Acromegaly

References

Key articles

Katznelson L, Laws ER Jr, Melmed S, et al; Endocrine Society. Acromegaly: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Nov;99(11):3933-51.Full text  Abstract

Giustina A, Barkhoudarian G, Beckers A, et al. Multidisciplinary management of acromegaly: a consensus. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2020 Dec;21(4):667-78. Abstract

Fleseriu M, Biller BMK, Freda PU, et al. A Pituitary Society update to acromegaly management guidelines. Pituitary. 2021 Feb;24(1):1-13.Full text  Abstract

Giustina A, Chanson P, Kleinberg D, et al; Acromegaly Consensus Group. Expert consensus document: a consensus on the medical treatment of acromegaly. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Apr;10(4):243-8.Full text  Abstract

Giustina A, Barkan A, Beckers A, et al. A consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly comorbidities: an update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr 1;105(4):dgz096. Abstract

Buchfelder M, Schlaffer SM. The surgical treatment of acromegaly. Pituitary. 2017 Feb;20(1):76-83. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Lopes MBS. The 2017 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the pituitary gland: a summary. Acta Neuropathol. 2017 Oct;134(4):521-35. Abstract

3. Melmed S. Pituitary-tumor endocrinopathies. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 5;382(10):937-50. Abstract

4. Petrossians P, Daly AF, Natchev E, et al. Acromegaly at diagnosis in 3173 patients from the Liège Acromegaly Survey (LAS) Database. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017 Oct;24(10):505-18.Full text  Abstract

5. Horvath A, Stratakis CA. Clinical and molecular genetics of acromegaly: MEN-1, Carney complex, McCune-Albright syndrome, familial acromegaly and genetic defects in sporadic tumors. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2008;9:1-11. Abstract

6. Ezzat S, Asa SL, Couldwell WT, et al. The prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a systematic review. Cancer. 2004 Aug 1;101(3):613-9.Full text  Abstract

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8. Lavrentaki A, Paluzzi A, Wass JA, et al. Epidemiology of acromegaly: review of population studies. Pituitary. 2017 Feb;20(1):4-9.Full text  Abstract

9. Melmed S. Acromegaly pathogenesis and treatment. J Clin Invest. 2009 Nov;119(11):3189-202.Full text  Abstract

10. Crisafulli S, Luxi N, Sultana J, et al. Global epidemiology of acromegaly: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2021 Jul 1;185(2):251-63. Abstract

11. Holdaway IM, Rajasoorya C. Epidemiology of acromegaly. Pituitary. 1999 Jun;2(1):29-41. Abstract

12. Melmed S. Medical progress: Acromegaly. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 14;355(24):2558-73. Abstract

13. Trivellin G, Daly AF, Faucz FR, et al. Gigantism and acromegaly due to Xq26 microduplications and GPR101 mutation. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:2363-2374.Full text  Abstract

14. Melmed S. Update in pituitary disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:331-338.Full text  Abstract

15. Nachtigall L, Delgado A, Swearingen B, et al. Changing patterns in diagnosis and therapy of acromegaly over two decades. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jun;93(6):2035-41.Full text  Abstract

16. Katznelson L, Laws ER Jr, Melmed S, et al; Endocrine Society. Acromegaly: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Nov;99(11):3933-51.Full text  Abstract

17. Giustina A, Chanson P, Bronstein MD, et al; Acromegaly Consensus Group. A consensus on criteria for cure of acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jul;95(7):3141-8.Full text  Abstract

18. Giustina A, Barkhoudarian G, Beckers A, et al. Multidisciplinary management of acromegaly: a consensus. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2020 Dec;21(4):667-78. Abstract

19. Muhammad A, Neggers SJ, van der Lely AJ. Pregnancy and acromegaly. Pituitary. 2017 Feb;20(1):179-84.Full text  Abstract

20. Ribeiro-Oliveira A Jr, Faje AT, Barkan AL. Limited utility of oral glucose tolerance test in biochemically active acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jan;164(1):17-22.Full text  Abstract

21. Fleseriu M, Hashim IA, Karavitaki N, et al. Hormonal replacement in hypopituitarism in adults: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Nov;101(11):3888-921.Full text  Abstract

22. Fleseriu M, Bodach ME, Tumialan LM, et al. Congress of Neurological Surgeons systematic review and evidence-based guideline for pretreatment endocrine evaluation of patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Neurosurgery. 2016 Oct;79(4):E527-9.Full text  Abstract

23. Freda PU, Beckers AM, Katznelson L, et al; Endocrine Society. Pituitary incidentaloma: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Apr;96(4):894-904.Full text  Abstract

24. Hofman MS, Kong G, Neels OC, et al. High management impact of Ga-68 DOTATATE (GaTate) PET/CT for imaging neuroendocrine and other somatostatin expressing tumours. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2012 Feb;56(1):40-7. Abstract

25. Scangas GA, Laws ER Jr. Pituitary incidentalomas. Pituitary. 2014 Oct;17(5):486-91. Abstract

26. Hardy J. Transphenoidal microsurgery of the normal and pathological pituitary. Clin Neurosurg. 1969;16:185-217. Abstract

27. Knosp E, Steiner E, Kitz K, et al. Pituitary adenomas with invasion of the cavernous sinus space: a magnetic resonance imaging classification compared with surgical findings. Neurosurgery. 1993 Oct;33(4):610-7; discussion 617-8. Abstract

28. Fleseriu M, Biller BMK, Freda PU, et al. A Pituitary Society update to acromegaly management guidelines. Pituitary. 2021 Feb;24(1):1-13.Full text  Abstract

29. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: neuroendocrine imaging. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

30. Katznelson L, Atkinson JL, Cook DM, at al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly - 2011 update. Endocr Pract. 2011 Jul-Aug;17 Suppl 4:1-44.Full text  Abstract

31. Giustina A, Chanson P, Kleinberg D, et al; Acromegaly Consensus Group. Expert consensus document: a consensus on the medical treatment of acromegaly. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Apr;10(4):243-8.Full text  Abstract

32. Orme SM, McNally RJ, Cartwright RA, et al. Mortality and cancer incidence in acromegaly: a retrospective cohort study. United Kingdom Acromegaly Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Aug;83(8):2730-4.Full text  Abstract

33. Holdaway IM, Bolland MJ, Gamble GD. A meta-analysis of the effect of lowering serum levels of GH and IGF-I on mortality in acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Aug;159(2):89-95.Full text  Abstract

34. Giustina A, Barkan A, Beckers A, et al. A consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly comorbidities: an update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr 1;105(4):dgz096. Abstract

35. Park KH, Lee EJ, Seo GH, et al. Risk for acromegaly-related comorbidities by sex in Korean acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr 1;105(4):dgz317. Abstract

36. Buchfelder M, Schlaffer SM. The surgical treatment of acromegaly. Pituitary. 2017 Feb;20(1):76-83. Abstract

37. Laws ER. Surgery for acromegaly: evolution of the techniques and outcomes. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2008;9:67-70. Abstract

38. Ezzat S, Caspar-Bell GM, Chik CL, et al. Predictive markers for postsurgical medical management of acromegaly: a systematic review and consensus treatment guideline. Endocr Pract. 2019 Apr;25(4):379-93. Abstract

39. Fahlbusch R, Kleinberg D, Biller B, et al. Surgical debulking of pituitary adenomas improves responsiveness to octreotide lar in the treatment of acromegaly. Pituitary. 2017 Dec;20(6):668-75. Abstract

40. Gadelha MR, Wildemberg LE, Bronstein MD, et al. Somatostatin receptor ligands in the treatment of acromegaly. Pituitary. 2017 Feb;20(1):100-8. Abstract

41. Caron PJ, Bevan JS, Petersenn S, et al; PRIMARYS Investigators. Tumor shrinkage with lanreotide Autogel 120 mg as primary therapy in acromegaly: results of a prospective multicenter clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr;99(4):1282-90. Abstract

42. Caron PJ, Bevan JS, Petersenn S, et al; PRIMARYS Investigators Group. Effects of lanreotide Autogel primary therapy on symptoms and quality-of-life in acromegaly: data from the PRIMARYS study. Pituitary. 2016 Apr;19(2):149-57. Abstract

43. Colao A, Pivonello R, Rosato F, et al. First-line octreotide-LAR therapy induces tumour shrinkage and controls hormone excess in patients with acromegaly: results from an open, prospective, multicentre trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Mar;64(3):342-51. Abstract

44. Cozzi R, Montini M, Attanasio R, et al. Primary treatment of acromegaly with octreotide LAR: a long-term (up to nine years) prospective study of its efficacy in the control of disease activity and tumor shrinkage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Apr;91(4):1397-403.Full text  Abstract

45. Giustina A, Mazziotti G, Torri V, et al. Meta-analysis on the effects of octreotide on tumor mass in acromegaly. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36411.Full text  Abstract

46. Murray RD, Melmed S. A critical analysis of clinically available somatostatin analog formulations for therapy of acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Aug;93(8):2957-68. Abstract

47. Mazziotti G, Giustina A. Effects of lanreotide SR and Autogel on tumor mass in patients with acromegaly: a systematic review. Pituitary. 2010;13(1):60-7. Abstract

48. Neggers SJ, Pronin V, Balcere I, et al; LEAD Study Group. Lanreotide Autogel 120 mg at extended dosing intervals in patients with acromegaly biochemically controlled with octreotide LAR: the LEAD study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2015 Sep;173(3):313-23. Abstract

49. Samson SL, Nachtigall LB, Fleseriu M, et al. Maintenance of acromegaly control in patients switching from injectable somatostatin receptor ligands to oral octreotide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Oct 1;105(10):e3785-e97.Full text  Abstract

50. Melmed S, Popovic V, Bidlingmaier M, et al. Safety and efficacy of oral octreotide in acromegaly: results of a multicenter phase III trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Apr;100(4):1699-708.Full text  Abstract

51. ClinicalTrials.gov. Comparison of oral octreotide capsules to injectable somatostatin analogs in acromegaly (MPOWERED). December 2017 [internet publication].Full text

52. Colao A, Bronstein MD, Freda P, et al. Pasireotide versus octreotide in acromegaly: a head-to-head superiority study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Mar;99(3):791-9.Full text  Abstract

53. Cuevas-Ramos D, Fleseriu M. Pasireotide: a novel treatment for patients with acromegaly. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2016 Jan 11;10:227-39. Abstract

54. Gadelha MR, Bronstein MD, Brue T, et al; Pasireotide C2402 Study Group. Pasireotide versus continued treatment with octreotide or lanreotide in patients with inadequately controlled acromegaly (PAOLA): a randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Nov;2(11):875-84. Abstract

55. Bronstein MD, Fleseriu M, Neggers S, et al; Pasireotide C2305 Study Group. Switching patients with acromegaly from octreotide to pasireotide improves biochemical control: crossover extension to a randomized, double-blind, phase III study. BMC Endocr Disord. 2016 Apr 2;16:16. Abstract

56. Schmid HA, Brue T, Colao A, et al. Effect of pasireotide on glucose- and growth hormone-related biomarkers in patients with inadequately controlled acromegaly. Endocrine. 2016 Jul;53(1):210-9. Abstract

57. Fleseriu M, Rusch E, Geer EB. Safety and tolerability of pasireotide long-acting release in acromegaly-results from the acromegaly, open-label, multicenter, safety monitoring program for treating patients who have a need to receive medical therapy (ACCESS) study. Endocrine. 2017 Jan;55(1):247-55.Full text  Abstract

58. Sandret L, Maison P, Chanson P. Place of cabergoline in acromegaly: a meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 May;96(5):1327-35.Full text  Abstract

59. Tritos NA, Biller BM. Pegvisomant: a growth hormone receptor antagonist used in the treatment of acromegaly. Pituitary. 2017 Feb;20(1):129-35. Abstract

60. Tritos NA, Chanson P, Jimenez C, et al. Effectiveness of first-line pegvisomant monotherapy in acromegaly: an ACROSTUDY analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017 Feb;176(2):213-20. Abstract

61. Neggers SJ, Franck SE, de Rooij FW, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of pegvisomant in combination with long-acting somatostatin analogs in acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct;99(10):3644-52. Abstract

62. Trainer PJ, Drake WM, Katznelson L, et al. Treatment of acromegaly with the growth hormone-receptor antagonist pegvisomant. N Engl J Med. 2000 Apr 20;342(16):1171-7.Full text  Abstract

63. Droste M, Domberg J, Buchfelder M, et al. Therapy of acromegalic patients exacerbated by concomitant type 2 diabetes requires higher pegvisomant doses to normalise IGF1 levels. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Jul;171(1):59-68. Abstract

64. van der Lely AJ, Biller BM, Brue T, et al. Long-term safety of pegvisomant in patients with acromegaly: comprehensive review of 1288 subjects in ACROSTUDY. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 May;97(5):1589-97. Abstract

65. Barkan AL, Halasz I, Dornfeld KJ, et al. Pituitary irradiation is ineffective in normalizing plasma insulin-like growth factor I in patients with acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Oct;82(10):3187-91.Full text  Abstract

66. Gheorghiu ML. Updates in outcomes of stereotactic radiation therapy in acromegaly. Pituitary. 2017 Feb;20(1):154-68. Abstract

67. Castinetti F, Morange I, Dufour H, et al. Radiotherapy and radiosurgery in acromegaly. Pituitary. 2009;12(1):3-10. Abstract

68. Alonso CE, Bunevicius A, Trifiletti DM, et al. Safety and efficacy of repeat radiosurgery for acromegaly: an international multi-institutional study. J Neurooncol. 2019 Nov;145(2):301-7. Abstract

69. Almeida JP, Ruiz-Treviño AS, Liang B, et al. Reoperation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: report on an endonasal endoscopic series with a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2018 Aug;129(2):404-16.Full text  Abstract

70. Stone JC, Clark J, Cuneo R, et al. Estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for the treatment of acromegaly: a meta-analysis of published observational studies. Pituitary. 2014 Jun;17(3):284-95. Abstract

71. Balili I, Barkan A. Tamoxifen as a therapeutic agent in acromegaly. Pituitary. 2014 Dec;17(6):500-4. Abstract

72. Duarte FH, Jallad RS, Bronstein MD. Clomiphene citrate for treatment of acromegaly not controlled by conventional therapies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 May;100(5):1863-9. Abstract

73. Pita-Gutierrez F, Pertega-Diaz S, Pita-Fernandez S, et al. Place of preoperative treatment of acromegaly with somatostatin analog on surgical outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 25;8(4):e61523.Full text  Abstract

74. Zhang L, Wu X, Yan Y, et al. Preoperative somatostatin analogs treatment in acromegalic patients with macroadenomas. A meta-analysis. Brain Dev. 2015 Feb;37(2):181-90. Abstract

75. Fleseriu M, Hoffman AR, Katznelson L, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology disease state clinical review: management of acromegaly patients: what is the role of pre-operative medical therapy? Endocr Pract. 2015 Jun;21(6):668-73.Full text  Abstract

76. Maione L, Brue T, Beckers A, et al. Changes in the management and comorbidities of acromegaly over three decades: the French Acromegaly Registry. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017 May;176(5):645-55. Abstract

77. van der Lely AJ, Gomez R, Pleil A, et al. Development of ACRODAT®, a new software medical device to assess disease activity in patients with acromegaly. Pituitary. 2017 Dec;20(6):692-701.Full text  Abstract

78. Giustina A, Bevan JS, Bronstein MD, et al. SAGIT®: clinician-reported outcome instrument for managing acromegaly in clinical practice--development and results from a pilot study. Pituitary. 2016 Feb;19(1):39-49.Full text  Abstract

79. Kreitschmann-Andermahr I, Buchfelder M, Kleist B, et al. Predictors of quality of life in 165 patients with acromegaly: results from a single-center study. Endocr Pract. 2017 Jan;23(1):79-88. Abstract

80. Geraedts VJ, Andela CD, Stalla GK, et al. Predictors of quality of life in acromegaly: no consensus on biochemical parameters. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2017 Mar 3;8:40.Full text  Abstract

81. Carmichael JD, Bonert VS, Nuño M, et al. Acromegaly clinical trial methodology impact on reported biochemical efficacy rates of somatostatin receptor ligand treatments: a meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May;99(5):1825-33.Full text  Abstract

82. Potorac I, Petrossians P, Daly AF, et al. T2-weighted MRI signal predicts hormone and tumor responses to somatostatin analogs in acromegaly. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016 Nov;23(11):871-81. Abstract

83. Muhammad A, van der Lely AJ, Delhanty PJD, et al. Efficacy and safety of switching to pasireotide in patients with acromegaly controlled with pegvisomant and first-generation somatostatin analogues (PAPE study). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Feb 1;103(2):586-95. Abstract

84. Donoho DA, Bose N, Zada G, et al. Management of aggressive growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2017 Feb;20(1):169-78. Abstract

85. Colao A, Ferone D, Marzullo P, et al. Systemic complications of acromegaly: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management. Endocr Rev. 2004 Feb;25(1):102-52.Full text  Abstract

86. Maison P, Tropeano AI, Macquin-Mavier I, et al. Impact of somatostatin analogs on the heart in acromegaly: a metaanalysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 May;92(5):1743-7.Full text  Abstract

87. Herrmann BL, Wessendorf TE, Ajaj W, et al. Effects of octreotide on sleep apnoea and tongue volume (magnetic resonance imaging) in patients with acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 Sep;151(3):309-15.Full text  Abstract

88. Biermasz NR, Pereira AM, Smit JW, et al. Morbidity after long-term remission for acromegaly: persisting joint-related complaints cause reduced quality of life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;90(5):2731-9.Full text  Abstract

89. Tirosh A, Shimon I. Complications of acromegaly: thyroid and colon. Pituitary. 2017 Feb;20(1):70-5. Abstract

90. Terzolo M, Reimondo G, Berchialla P, et al. Acromegaly is associated with increased cancer risk: a survey in Italy. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017 Sep;24(9):495-504. Abstract

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