Key articles

Klein BE, Klein R, Linton KL. Prevalence of age-related lens opacities in a population. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 1992 Apr;99(4):546-52. Abstract

Keay L, Lindsley K, Tielsch J, et al. Routine preoperative medical testing for cataract surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 8;(1):CD007293.Full text  Abstract

Riaz Y, de Silva SR, Evans JR. Manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) with posterior chamber intraocular lens versus phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens for age-related cataract. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 10;(10):CD008813.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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20. Dubois VD, Bastawrous A. N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) drops for age-related cataract. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 28;2(2):CD009493.Full text  Abstract

21. Keay L, Lindsley K, Tielsch J, et al. Routine preoperative medical testing for cataract surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 8;(1):CD007293.Full text  Abstract

22. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Preferred practice pattern: cataract in the adult eye. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

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26. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Cataract/anterior segment summary benchmark - 2021. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

27. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Comprehensive adult medical eye evaluation. 2020 [internet publication].Full text

28. Casparis H, Lindsley K, Kuo IC, et al. Surgery for cataracts in people with age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 16;2(2):CD006757.Full text  Abstract

29. Assi L, Chamseddine F, Ibrahim P, et al. A global assessment of eye health and quality of life: a systematic review of systematic reviews. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2021 May 1;139(5):526-41.Full text  Abstract

30. Vazquez-Ferreiro P, Carrera-Hueso FJ, Poquet Jornet JE, et al. Intraoperative complications of phacoemulsification in pseudoexfoliation: metaanalysis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016 Nov;42(11):1666-75. Abstract

31. Seitzman GD. Cataract surgery in Fuchs' dystrophy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2005 Aug;16(4):241-5. Abstract

32. Lunacek A, Mohamad Al-Ali B, Radmayr C, et al. Ten years of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome in the era of α-blockers. Cent European J Urol. 2018;71(1):98-104.Full text  Abstract

33. Lawrence D, Fedorowicz Z, van Zuuren EJ. Day care versus in-patient surgery for age-related cataract. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 2;2015(11):CD004242.Full text  Abstract

34. Minakaran N, Ezra DG, DS Allan B. Topical anaesthesia plus intracameral lidocaine versus topical anaesthesia alone for phacoemulsification cataract surgery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 July 28;(7):CD005276.Full text

35. Hovanesian JA, Sheppard JD, Trattler WB, et al. Intracameral phenylephrine and ketorolac during cataract surgery to maintain intraoperative mydriasis and reduce postoperative ocular pain: integrated results from 2 pivotal phase 3 studies. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Oct;41(10):2060-8.Full text  Abstract

36. Alhassan MB, Kyari F, Ejere HO. Peribulbar versus retrobulbar anaesthesia for cataract surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jul 2;2015(7):CD004083.Full text  Abstract

37. Simon SS, Chee YE, Haddadin RI, et al. Achieving target refraction after cataract surgery. Ophthalmology. 2014 Feb;121(2):440-4.Full text  Abstract

38. Brogan K, Diaper CJM, Rotchford AP. Cataract surgery refractive outcomes: representative standards in a National Health Service setting. Br J Ophthalmol. 2019 Apr;103(4):539-43.Full text  Abstract

39. Lake JC, Victor G, Clare G, et al. Toric intraocular lens versus limbal relaxing incisions for corneal astigmatism after phacoemulsification. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Dec 17;(12):CD012801.Full text  Abstract

40. Zhou F, Jiang W, Lin Z, et al. Comparative meta-analysis of toric intraocular lens alignment accuracy in cataract patients: image-guided system versus manual marking. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2019 Sep;45(9):1340-5. Abstract

41. Agresta B, Knorz MC, Kohnen T, et al. Distance and near visual acuity improvement after implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses in cataract patients with presbyopia: a systematic review. J Refract Surg. 2012 Jun;28(6):426-35. Abstract

42. Grzybowski A, Kanclerz P, Tuuminen R. Multifocal intraocular lenses and retinal diseases. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2020 Apr;258(4):805-13.Full text  Abstract

43. Cochener B; Concerto Study Group. Clinical outcomes of a new extended range of vision intraocular lens: International Multicenter Concerto Study. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016 Sep;42(9):1268-75. Abstract

44. Zamora-de La Cruz D, Zúñiga-Posselt K, Bartlett J, et al. Trifocal intraocular lenses versus bifocal intraocular lenses after cataract extraction among participants with presbyopia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jun 18;(6):CD012648.Full text  Abstract

45. Ong HS, Evans JR, Allan BD. Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 May 1;(5):CD009667.Full text  Abstract

46. Ruiz-Mesa R, Abengózar-Vela A, Aramburu A, et al. Comparison of visual outcomes after bilateral implantation of extended range of vision and trifocal intraocular lenses. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2017;27:460-465. Abstract

47. Liu J, Dong Y, Wang Y. Efficacy and safety of extended depth of focus intraocular lenses in cataract surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Ophthalmol. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):198.Full text  Abstract

48. de Silva SR, Evans JR, Kirthi V, et al. Multifocal versus monofocal intraocular lenses after cataract extraction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 12;12(12):CD003169.Full text  Abstract

49. Goldberg DG, Goldberg MH, Shah R, et al. Pseudophakic mini-monovision: high patient satisfaction, reduced spectacle dependence, and low cost. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018 Nov 9;18(1):293.Full text  Abstract

50. Rodov L, Reitblat O, Levy A, et al. Visual outcomes and patient satisfaction for trifocal, extended depth of focus and monofocal intraocular lenses. J Refract Surg. 2019 Jul 1;35(7):434-40. Abstract

51. Riaz Y, de Silva SR, Evans JR. Manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) with posterior chamber intraocular lens versus phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens for age-related cataract. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 10;(10):CD008813.Full text  Abstract

52. Ang M, Evans JR, Mehta JS. Manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) with posterior chamber intraocular lens versus extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens for age-related cataract. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 18;2014(11):CD008811.Full text  Abstract

53. Núñez MX, Henriquez MA, Escaf LJ, et al. Consensus on the management of astigmatism in cataract surgery. Clin Ophthalmol. 2019 Feb 11;13:311-24.Full text  Abstract

54. Yuhan Ong A, M Ng S, Swaroop Vedula S, et al. Lens extraction for chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Mar 24;3(3):CD005555.Full text  Abstract

55. Grzybowski A, Kanclerz P, Huerva V, et al. Diabetes and phacoemulsification cataract surgery: difficulties, risks and potential complications. J Clin Med. 2019 May 20;8(5):716.Full text  Abstract

56. International Council of Ophthalmology. Updated 2017 ICO guidelines for diabetic eye care. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

57. Feng Y, Zhu S, Skiadaresi E, et al. Phacoemulsification cataract surgery with prophylactic intravitreal bevacizumab for patients with coexisting diabetic retinopathy: a meta-analysis. Retina. 2019 Sep;39(9):1720-31. Abstract

58. Steinle NC, Lampen SIR, Wykoff CC. The Intersection of Diabetes Mellitus and Cataract Surgery: Current State of Management. Ophthalmol Retina. 2018 Feb;2(2):83-85. Abstract

59. Singh RP, Lehmann R, Martel J, et al. Nepafenac 0.3% after cataract surgery in patients with diabetic retinopathy: results of 2 randomized phase 3 studies. Ophthalmology. 2017 Jun;124(6):776-85.Full text  Abstract

60. Wielders LH, Lambermont VA, Schouten JS, et al. Prevention of cystoid macular edema after cataract surgery in nondiabetic and diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2015 Nov;160(5):968-81;e33. Abstract

61. Lin H, Ouyang H, Zhu J, et al. Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function. Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):323-8. Abstract

62. Downie LE, Busija L, Keller PR. Blue-light filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) for protecting macular health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 May 22;(5):CD011977.Full text  Abstract

63. Mansberger SL, Gordon MO, Jampel H, et al. Reduction in intraocular pressure after cataract extraction: the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2012 Sep;119(9):1826-31.Full text  Abstract

64. Trikha S, Perera SA, Husain R, et al. The role of lens extraction in the current management of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2015 Mar;26(2):128-34. Abstract

65. Fang M, Hu YQ, Chen CL, et al. Surgery in early primary angle-closure glaucoma with cataract. Intl Eye Sci. 2012;12:926-7.

66. Craven ER, Katz LJ, Wells JM, et al; iStent Study Group. Cataract surgery with trabecular micro-bypass stent implantation in patients with mild-to-moderate open-angle glaucoma and cataract: two-year follow-up. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012 Aug;38(8):1339-45. Abstract

67. Ahmed II, Katz LJ, Chang DF, et al. Prospective evaluation of microinvasive glaucoma surgery with trabecular microbypass stents and prostaglandin in open-angle glaucoma. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2014 Aug;40(8):1295-300. Abstract

68. Vold S, Ahmed II, Craven ER, et al. Two-year COMPASS trial results: supraciliary microstenting with phacoemulsification in patients with open-angle glaucoma and cataracts. Ophthalmology. 2016 Oct;123(10):2103-12.Full text  Abstract

69. Manasses DT, Au L. The new era of glaucoma micro-stent surgery. Ophthalmol Ther. 2016 Dec;5(2):135-46.Full text  Abstract

70. Francis BA, Berke SJ, Dustin L, et al. Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation combined with phacoemulsification versus phacoemulsification alone in medically controlled glaucoma. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2014 Aug;40(8):1313-21. Abstract

71. Nagy ZZ. New technology update: femtosecond laser in cataract surgery. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014 Jun 18;8:1157-67.Full text  Abstract

72. Day AC, Gore DM, Bunce C, et al. Laser-assisted cataract surgery versus standard ultrasound phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 8;7(7):CD010735.Full text  Abstract

73. Popovic M, Campos-Möller X, Schlenker MB, et al. Efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery compared with manual cataract surgery: a meta-analysis of 14 567 eyes. Ophthalmology. 2016 Oct;123(10):2113-26. Abstract

74. Kolb CM, Shajari M, Mathys L, et al. Comparison of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and conventional cataract surgery: a meta-analysis and systematic review. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2020 Aug;46(8):1075-85.Full text  Abstract

75. Lin CC, Rose-Nussbaumer JR, Al-Mohtaseb ZN, et al. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2022 Aug;129(8):946-54.Full text  Abstract

76. Park MJ, Bang CW, Han SY. Precision pulse capsulotomy in challenging cataract surgery cases. Clin Ophthalmol. 2019;13:1361-8.Full text  Abstract

77. Hooshmand J, Abell RG, Allen P, et al. Thermal capsulotomy: initial clinical experience, intraoperative performance, safety, and early postoperative outcomes of precision pulse capsulotomy technology. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2018 Mar;44(3):355-61. Abstract

78. US Food and Drug Administration. Summary of safety and effectiveness data (SSED). 2017 [internet publication].Full text

79. Schojai M, Schultz T, Schulze K, et al. Long-term follow-up and clinical evaluation of the light-adjustable intraocular lens implanted after cataract removal: 7-year results. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2020 Jan;46(1):8-13. Abstract

80. Woreta FA, Schein OD. Immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery - the patient perspective should prevail. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2021 Aug 1;139(8):885-6. Abstract

81. Neel ST. A cost-minimization analysis comparing immediate sequential cataract surgery and delayed sequential cataract surgery from the payer, patient, and societal perspectives in the United States. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Nov;132(11):1282-8.Full text  Abstract

82. Peeler CE, Villani CM, Fiorello MG, et al. Patient satisfaction with oral versus intravenous sedation for cataract surgery: a randomized clinical trial. Ophthalmology. 2019 Sep;126(9):1212-8. Abstract

83. Raufi N, James C, Kuo A, et al. Intraoperative aberrometry vs modern preoperative formulas in predicting intraocular lens power. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2020 Jun;46(6):857-61. Abstract

84. Woodcock MG, Lehmann R, Cionni RJ, et al. Intraoperative aberrometry versus standard preoperative biometry and a toric IOL calculator for bilateral toric IOL implantation with a femtosecond laser: one-month results. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016 Jun;42(6):817-25. Abstract

85. Ladas JG, Siddiqui AA, Devgan U, et al. A 3-D "super surface" combining modern intraocular lens formulas to generate a "super formula" and maximize accuracy. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015 Dec;133(12):1431-6.Full text  Abstract

86. Darcy K, Gunn D, Tavassoli S, et al. Assessment of the accuracy of new and updated intraocular lens power calculation formulas in 10 930 eyes from the UK National Health Service. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2020 Jan;46(1):2-7. Abstract

87. Xia T, Martinez CE, Tsai LM. Update on intraocular lens formulas and calculations. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2020 May-Jun;9(3):186-93.Full text  Abstract

88. Melles RB, Holladay JT, Chang WJ. Accuracy of intraocular lens calculation formulas. Ophthalmology. 2018 Feb;125(2):169-78.Full text  Abstract

89. Wen D, Yu J, Zeng Z, et al. Network meta-analysis of no-history methods to calculate intraocular lens power in eyes with previous myopic laser refractive surgery. J Refract Surg . 2020 Jul 1;36(7):481-90.Full text  Abstract

90. Wei L, Meng J, Qi J, et al. Comparisons of intraocular lens power calculation methods for eyes with previous myopic laser refractive surgery: Bayesian network meta-analysis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2021 Aug 1;47(8):1011-8. Abstract

91. Walters T, Endl M, Elmer TR, et al. Sustained-release dexamethasone for the treatment of ocular inflammation and pain after cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Oct;41(10):2049-59. Abstract

92. Tyson SL, Bafna S, Gira JP, et al. Multicenter randomized phase 3 study of a sustained-release intracanalicular dexamethasone insert for treatment of ocular inflammation and pain after cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2019 Feb;45(2):204-12.Full text  Abstract

93. Edwards TL, Xue K, Meenink HCM, et al. First-in-human study of the safety and viability of intraocular robotic surgery. Nat Biomed Eng. 2018 Jun 18;2:649-56. Abstract

94. Chen CW, Francone AA, Gerber MJ, et al. Semiautomated optical coherence tomography-guided robotic surgery for porcine lens removal. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2019 Nov;45(11):1665-9.Full text  Abstract

95. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Clinical statement: routine preoperative laboratory testing for patients scheduled for cataract surgery. 2014 [internet publication].Full text

96. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK). Cataracts in adults: management. October 2017 [internet publication] .Full text

97. Pershing S, Lum F, Hsu S, et al. Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in the United States: a report from the intelligent research in sight registry, 2013-2017. Ophthalmology. 2020 Feb;127(2):151-8.Full text  Abstract

98. Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study Group. Results of the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study: a randomized trial of immediate vitrectomy and of intravenous antibiotics for the treatment of postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Oct;43(suppl 1):S7-57. Abstract

99. Gower EW, Lindsley K, Tulenko SE, et al. Perioperative antibiotics for prevention of acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 13;(2):CD006364.Full text  Abstract

100. Shorstein NH, Winthrop KL, Herrinton LJ. Decreased postoperative endophthalmitis rate after institution of intracameral antibiotics in a Northern California eye department. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2013 Jan;39(1):8-14. Abstract

101. Linertová R, Abreu-González R2, García-Pérez L, et al. Intracameral cefuroxime and moxifloxacin used as endophthalmitis prophylaxis after cataract surgery: systematic review of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Clin Ophthalmol. 2014 Aug 14;8:1515-22.Full text  Abstract

102. Bowen RC, Zhou AX, Bondalapati S, et al. Comparative analysis of the safety and efficacy of intracameral cefuroxime, moxifloxacin and vancomycin at the end of cataract surgery: a meta-analysis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2018 Sep;102(9):1268-76.Full text  Abstract

103. Lim BX, Lim CH, Lim DK, et al. Prophylactic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the prevention of macular oedema after cataract surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Nov 1;(11):CD006683.Full text  Abstract

104. Sivaprasad S, Bunce C, Crosby-Nwaobi R. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents for treating cystoid macular oedema following cataract surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Feb 15;(2):CD004239.Full text  Abstract

105. Juthani VV, Clearfield E, Chuck RS. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs versus corticosteroids for controlling inflammation after uncomplicated cataract surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jul 3;7(7):CD010516.Full text  Abstract

106. Alessio G, Boscia F, Caporossi A, et al. Dexamethasone implants in patients with diabetic macular edema undergoing cataract surgery: Italian expert panel consensus statements. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2021 May;31(3):1122-7. Abstract

107. Grzybowski A, Brockmann T, Kanclerz P, et al. Dexamethasone intraocular suspension: a long-acting therapeutic for treating inflammation associated with cataract surgery. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Dec;35(10):525-34. Abstract

108. KhalafAllah MT, Basiony A, Salama A. Difluprednate versus prednisolone acetate after cataract surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2019 Nov 2;9(11):e026752.Full text  Abstract

109. Laursen SB, Erichsen JH, Holm LM, et al. Prevention of macular edema in patients with diabetes after cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2019 Jun;45(6):854-69. Abstract

110. Gimbel HV, Sun R, Ferensowicz M, et al. Intraoperative management of posterior capsule tears in phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Ophthalmology. 2001 Dec;108(12):2186-9. Abstract

111. Desai P, Minassian DC, Reidy A. National cataract surgery survey 1997-8: a report of the results of the clinical outcomes. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999 Dec;83(12):1336-40. Abstract

112. Hatch WV, Cernat G, Wong D, et al. Risk factors for acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery: a population based study. Ophthalmology. 2009 Mar;116(3):425-30. Abstract

113. Henderson BA, Geneva II. Negative dysphotopsia: A perfect storm. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Oct;41(10):2291-312. Abstract

114. Qureshi MH, Steel DHW. Retinal detachment following cataract phacoemulsification - a review of the literature. Eye (Lond). 2020 Apr;34(4):616-31.Full text  Abstract

115. Park CY, Lee JK, Chuck RS. Toxic anterior segment syndrome-an updated review. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018 Oct 25;18(1):276.Full text  Abstract

116. Ing EB, Kam JWK, Cheng JZ, et al. Incidence of nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy following topical clear corneal cataract surgery: survey and meta-analysis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2020 Feb;55(1):87-92. Abstract

117. Naderi K, Gormley J, O'Brart D. Cataract surgery and dry eye disease: a review. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2020 Sep;30(5):840-55.Full text  Abstract

118. Wen Y, Zhang X, Chen M, et al. Sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eye after cataract surgery: a meta-analysis. Ann Palliat Med. 2020 May;9(3):927-39.Full text  Abstract

119. Dell SJ, Hovanesian JA, Raizman MB, et al. Randomized comparison of postoperative use of hydrogel ocular bandage and collagen corneal shield for wound protection and patient tolerability after cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011 Jan;37(1):113-21. Abstract

120. Zhu XF, Zou HD, Yu YF, et al. Comparison of blue light-filtering IOLs and UV light-filtering IOLs for cataract surgery: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2012 Mar 7;7(3):e33013.Full text  Abstract

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