Acute pharyngitis

References

Key articles

Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 15;55(10):e86-102.Full text  Abstract

Public Health England. UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations B 9: investigation of throat related specimens. Apr 2015 [internet publication].Full text

Spinks A, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Nov 5;(11):CD000023.Full text  Abstract

van Driel ML, De Sutter AI, Thorning S, et al. Different antibiotic treatments for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Mar 17;3:CD004406.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 15;55(10):e86-102.Full text  Abstract

2. Penn RL. Francisella tularensis. In: Mandell, GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2005:2674-85.

3. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 30;382(18):1708-20.Full text  Abstract

4. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020 Mar 17;323(11):1061-9.Full text  Abstract

5. Zhang L, Peres TG, Silva MVF, et al. What we know so far about coronavirus disease 2019 in children: a meta-analysis of 551 laboratory-confirmed cases. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2020 Aug;55(8):2115-27.Full text  Abstract

6. Patel NA. Pediatric COVID-19: systematic review of the literature. Am J Otolaryngol. 2020 Sep - Oct;41(5):102573.Full text  Abstract

7. Dunmire SK, Hogquist KA, Balfour HH. Infectious mononucleosis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2015;390(pt 1):211-40.Full text  Abstract

8. Orenstein WA, Perry RT, Halsey NA. The clinical significance of measles: a review. J Infect Dis. 2004 May 1;189(suppl 1):S4-16.Full text  Abstract

9. Flores AR & Caserta MT. Pharyngitis. In: Bennett J, Dolin R, Blaser M, eds. Mandell, Douglas,and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier;2019:824-31.

10. Riordan T. Human infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum (Necrobacillosis), with a focus on Lemierre's syndrome. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007 Oct;20(4):622-59.Full text  Abstract

11. Kuppalli K, Livorsi D, Talati NJ, et al. Lemierre's syndrome due to Fusobacterium necrophorum. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;12(10):808-15.Full text  Abstract

12. Tanz RR, Shulman ST. Chronic pharyngeal carriage of group A streptococci. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Feb;26(2):175-6.Full text  Abstract

13. Frost HM, Fritsche TR, Hall MC. Beta-hemolytic nongroup A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. J Pediatr. 2018 Dec 6;206:268-73;e1. Abstract

14. Thai TN, Dale AP, Ebell MH. Signs and symptoms of Group A versus non-Group A strep throat: a meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 2018 May 23;35(3):231-8.Full text  Abstract

15. Malmberg S, Petrén S, Gunnarsson R, et al. Acute sore throat and <i>Fusobacterium necrophorum</i> in primary healthcare: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2021 Jun 4;11(6):e042816.Full text  Abstract

16. Sayad E, Zeid CA, Hajjar RE, et al. The burden of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum pharyngitis: a systematic review and management algorithm. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2021 Jul;146:110759.Full text  Abstract

17. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Factsheet on tularaemia. Jul 2017[internet publication].Full text

18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pharyngitis (strep throat). Nov 2018 [internet publication].Full text

19. Bisno AL. Acute pharyngitis. New Engl J Med. 2001 Jan 18;344(3):205-11. Abstract

20. Penn RL. Francisella tularensis (Tularemia). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 8th ed., vol. 2. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2015:2590-602;e3.

21. Glavey SV, Keane N, Power M, et al. Posterior pharyngeal candidiasis in the absence of clinically overt oral involvement: a cross-sectional study. Lung. 2013 Dec;191(6):663-8. Abstract

22. Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti A, Marchione P, et al. Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Nov 22;11:CD004407.Full text  Abstract

23. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).Jun 2022 [internet publication].Full text

24. Cooper RJ, Hoffman JR, Bartlett JG, et al. Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute pharyngitis in adults: background. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Mar 20;134(6):509-17. Abstract

25. Meland E, Digranes A, Skjaerven R. Assessment of clinical features predicting streptococcal pharyngitis. Scand J Infect Dis. 1993;25(2):177-83. Abstract

26. Cohen JF, Pauchard JY, Hjelm N, et al. Efficacy and safety of rapid tests to guide antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jun 4;6(6):CD012431.Full text  Abstract

27. Luo R, Sickler J, Vahidnia F, et al. Diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in the United States, 2011-2015. BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 26;19(1):193.Full text  Abstract

28. Cohen JF, Bertille N, Cohen R, et al. Rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 4;(7):CD010502.Full text  Abstract

29. Lean WL, Arnup S, Danchin M, et al. Rapid diagnostic tests for group A streptococcal pharyngitis: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2014 Oct;134(4):771-81. Abstract

30. Barakat AJ, Evans C, Gill M, et al. Rapid strep testing in children with recently treated streptococcal pharyngitis. Pediatr Investig. 2019 Mar 22;3(1):27-30.Full text  Abstract

31. Rao A, Berg B, Quezada T, et al. Diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children in a primary care setting: impact of point-of-care polymerase chain reaction. BMC Pediatr. 2019 Jan 16;19(1):24.Full text  Abstract

32. Felsenstein S, Faddoul D, Sposto R, et al. Molecular and clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Nov;52(11):3884-9.Full text  Abstract

33. Uhl JR, Adamson SC, Vetter EA, et al. Comparison of LightCycler PCR, rapid antigen immunoassay, and culture for detection of group A streptococci from throat swabs. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jan;41(1):242-9.Full text  Abstract

34. Public Health England. UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations B 9: investigation of throat related specimens. Apr 2015 [internet publication].Full text

35. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Epstein-Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis. Sep 2020 [internet publication].Full text

36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Appropriate antibiotic use - adult treatment recommendations: pharyngitis. Oct 2017 [internet publication].Full text

37. Centor RM, Witherspoon JM, Dalton HP, et al. The diagnosis of strep throat in adults in the emergency room. Med Decis Making. 1981;1(3):239-46.Full text  Abstract

38. McIsaac WJ, White D, Tannenbaum D, et al. A clinical score to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with sore throat. CMAJ. 1998 Jan 13;158(1):75-83.Full text  Abstract

39. Little P, Hobbs FD, Moore M, et al. Clinical score and rapid antigen detection test to guide antibiotic use for sore throats: randomised controlled trial of PRISM (primary care streptococcal management). BMJ. 2013 Oct 10;347:f5806.Full text  Abstract

40. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sore throat (acute): antimicrobial prescribing. Jan 2018 [internet publication].Full text

41. Tanz RR, Ranniger EJ, Rippe JL, et al. Highly sensitive molecular assay for group A streptococci over-identifies carriers and may impact outpatient antimicrobial stewardship. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019 Aug;38(8):769-74.Full text  Abstract

42. Little P, Hobbs FD, Moore M, et al; PRISM investigators. PRImary care Streptococcal Management (PRISM) study: in vitro study, diagnostic cohorts and a pragmatic adaptive randomised controlled trial with nested qualitative study and cost-effectiveness study. Health Technol Assess. 2014 Jan;18(6):vii-xxv;1-101.Full text  Abstract

43. Shaikh N, Leonard E, Martin JM. Prevalence of streptococcal pharyngitis and streptococcal carriage in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2010 Sep;126(3):e557-64.Full text  Abstract

44. National Center for Infectious Diseases. Epstein-Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis. Sep 2020 [internet publication].Full text

45. Mitchell RB, Archer SM, Ishman SL, et al. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillectomy in children (update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019 Feb;160(1_suppl):S1-42.Full text  Abstract

46. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Diagnosis and treatment of respiratory illness in children and adults. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

47. Gerber MA, Baltimore RS, Eaton CB, et al. Prevention of rheumatic fever and diagnosis and treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis. Circulation. 2009 Mar 24;119(11):1541-51.Full text  Abstract

48. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, 2021. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

49. Canadian Paediatric Society. Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis: a practical guide to diagnosis and treatment. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

50. Hopper SM, McCarthy M, Tancharoen C, et al. Topical lidocaine to improve oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth ulcers: a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2014 Mar;63(3):292-9. Abstract

51. de Mey C, Koelsch S, Richter E, et al. Efficacy and safety of ambroxol lozenges in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sore throat - a pooled analysis. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2016 Jul;66(7):384-92. Abstract

52. de Mey C, Patel J, Lakha DR, et al. Efficacy and safety of an oral ambroxol spray in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sore throat. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2015 Dec;65(12):658-67. Abstract

53. Schachtel BP, Shephard A, Shea T, et al. Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges for treating sore throat symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pain Manag. 2016 Nov;6(6):519-29. Abstract

54. Mukherjee PK, Esper F, Buchheit K, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the safety and effectiveness of a novel dual-action oral topical formulation against upper respiratory infections. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Jan 14;17(1):74.Full text  Abstract

55. Palm J, Fuchs K, Stammer H, et al. Efficacy and safety of a triple active sore throat lozenge in the treatment of patients with acute pharyngitis: results of a multi-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial (DoriPha). Int J Clin Pract. 2018 Dec;72(12):e13272.Full text  Abstract

56. Bouroubi A, Donazzolo Y, Donath F, et al. Pain relief of sore throat with a new anti-inflammatory throat lozenge, ibuprofen 25 mg: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international phase III study. Int J Clin Pract. 2017 Sep;71(9):e12961.Full text  Abstract

57. Shephard A, Zybeshari S. Virucidal action of sore throat lozenges against respiratory viruses parainfluenza type 3 and cytomegalovirus. Antiviral Res. 2015 Nov;123:158-62. Abstract

58. Cohen JF, Cohen R, Levy C, et al. Selective testing strategies for diagnosing group A streptococcal infection in children with pharyngitis: a systematic review and prospective multicentre external validation study. CMAJ. 2015 Jan 6;187(1):23-32.Full text  Abstract

59. de Cassan S, Thompson MJ, Perera R, et al. Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 1;(5):CD008268.Full text  Abstract

60. Sadeghirad B, Siemieniuk RAC, Brignardello-Petersen R, et al. Corticosteroids for treatment of sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2017 Sep 20;358:j3887.Full text  Abstract

61. Hayward GN, Hay AD, Moore MV, et al. Effect of oral dexamethasone without immediate antibiotics vs placebo on acute sore throat in adults: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Apr 18;317(15):1535-43.Full text  Abstract

62. Lepelletier D, Pinaud V, Le Conte P, et al. Is there an association between prior anti-inflammatory drug exposure and occurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA)? A national multicenter prospective observational case-control study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 Jan;36(1):57-63. Abstract

63. Waljee AK, Rogers MA, Lin P, et al. Short term use of oral corticosteroids and related harms among adults in the United States: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2017 Apr 12;357:j1415.Full text  Abstract

64. Wing A, Villa-Roel C, Yeh B, et al. Effectiveness of corticosteroid treatment in acute pharyngitis: a systematic review of the literature. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 May;17(5):476-83. Abstract

65. Fleming-Dutra KE, Hersh AL, Shapiro DJ, et al. Prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions among US ambulatory care visits, 2010-2011. JAMA. 2016 May 3;315(17):1864-73. Abstract

66. de la Poza Abad M, Mas Dalmau G, Moreno Bakedano M, et al; Delayed Antibiotic Prescription (DAP) Group. Prescription strategies in acute uncomplicated respiratory infections: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Jan;176(1):21-9. Abstract

67. Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, et al. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 7;(9):CD004417.Full text  Abstract

68. Coxeter P, Del Mar CB, McGregor L, et al. Interventions to facilitate shared decision making to address antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in primary care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 12;(11):CD010907.Full text  Abstract

69. Islam S, Mannix MK, Breuer RK, et al. Guideline adherence and antibiotic utilization by community pediatricians, private urgent care centers, and a pediatric emergency department. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2020 Jan;59(1):21-30.Full text  Abstract

70. Langlois DM, Andreae M. Group A streptococcal infections. Pediatr Rev. 2011 Oct;32(10):423-9; quiz 430.Full text  Abstract

71. Mustafa Z, Ghaffari M. Diagnostic methods, clinical guidelines, and antibiotic treatment for group A streptococcal pharyngitis: a narrative review. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020;10:563627.Full text  Abstract

72. World Health Organization. Rheumatic heart disease. Nov 2020 [internet publication].Full text

73. Spinks A, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Nov 5;(11):CD000023.Full text  Abstract

74. Pichichero ME. A review of evidence supporting the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for prescribing cephalosporin antibiotics for penicillin-allergic patients. Pediatrics. 2005 Apr;115(4):1048-57. Abstract

75. van Driel ML, De Sutter AI, Thorning S, et al. Different antibiotic treatments for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Mar 17;3:CD004406.Full text  Abstract

76. Green M, Martin JM, Barbadora KA, et al. Reemergence of macrolide resistance in pharyngeal isolates of group A streptococci in southwestern Pennsylvania. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Feb;48(2):473-6.Full text  Abstract

77. DeMuri GP, Sterkel AK, Kubica PA, et al. Macrolide and clindamycin resistance in group Astreptococci isolated from children with pharyngitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Mar;36(3):342-4.Full text  Abstract

78. Altamimi S, Khalil A, Khalaiwi KA, et al. Short-term late-generation antibiotics versus longer term penicillin for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15;(8):CD004872.Full text  Abstract

79. Li P, Jiang G, Shen X. Evaluation of 3-day azithromycin or 5-day cefaclor in comparison with 10-day amoxicillin for treatment of tonsillitis in children. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2019 Oct;97(10):939-44. Abstract

80. Skoog Ståhlgren G, Tyrstrup M, Edlund C, et al. Penicillin V four times daily for five days versus three times daily for 10 days in patients with pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci: randomised controlled, open label, non-inferiority study. BMJ. 2019 Oct 4;367:l5337.Full text  Abstract

81. Bartlett A, Williams R, Hilton M. Splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis:a systematic review of published case reports. Injury. 2016 Mar;47(3):531-8. Abstract

82. Rezk E, Nofal YH, Hamzeh A, et al. Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 8;(11):CD004402.Full text  Abstract

83. De Paor M, O'Brien K, Fahey T, et al. Antiviral agents for infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 8;(12):CD011487.Full text  Abstract

84. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diphtheria. May 2020 [internet publication].Full text

85. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tickborne diseases of the United States. Jan 2019 [internet publication].Full text

86. World Health Organization: Global Alert and Response (GAR). WHO guidelines on tularaemia. 2007 [internet publication].Full text

87. St Cyr S, Barbee L, Workowski KA, et al. Update to CDC's treatment guidelines for gonococcal infection, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Dec 18;69(50):1911-6.Full text  Abstract

88. Koskenkorva T, Koivunen P, Koskela M, et al. Short-term outcomes of tonsillectomy in adult patients with recurrent pharyngitis: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 2013 May 14;185(8):E331-6.Full text  Abstract

89. Burton MJ, Glasziou PP, Chong LY, et al. Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy versus non-surgical treatment for chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 19;(11):CD001802.Full text  Abstract

90. Morad A, Sathe NA, Francis DO, et al. Tonsillectomy versus watchful waiting for recurrent throat infection: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2017 Feb;139(2):e20163490.Full text  Abstract

91. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Erratum: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2014 May 15;58(10):1496.Full text

92. Harris AM, Hicks LA, Qaseem A; High Value Care Task Force of the American College of Physicians and for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Appropriate antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infection in adults: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Mar 15;164(6):425-34.Full text  Abstract

93. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15;62(4):e1-50.Full text  Abstract

94. Schwartz RH, Kim D, Martin M, et al. A Reappraisal of the minimum duration of antibiotictreatment before approval of return to school for children with streptococcal pharyngitis.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Dec;34(12):1302-4Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer