Leishmaniasis

References

Key articles

Aronson N, Herwaldt BL, Libman M, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH). Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63:1539-1557.Full text  Abstract

Aronson NE, Joya CA. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: updates in diagnosis and management. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019 Mar;33(1):101-17. Abstract

Burza S, Croft SL, Boelaert M. Leishmaniasis. Lancet. 2018 Sep 15;392(10151):951-70. Abstract

Chakravarty J, Sundar S. Current and emerging medications for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2019 Jul;20(10):1251-65. Abstract

Reference articles

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12. Amato VS, Tuon FF, Bacha HA, et al. Mucosal leishmaniasis: current scenario and prospects for treatment. Acta Trop. 2008;105:1-9. Abstract

13. GBD 2015 DALYs and HALE Collaborators. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet. 2016;388:1603-1658.Full text  Abstract

14. World Health Organization. Fact sheet: leishmaniasis. Mar 2020 [internet publication].Full text

15. World Health Organization. Leishmaniasis in high-burden countries: an epidemiological update based on data reported in 2014. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2016;91:287-296.Full text  Abstract

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19. Croft SL, Sundar S, Fairlamb AH. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006;19:111-126.Full text  Abstract

20. Wright NA, Davis LE, Aftergut KS, et al. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Texas: a northern spread of endemic areas. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:650-652. Abstract

21. Blum J, Desjeux P, Schwartz E, et al. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis among travellers. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:158-166.Full text  Abstract

22. Lawn SD, Whetham J, Chiodini PL, et al. New world mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis: an emerging health problem among British travellers. QJM. 2004;97:781-788. Abstract

23. Weina PJ, Neafie RC, Wortmann G, et al. Old world leishmaniasis: an emerging infection among deployed US military and civilian workers. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1674-1680.Full text  Abstract

24. World Health Organization. WHO responds to visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Kenya. Jun 2017 [internet publication].Full text

25. Alvar J, Yactayo S, Bern C. Leishmaniasis and poverty. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:552-557. Abstract

26. Myles O, Wortmann GW, Cummings JF, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis: clinical observations in 4 US army soldiers deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq, 2002-2004. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1899-1901. Abstract

27. Wortmann G, Miller RS, Oster C, et al. A randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy of a 10- or 20-day course of sodium stibogluconate for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in United States military personnel. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:261-267.Full text  Abstract

28. Stahlman S, Williams VF, Taubman SB. Incident diagnoses of leishmaniasis, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2016. MSMR. 2017 Feb;24(2):2-7. Abstract

29. Mody RM, Lakhal-Naouar I, Sherwood JE, et al. Asymptomatic visceral Leishmania infantum infection in US soldiers deployed to Iraq. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 May 30;68(12):2036-44.Full text  Abstract

30. Duprey ZH, Steurer FJ, Rooney JA, et al. Canine visceral leishmaniasis, United States and Canada, 2000-2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:440-446.Full text  Abstract

31. Leelayoova S, Siripattanapipong S, Manomat J, et al. Leishmaniasis in Thailand: a review of causative agents and situations. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Mar;96(3):534-42.Full text  Abstract

32. Desbois N, Pratlong F, Quist D, et al. Leishmania (Leishmania) martiniquensis n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), description of the parasite responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Martinique Island (French West Indies). Parasite. 2014;21:12.Full text  Abstract

33. Depaquit J, Kaltenbach ML, Gay F. Visceral leishmaniasis in traveler to Guyana caused by Leishmania siamensis, London, UK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8):1599-600.Full text  Abstract

34. Handman E, Elso C, Foote S. Genes and susceptibility to leishmaniasis. Adv Parasitol. 2005;59:1-75. Abstract

35. Karplus TM, Jeronimo SM, Chang H, et al. Association between the tumor necrosis factor locus and the clinical outcome of Leishmania chagasi infection. Infect Immun. 2002;70:6919-6925.Full text  Abstract

36. Weirather JL, Duggal P, Nascimento EL, et al. Comprehensive candidate gene analysis for symptomatic or asymptomatic outcomes of Leishmania infantum infection in Brazil. Ann Hum Genet. 2017 Jan;81(1):41-8.Full text  Abstract

37. Rogers ME, Ilg T, Nikolaev AV, et al. Transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis by sand flies is enhanced by regurgitation of fPPG. Nature. 2004;430:463-467. Abstract

38. Vannier-Santos MA, Martiny A, de Souza W. Cell biology of Leishmania spp.: invading and evading. Curr Pharm Des. 2002;8:297-318. Abstract

39. Kamhawi S. The biological and immunomodulatory properties of sand fly saliva and its role in the establishment of Leishmania infections. Microbes Infect. 2000;2:1765-1773. Abstract

40. Belkaid Y, Valenzuela JG, Kamhawi S, et al. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to Phlebotomus papatasi sand fly bite: an adaptive response induced by the fly? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:6704-6709.Full text  Abstract

41. Warburg A, Saraiva E, Lanzaro GC, et al. Saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis sibling species differs in its composition and capacity to enhance leishmaniasis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B. 1994;345:223-230. Abstract

42. Basu MK, Ray M. Macrophage and Leishmania: an unacceptable coexistence. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2005;31:145-154. Abstract

43. Kariyawasam KKGDUL, Selvapandiyan A, Siriwardana HVYD, et al. Dermotropic Leishmania donovani in Sri Lanka: visceralizing potential in clinical and preclinical studies. Parasitology. 2018 Apr;145(4):443-52.Full text  Abstract

44. Zhang WW, Ramasamy G, McCall LI, et al. Genetic analysis of Leishmania donovani tropism using a naturally attenuated cutaneous strain. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Jul;10(7):e1004244.Full text  Abstract

45. Cerf BJ, Jones TC, Badaro R, et al. Malnutrition as a risk factor for severe visceral leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis. 1987;156:1030-1033. Abstract

46. Murray HW. Kala-azar as an AIDS-related opportunistic infection. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 1999;13:459-465. Abstract

47. Bern C, Hightower AW, Chowdhury R, et al. Risk factors for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:655-662.Full text  Abstract

48. Brooker S, Mohammed N, Adil K, et al. Leishmaniasis in refugee and local Pakistani populations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1681-1684.Full text  Abstract

49. Kolaczinski JH, Reithinger R, Worku DT, et al. Risk factors of visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa: a case-control study in Pokot territory of Kenya and Uganda. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:344-352. Abstract

50. Bern C, Joshi AB, Jha SN, et al. Factors associated with visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal: bed-net use is strongly protective. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;63:184-188.Full text  Abstract

51. Pennisi MG, Cardoso L, Baneth G, et al. LeishVet update and recommendations on feline leishmaniosis. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Jun 4;8:302.Full text  Abstract

52. Asfaram S, Fakhar M, Teshnizi SH. Is the cat an important reservoir host for visceral leishmaniasis? A systematic review with meta-analysis. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 2019 Jun 10;25:e20190012.Full text  Abstract

53. Kopterides P, Mourtzoukou EG, Skopelitis E, et al. Aspects of the association between leishmaniasis and malignant disorders. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:1181-1189. Abstract

54. Català A, Roé E, Dalmau J, et al. Anti-tumour necrosis factor-induced visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis: case report and review of the literature. Dermatology. 2015;230(3):204-7.Full text  Abstract

55. Arens K, Filippis C, Kleinfelder H, et al. Anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapeutics differentially affect Leishmania infection of human macrophages. Front Immunol. 2018 Jul 31;9:1772.Full text  Abstract

56. Stockdale L, Newton R. A review of preventative methods against human leishmaniasis infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Jun 20;7(6):e2278.Full text  Abstract

57. Matlashewski G, Arana B, Kroeger A, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis: elimination with existing interventions. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:322-325. Abstract

58. Romero GA, Boelaert M. Control of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e584.Full text  Abstract

59. González U, Pinart M, Sinclair D, et al, Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(8):CD008736.Full text  Abstract

60. Picado A, Singh SP, Rijal S, et al. Longlasting insecticidal nets for prevention of Leishmania donovani infection in India and Nepal: paired cluster randomised trial. BMJ. 2010;341:c6760.Full text  Abstract

61. Chowdhury R, Dotson E, Blackstock AJ, et al. Comparison of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying to control the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Mymensingh District, Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:662-667. Abstract

62. Costa CH. How effective is dog culling in controlling zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis? A critical evaluation of the science, politics and ethics behind this public health policy. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011;44:232-242.Full text  Abstract

63. Sousa-Paula LC, Silva LGD, Sales KGDS, et al. Failure of the dog culling strategy in controlling human visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: a screening coverage issue? PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Jun 26;13(6):e0007553.Full text  Abstract

64. Melby PC. Experimental leishmaniasis in humans: review. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Sep-Oct;13(5):1009-17. Abstract

65. Osman M, Mistry A, Keding A, et al. A third generation vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis: first-in-human trial of ChAd63-KH. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005527.Full text  Abstract

66. ClinicalTrials.gov. A study to assess the safety, efficacy and immunogenicity of leishmania vaccine ChAd63-KH in PKDL. Apr 2020 [internet publication].Full text

67. ClinicalTrials.gov. A study of a new leishmania vaccine candidate ChAd63-KH (Leish2a). Jan 2020 [internet publication].Full text

68. Boelaert M, Bhattacharya S, Chappuis F, et al. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests: visceral leishmaniasis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5(suppl):S30-S39.

69. Escobar MA, Martinez F, Scott Smith D, et al. American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (tegumentary): a diagnostic challenge. Trop Doct. 1992;22(suppl 1):69-78;63-64. Abstract

70. Reithinger R, Dujardin JC. Molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: current status and future applications. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:21-25.Full text  Abstract

71. Aronson N, Herwaldt BL, Libman M, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH). Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63:1539-1557.Full text  Abstract

72. Aronson NE, Joya CA. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: updates in diagnosis and management. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019 Mar;33(1):101-17. Abstract

73. Sevilha-Santos L, Dos Santos Júnior ACM, Medeiros-Silva V, et al. Accuracy of qPCR for quantifying Leishmania kDNA in different skin layers of patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019 Feb;25(2):242-7.Full text  Abstract

74. Cota GF, de Sousa MR, Demarqui FN, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of serologic and molecular methods for detecting visceral leishmaniasis in HIV infected patients: meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1665.Full text  Abstract

75. Cruz I, Chicharro C, Nieto J, et al. Comparison of new diagnostic tools for management of pediatric Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2343-2347.Full text  Abstract

76. Hailu A. Pre- and post-treatment antibody levels in visceral leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990;84:673-675. Abstract

77. De Almeida Silva L, Romero HD, Prata A, et al. Immunologic tests in patients after clinical cure of visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:739-743.Full text  Abstract

78. Boelaert M, Rijal S, Regmi S, et al. A comparative study of the effectiveness of diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:72-77.Full text  Abstract

79. Rosenthal E, Marty P, del Giudice P, et al. HIV and Leishmania coinfection: a review of 91 cases with focus on atypical locations of Leishmania. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:1093-1095.Full text  Abstract

80. Weigle KA, de Davalos M, Heredia P, et al. Diagnosis of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia: a comparison of seven methods. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987;36:489-496. Abstract

81. Kager PA, Rees PH. Splenic aspiration. Review of the literature. Trop Geogr Med. 1983;35:111-124. Abstract

82. Zijlstra EE, Ali MS, el-Hassan AM, et al. Kala-azar: a comparative study of parasitological methods and the direct agglutination test in diagnosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992;86:505-507. Abstract

83. da Silva MR, Stewart JM, Costa CH. Sensitivity of bone marrow aspirates in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:811-814. Abstract

84. Schuster FL, Sullivan JJ. Cultivation of clinically significant hemoflagellates. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15:374-389.Full text  Abstract

85. Sundar S, Rai M. Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002;9:951-958.Full text  Abstract

86. Maurya R, Singh RK, Kumar B, et al. Evaluation of PCR for diagnosis of Indian kala-azar and assessment of cure. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3038-3041.Full text  Abstract

87. Chappuis F, Rijal S, Soto A, et al. A meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis. BMJ. 2006;333:723.Full text  Abstract

88. Boelaert M, Verdonck K, Menten J, et al. Rapid tests for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with suspected disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(6):CD009135.Full text  Abstract

89. Boelaert M, El-Safi S, Hailu A, et al. Diagnostic tests for kala-azar: a multi-centre study of the freeze-dried DAT, rK39 strip test and KAtex in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:32-40. Abstract

90. de Assis TS, Braga AS, Pedras MJ, et al. Multi-centric prospective evaluation of rk39 rapid test and direct agglutination test for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105:81-85. Abstract

91. Harith AE, Kolk AH, Kager PA, et al. Evaluation of a newly developed direct agglutination test (DAT) for serodiagnosis and sero-epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis: comparison with IFAT and ELISA. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81:603-606. Abstract

92. Iqbal J, Hira PR, Saroj G, et al. Imported visceral leishmaniasis: diagnostic dilemmas and comparative analysis of three assays. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:475-479.Full text  Abstract

93. Marty P, Lelièvre A, Quaranta JF, et al. Detection by Western blot of four antigens characterizing acute clinical leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1995;89:690-691. Abstract

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97. Schaefer KU, Kurtzhals JA, Gachihi GS, et al. A prospective sero-epidemiological study of visceral leishmaniasis in Baringo District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1995;89:471-475. Abstract

98. Davies CR, Llanos-Cuentas EA, Pyke SD, et al. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes: an epidemiological study of infection and immunity. Epidemiol Infect. 1995;114:297-318. Abstract

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102. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC health information for international travel (yellow book): visceral leishmaniasis. Jun 2019 [internet publication].Full text

103. Gradoni L, López-Vélez R, Mokni M; World Health Organization/Regional Office for Europe. Manual on case management and surveillance of the leishmaniases in the WHO European region. Jul 2017 [internet publication].Full text

104. Burza S, Croft SL, Boelaert M. Leishmaniasis. Lancet. 2018 Sep 15;392(10151):951-70. Abstract

105. Martínez-Valencia AJ, Daza-Rivera CF, Rosales-Chilama M, et al. Clinical and parasitological factors in parasite persistence after treatment and clinical cure of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jul 13;11(7):e0005713.Full text  Abstract

106. Dereure J, Duong Thanh H, Lavabre-Bertrand T, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis: persistence of parasites in lymph nodes after clinical cure. J Infect. 2003 Jul;47(1):77-81. Abstract

107. Berman JD. U.S Food and Drug Administration approval of AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B) for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:49-51. Abstract

108. Berman JD, Badaro R, Thakur CP, et al. Efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) for visceral leishmaniasis in endemic developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 1998;76:25-32. Abstract

109. Bern C, Adler-Moore J, Berenguer J, et al. Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:917-924.Full text  Abstract

110. Olliaro PL, Guerin PJ, Gerstl S, et al. Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review of clinical studies done in India, 1980-2004. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:763-774. Abstract

111. Sundar S, Mehta H, Suresh AV, et al. Amphotericin B treatment for Indian visceral leishmaniasis: conventional versus lipid formulations. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:377-383.Full text  Abstract

112. Yardley V, Croft SL. A comparison of the activities of three amphotericin B lipid formulations against experimental visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2000 Feb;13(4):243-8. Abstract

113. Mueller M, Balasegaram M, Koummuki Y, et al. A comparison of liposomal amphotericin B with sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in pregnancy in Sudan. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;58:811-815.Full text  Abstract

114. Pagliano P, Carannante N, Rossi M, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis in pregnancy: a case series and a systematic review of the literature. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;55:229-233.Full text  Abstract

115. Sundar S, Chakravarty J. Antimony toxicity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Dec;7(12):4267-77.Full text  Abstract

116. Sundar S. Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2001;6:849-854.Full text  Abstract

117. Carnielli JBT, Crouch K, Forrester S, et al. A Leishmania infantum genetic marker associated with miltefosine treatment failure for visceral leishmaniasis. EBioMedicine. 2018 Oct;36:83-91.Full text  Abstract

118. Tiwary P, Kumar D, Sundar S. Identification and functional validation of a biomarker for the diagnosis of miltefosine relapse during visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Feb;98(2):492-6.Full text  Abstract

119. Croft SL, Yardley V. Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis. Curr Pharm Des. 2002;8:319-342. Abstract

120. Amato VS, Tuon FF, Siqueira AM, et al. Treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis in Latin America: systematic review. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:266-274.Full text  Abstract

121. Oliveira LF, Schubach AO, Martins MM, et al. Systematic review of the adverse effects of cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment in the New World. Acta Tropica. 2011;118:87-96. Abstract

122. Heras-Mosteiro J, Monge-Maillo B, Pinart M, et al. Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 17;11:CD005067.Full text  Abstract

123. González U, Pinart M, Rengifo-Pardo M, et al. Interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD004834.Full text  Abstract

124. Morizot G, Kendjo E, Mouri O, et al. Travelers with cutaneous leishmaniasis cured without systemic therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Aug;57(3):370-80.Full text  Abstract

125. López-Carvajal L, Cardona-Arias JA, Zapata-Cardona MI, et al. Efficacy of cryotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: meta-analyses of clinical trials. BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Jul 26;16:360.Full text  Abstract

126. Cardona-Arias JA, Vélez ID, López-Carvajal L. Efficacy of thermotherapy to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0122569.Full text  Abstract

127. Ben Salah A, Ben Messaoud N, Guedri E, et al. Topical paromomycin with or without gentamicin for cutaneous leishmaniasis. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:524-532. Abstract

128. Sosa N, Pascale JM, Jiménez AI, et al. Topical paromomycin for New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 May 2;13(5):e0007253.Full text  Abstract

129. Soto J, Soto P, Ajata A, et al. Topical 15% paromomycin-aquaphilic for Bolivian Leishmania braziliensis cutaneous leishmaniasis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 15;68(5):844-9.Full text  Abstract

130. Kim DH, Chung HJ, Bleys J, et al. Is paromomycin an effective and safe treatment against cutaneous leishmaniasis? A meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3(2):e381.Full text  Abstract

131. Brito NC, Rabello A, Cota GF. Efficacy of pentavalent antimoniate intralesional infiltration therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2017 Sep 19;12(9):e0184777.Full text  Abstract

132. Galvão EL, Rabello A, Cota GF. Efficacy of azole therapy for tegumentary leishmaniasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017 Oct 9;12(10):e0186117.Full text  Abstract

133. Chakravarty J, Sundar S. Current and emerging medications for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2019 Jul;20(10):1251-65. Abstract

134. Roussel M, Nacher M, Fremont G, et al. Comparison between one and two injections of pentamidine isethionate, at 7 mg/kg in each injection, in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:307-314. Abstract

135. Lai A Fat EJ, Vrede MA, Soetosenojo RM, et al. Pentamidine, the drug of choice for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41:796-800. Abstract

136. Christen JR, Bourreau E, Demar M, et al. Use of the intramuscular route to administer pentamidine isethionate in Leishmania guyanensis cutaneous leishmaniasis increases the risk of treatment failure. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018 Jul - Aug;24:31-6. Abstract

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