Chronic venous insufficiency

References

Key articles

Eklof B, Rutherford RB, Bergan JJ, et al. Revision of the CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders: consensus statement. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Dec;40(6):1248-52. Abstract

Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Smith PD, et al. Chronic venous disease. N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 3;355(5):488-98. Abstract

American College of Phlebology. Treatment of superficial venous disease of the lower leg. February 2016 [internet publication].Full text

O'Donnell TF Jr., Passman MA, Marston WA, et al; Society for Vascular Surgery; American Venous Forum. Management of venous leg ulcers: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery ® and the American Venous Forum. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Aug;60(suppl 2):3S-59S.Full text  Abstract

Raju S, Neglen P. Clinical practice: chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2319-2327. Abstract

O'Meara S, Cullum NA, Nelson EA. Compression for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(11):CD000265.Full text  Abstract

Musani MH, Matta F, Yaekoub AY, et al. Venous compression for prevention of postthrombotic syndrome: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2010 Aug;123(8):735-40. Abstract

Gohel MS, Heatley F, Liu X, et al. A randomized trial of early endovenous ablation in venous ulceration. N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 24;378(22):2105-14.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Eklof B, Rutherford RB, Bergan JJ, et al. Revision of the CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders: consensus statement. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Dec;40(6):1248-52. Abstract

2. Porter JM, Moneta GL. Reporting standards in venous disease: an update. J Vasc Surg. 1995 Apr;21(4):635-45. Abstract

3. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, et al. 'Real' epidemiology of varicose veins and chronic venous diseases: the San Valentino Vascular Screening Project. Angiology. 2002 Mar-Apr;53(2):119-30. Abstract

4. Evans CJ, Fowkes FG, Ruckley CV, et al. Prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in men and women in the general population: Edinburgh Vein Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999 Mar;53(3):149-53.Full text  Abstract

5. Singer AJ, Tassiopoulos A, Kirsner RS. Evaluation and management of lower-extremity ulcers. N Engl J Med. 2017 Oct 19;377(16):1559-67. Abstract

6. Gohel MS, Barwell JR, Taylor M, et al. Long term results of compression therapy alone versus compression plus surgery in chronic venous ulceration (ESCHAR): randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2007 Jul 14;335(7610):83.Full text  Abstract

7. Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Smith PD, et al. Chronic venous disease. N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 3;355(5):488-98. Abstract

8. Schulman S, Lindmarker P, Holmström M, et al. Post-thrombotic syndrome, recurrence, and death 10 years after the first episode of venous thromboembolism treated with warfarin for 6 weeks or 6 months. J Thromb Haemost. 2006 Apr;4(4):734-42.Full text  Abstract

9. Criqui MH, Denenberg JO, Bergan J, et al. Risk factors for chronic venous disease: the San Diego Population Study. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Aug;46(2):331-7.Full text  Abstract

10. Kahn SR, Ginsberg JS. The post-thrombotic syndrome: current knowledge, controversies, and directions for future research. Blood Rev. 2002 Sep;16(3):155-65. Abstract

11. Hull RD, Liang J, Townshend G. Long-term low-molecular-weight heparin and the post-thrombotic syndrome: a systematic review. Am J Med. 2011 Aug;124(8):756-65.Full text  Abstract

12. Duque MI, Yosipovitch G, Chan YH, et al. Itch, pain, and burning sensation are common symptoms in mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency with an impact on quality of life. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Sep;53(3):504-8. Abstract

13. Couzan S, Leizorovicz A, Laporte S, et al. A randomized double-blind trial of upward progressive versus degressive compressive stockings in patients with moderate to severe chronic venous insufficiency. J Vasc Surg. 2012 Nov;56(5):1344-1350.e1. Abstract

14. American College of Phlebology. Treatment of superficial venous disease of the lower leg. February 2016 [internet publication].Full text

15. O'Donnell TF Jr., Passman MA, Marston WA, et al; Society for Vascular Surgery; American Venous Forum. Management of venous leg ulcers: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery ® and the American Venous Forum. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Aug;60(suppl 2):3S-59S.Full text  Abstract

16. Raju S, Neglen P. Clinical practice: chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2319-2327. Abstract

17. Rutherford RB, Padberg FT Jr, Comerota AJ, et al. Venous severity scoring: an adjunct to venous outcome assessment. J Vasc Surg. 2000;31:1307-1312. Abstract

18. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine; American College of Radiology; Society of Pediatric Radiology; Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound. AIUM practice guideline for the performance of peripheral venous ultrasound examinations. J Ultrasound Med. 2015 Aug;34(8):1-9.Full text  Abstract

19. Wittens C, Davies AH, Baekegaard N, et al; European Society for Vascular Surgery. Editor's choice - management of chronic venous disease: clinical practice guidelines of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS). Eur J Endovasc Surg. 2015 Jun;49(6):678-737.Full text  Abstract

20. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Varicose veins: diagnosis and management. July 2013 [internet publication].Full text

21. Amsler F, Blättler W. Compression therapy for occupational leg symptoms and chronic venous disorders: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2008 Mar;35(3):366-72. Abstract

22. Cohen JM, Akl EA, Kahn SR. Pharmacologic and compression therapies for postthrombotic syndrome: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2):308-20. Abstract

23. Raju S, Hollis K, Neglen P. Use of compression stockings in chronic venous disease: patient compliance and efficacy. Ann Vasc Surg. 2007 Nov;21(6):790-5. Abstract

24. O'Meara S, Cullum NA, Nelson EA. Compression for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(11):CD000265.Full text  Abstract

25. Franks PJ, Oldroyd MI, Dickson D, et al. Risk factors for leg ulcer recurrence: a randomized trial of two types of compression stocking. Age Ageing. 1995 Nov;24(6):490-4. Abstract

26. Musani MH, Matta F, Yaekoub AY, et al. Venous compression for prevention of postthrombotic syndrome: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2010 Aug;123(8):735-40. Abstract

27. Prandoni P, Noventa F, Quintavalla R, et al. Thigh-length versus below-knee compression elastic stockings for prevention of the postthrombotic syndrome in patients with proximal-venous thrombosis: a randomized trial. Blood. 2012 Feb 9;119(6):1561-5.Full text  Abstract

28. Meissner MH, Eklof B, Smith PC, et al. Secondary chronic venous disorders. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Dec;46(suppl S):68S-83S. Abstract

29. Jull A, Waters J, Arroll B. Pentoxifylline for treatment of venous leg ulcers: a systematic review. Lancet. 2002 May 4;359(9317):1550-4. Abstract

30. Coleridge-Smith P, Lok C, Ramelet AA. Venous leg ulcer: a meta-analysis of adjunctive therapy with micronized purified flavonoid fraction. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005 Aug;30(2):198-208. Abstract

31. Gohel MS, Davies AH. Pharmacological treatment in patients with C4, C5 and C6 venous disease. Phlebology. 2010 Oct;25(suppl 1):35-41. Abstract

32. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(11):CD003230.Full text  Abstract

33. Barwell JR, Davies CE, Deacon J, et al. Comparison of surgery and compression with compression alone in chronic venous ulceration (ESCHAR study): randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Jun 5;363(9424):1854-9. Abstract

34. Nandhra S, El-sheikha J, Carradice D, et al. A randomized clinical trial of endovenous laser ablation versus conventional surgery for small saphenous varicose veins. J Vasc Surg. 2015 Mar;61(3):741-6. Abstract

35. Gohel MS, Heatley F, Liu X, et al. A randomized trial of early endovenous ablation in venous ulceration. N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 24;378(22):2105-14.Full text  Abstract

36. Rathbun S, Norris A, Stoner J. Efficacy and safety of endovenous foam sclerotherapy: meta-analysis for treatment of venous disorders. Phlebology. 2012 Apr;27(3):105-17. Abstract

37. van den Bos R, Arends L, Kockaert M, et al. Endovenous therapies of lower extremity varicosities: a meta analysis. J Vasc Surg. 2009 Jan;49(1):230-9. Abstract

38. Tenbrook JA Jr, Iafrati MD, O'Donnell TF Jr, et al. Systematic review of outcomes after surgical management of venous disease incorporating subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Mar;39(3):583-9. Abstract

39. Raju S. Endovenous treatment of patients with iliac-caval venous obstruction. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 2008 Feb;49(1):27-33. Abstract

40. Masuda EM, Kistner RL. Long-term results of venous valve reconstruction: a four- to-twenty-one-year follow-up. J Vasc Surg. 1994 Mar;19(3):391-403. Abstract

41. Carpentier PH, Blaise S, Satger B, et al. A multicenter randomized controlled trial evaluating balneotherapy in patients with advanced chronic venous insufficiency. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Feb;59(2):447-454.e1. Abstract

42. Kirsner RS, Marston WA, Snyder RJ, et al. Spray-applied cell therapy with human allogeneic fibroblasts and keratinocytes for the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers: a phase 2, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2012 Sep 15;380(9846):977-85. Abstract

43. Perrin M, Ramelet AA. Pharmacological treatment of primary chronic venous disease: rationale, results and unanswered questions. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011 Jan;41(1):117-25.Full text  Abstract

44. Rabe E, Jaeger KA, Bulitta M, et al. Calcium dobesilate in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Phlebology. 2011 Jun;26(4):162-8. Abstract

45. Rabe E, Stücker M, Esperester A, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a red-vine-leaf extract in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency - results of a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011 Apr;41(4):540-7.Full text  Abstract

46. Jull A, Slark J, Parsons J. Prescribed exercise with compression vs compression alone in treating patients with venous leg ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2018 Nov 1;154(11):1304-11. Abstract

47. Gloviczki P, Comerota AJ, Dalsing MC, et al. The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum. J Vasc Surg. 2011 May;53(suppl 5):2S-48S. Abstract

48. Kundu S, Lurie F, Millward SF, et al; American Venous Forum; Society of Interventional Radiography. Recommended reporting standards for endovenous ablation for the treatment of venous insufficiency: joint statement of the American Venous Forum and the Society of Interventional Radiology. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2007 Sep;18(9):1073-80.Full text  Abstract

49. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Endovenous mechanochemical ablation for varicose veins. May 2016 [internet publication].Full text

50. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy for varicose veins. February 2013 [internet publication].Full text

51. Raju S, Hollis K, Neglen P. Use of compression stockings in chronic venous disease: patient compliance and efficacy. Ann Vasc Surg. 2007;21:790-795. Abstract

52. National Institute for Health Care and Exellence. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing. Feb 2020 [internet publication].Full text

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