Ophthalmology. 1991 May;98(5 Suppl):786-806. Abstract

49. Chan A, Duker JS, Ko TH, et al. Normal macular thickness measurements in healthy eyes using Stratus optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Feb;124(2):193-8.Full text  Abstract

50. Mizener JB, Podhajsky P, Hayreh SS. Ocular ischemic syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1997 May;104(5):859-64. Abstract

51. Public Health England. Diabetic eye screening: commission and provide. April 2017 [internet publication].Full text

52. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Treatment techniques and clinical guidelines for photocoagulation of diabetic macular edema. ETDRS report number 2. Ophthalmology. 1987 Jul;94(7):761-74. Abstract

53. Javitt JC, Aiello LP. Cost-effectiveness of detecting and treating diabetic retinopathy. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Jan 1;124(1 Pt 2):164-9. Abstract

54. Singer DE, Nathan DM, Fogel HA, et al. Screening for diabetic retinopathy. Ann Intern Med. 1992 Apr 15;116(8):660-71. Abstract

55. Bailey CC, Sparrow JM, Grey RH, et al. The National Diabetic Retinopathy Laser Treatment Audit. III. Clinical outcomes. Eye. 1999 Apr;13 ( Pt 2):151-9. Abstract

56. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Preferred practice pattern: diabetic retinopathy. Oct 2019 [internet publication].Full text

57. Solomon SD, Chew E, Duh EJ, et al. Diabetic retinopathy: a position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2017 Mar;40(3):412-18.Full text  Abstract

58. Lueder GT, Silverstein J; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Ophthalmology and Section on Endocrinology. Screening for retinopathy in the pediatric patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics. 2005 Jul;116(1):270-3.Full text  Abstract

59. International Council of Ophthalmology. ICO guidelines for diabetic eye care. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

60. Mitchell P, Bandello F, Schmidt-Erfurth U, et al. The RESTORE Study: Ranibizumab Monotherapy or Combined with Laser versus Laser Monotherapy for Diabetic Macular Edema. Ophthalmology. 2011 Apr;118(4):615-25. Abstract

61. Nguyen QD, Brown DM, Marcus DM, et al. Ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema: results from 2 phase III randomized trials: RISE and RIDE. Ophthalmology. 2012 Apr;119(4):789-801.Full text  Abstract

62. Do DV, Nguyen QD, Boyer D, et al; da Vinci Study Group. One-year outcomes of the da Vinci Study of VEGF Trap-Eye in eyes with diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology. 2012 Aug;119(8):1658-65. Abstract

63. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group. Early vitrectomy for severe vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy. Two-year results of a randomized clinical trial. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 2. Arch Ophthalmol. 1985 Nov;103(11):1644-52. Abstract

64. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group. Early vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy in eyes with useful vision. Results of a randomized trial: Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 3. Ophthalmology. 1988 Oct;95(10):1307-20. Abstract

65. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study report number 1. Arch Ophthalmol. 1985 Dec;103(12):1796-806. Abstract

66. Cheung CS, Wong AW, Lui A, et al. Incidence of endophthalmitis and use of antibiotic prophylaxis after intravitreal injections. Ophthalmology. 2012 Aug;119(8):1609-14. Abstract

67. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Early photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report number 9. Ophthalmology. 1991 May;98(5 Suppl):766-85. Abstract

68. Patz A, Schatz H, Berkow JW, et al. Macular edema: an overlooked complication of diabetic retinopathy. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1973 Jan-Feb;77(1):OP34-42. Abstract

69. Sivaprasad S, Prevost AT, Vasconcelos JC, et al. Clinical efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept versus panretinal photocoagulation for best corrected visual acuity in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy at 52 weeks (CLARITY): a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised, controlled, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2017 Jun 3;389(10085):2193-203.Full text  Abstract

70. Writing Committee for the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network. Panretinal photocoagulation vs intravitreous ranibizumab for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. JAMA. 2015 Nov 24;314(20):2137-46. Abstract

71. Hercules BL, Gayed II, Lucas SB, et al. Peripheral retinal ablation in the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a three-year interim report of a randomised, controlled study using the argon laser. Br J Ophthalmol. 1977 Sep;61(9):555-63.Full text  Abstract

72. Ferris F. Early photocoagulation in patients with either type I or type II diabetes. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1996;94:505-37.Full text  Abstract

73. Heier JS, Korobelnik JF, Brown DM. et al. Intravitreal aflibercept for diabetic macular edema: 148-week results from the VISTA and VIVID studies. Ophthalmology. 2016 Nov;123(11):2376-85. Abstract

74. Jacobson DR, Murphy RP, Rosenthal AR. The treatment of angle neovascularization with panretinal photocoagulation. Ophthalmology. 1979 Jul;86(7):1270-7. Abstract

75. Wakabayashi T, Oshima Y, Sakaguchi H, et al. Intravitreal bevacizumab to treat iris neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma secondary to ischemic retinal diseases in 41 consecutive cases. Ophthalmology. 2008 Sep;115(9):1571-80, 1580.e1-3. Abstract

76. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Group. Early vitrectomy for severe vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy. Four-year results of a randomized trial. Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 5. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990 Jul;108(7):958-64. Abstract

77. Rice TA, Michels RG, Rice EF. Vitrectomy for diabetic traction retinal detachment involving the macula. Am J Ophthalmol. 1983 Jan;95(1):22-33. Abstract

78. Thompson JT, de Bustros S, Michels RG, Rice TA. Results and prognostic factors in vitrectomy for diabetic traction-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987 Apr;105(4):503-7. Abstract

79. Harbour JW, Smiddy WE, Flynn HW Jr, et al. Vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema associated with a thickened and taut posterior hyaloid membrane. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996 Apr;121(4):405-13. Abstract

80. Boyer DS, Yoon YH, Belfort R Jr, et al; Ozurdex MEAD Study Group. Three-year, randomized, sham-controlled trial of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology. 2014 Oct;121(10):1904-14.Full text  Abstract

81. Bressler SB, Glassman AR, Almukhtar T, et al. Five-year outcomes of ranibizumab with prompt or deferred laser versus laser or triamcinolone plus deferred ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol. 2016 Apr;164:57-68.Full text  Abstract

82. Klein BE, Klein R, Moss SE. Incidence of cataract surgery in the Wisconsin Epidemiological Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995 Mar;119(3):295-300. Abstract

83. Panozzo GA, Gusson E, Panozzo G, et al. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant at the time of cataract surgery in eyes with diabetic macular edema. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2017 Jun 26;27(4):433-7. Abstract

84. Chew EY, Benson WE, Remaley NA, et al. Results after lens extraction in patients with diabetic retinopathy: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) report number 25. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999 Dec;117(12):1600-6. Abstract

85. McDonald HR, Schatz H. Macular edema following panretinal photocoagulation. Retina. 1985 Winter-Spring;5(1):5-10. Abstract

86. Fong DS, Girach A, Boney A. Visual side effects of successful scatter laser photocoagulation surgery for proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a literature review. Retina. 2007 Sep;27(7):816-24. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer