Peripheral arterial disease

References

Key articles

Aboyans V, Ricco JB, Bartelink MEL, et al. 2017 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases, in collaboration with the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS): document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries. Eur Heart J. 2018 Mar 1;39(9):763-816.Full text  Abstract

Gerhard-Herman MD, Gornik HL, Barrett C, et al. 2016 AHA/ACC guideline on the management of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: executive summary. Circulation. 2017 Mar 21;135(12):e686-725.Full text  Abstract

Norgren L, Hiatt WR, Dormandy JA, et al; TASC II Working Group. Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II). J Vasc Surg. 2007;45(suppl S):S5-67.Full text  Abstract

Mills JL Sr, Conte MS, Armstrong DG, et al. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System: risk stratification based on wound, ischemia, and foot infection (WIfI). J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jan;59(1):220-34;e1-2.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Aboyans V, Ricco JB, Bartelink MEL, et al. 2017 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases, in collaboration with the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS): document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries. Eur Heart J. 2018 Mar 1;39(9):763-816.Full text  Abstract

2. Gerhard-Herman MD, Gornik HL, Barrett C, et al. 2016 AHA/ACC guideline on the management of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: executive summary. Circulation. 2017 Mar 21;135(12):e686-725.Full text  Abstract

3. Norgren L, Hiatt WR, Dormandy JA, et al; TASC II Working Group. Inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II). J Vasc Surg. 2007;45(suppl S):S5-67.Full text  Abstract

4. Vitalis A, Lip GY, Kay M, et al. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2017 Apr;15(4):327-38. Abstract

5. Fowkes FG, Rudan D, Rudan I, et al. Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: a systematic review and analysis. Lancet. 2013 Oct 19;382(9901):1329-40. Abstract

6. Watson K, Watson BD, Pater KS. Peripheral arterial disease: a review of disease awareness and management. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2006 Dec;4(4):365-79. Abstract

7. Abaraogu UO, Ezenwankwo EF, Dall PM, et al. Living a burdensome and demanding life: A qualitative systematic review of the patients experiences of peripheral arterial disease. PLoS One. 2018 Nov 15;13(11):e0207456.Full text  Abstract

8. Rajagopalan S. Approach to and management of intermittent claudication. In: Rajagopalan S, Mukherjee D, Mohler ER, eds. Manual of vascular diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2005:70-87.

9. Price JF, Mowbray PI, Lee AJ, et al. Relationship between smoking and cardiovascular risk factors in the development of peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease: Edinburgh Artery Study. Eur Heart J. 1999 Mar;20(5):344-53.Full text  Abstract

10. Youssef F, Gupta P, Mikhailidis DP, et al. Risk modification in patients with peripheral arterial disease: a retrospective survey. Angiology. 2005 May-Jun;56(3):279-87. Abstract

11. Paraskevas KI, Papas TT, Pavlidis P, et al. The importance of conservative measures in peripheral arterial disease: an update. Angiology. 2008 Oct-Nov;59(5):529-33. Abstract

12. Ostchega Y, Paulose-Ram R, Dillon CF, et al. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and risk factors in persons aged 60 and older: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 Apr;55(4):583-9. Abstract

13. Willigendael EM, Teijink JA, Bartelink ML, et al. Influence of smoking on incidence and prevalence of peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Dec;40(6):1158-65. Abstract

14. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998 Sep 12;352(9131):837-53. Abstract

15. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet. 1998 Nov 7;352(9139):1558. Abstract

16. Andersen CA, Roukis TS. The diabetic foot. Surg Clin North Am. 2007 Oct;87(5):1149-77;x. Abstract

17. Criqui MH, Aboyans V. Epidemiology of peripheral artery disease. Circ Res. 2015 Apr 24;116(9):1509-26. Abstract

18. Murabito JM, D'Agostino RB, Silbershatz H, et al. Intermittent claudication. A risk profile from The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1997 Jul 1;96(1):44-9. Abstract

19. Joosten MM, Pai JK, Bertoia ML, et al. Associations between conventional cardiovascular risk factors and risk of peripheral artery disease in men. JAMA. 2012 Oct 24;308(16):1660-7. Abstract

20. Lane DA, Lip GY. Treatment of hypertension in peripheral arterial disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(12):CD003075.Full text  Abstract

21. Thomas Manapurathe D, Krishna SM, Dewdney B, et al. Effect of blood pressure lowering medications on leg ischemia in peripheral artery disease patients: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 2;12(6):e0178713.Full text  Abstract

22. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, et al. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jan 20;342(3):145-53.Full text  Abstract

23. Armstrong EJ, Chen DC, Singh GD, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use is associated with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events among patients with critical limb ischemia. Vasc Med. 2015 Jun;20(3):237-44. Abstract

24. Mehler PS, Coll JR, Estacio R, et al. Intensive blood pressure control reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral arterial disease and type 2 diabetes. Circulation. 2003 Feb 11;107(5):753-6.Full text  Abstract

25. Harris SK, Roos MG, Landry GJ. Statin use in patients with peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Dec;64(6):1881-8. Abstract

26. National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel. Third report: detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation. 2002 Dec 17;106(25):3143-421. Abstract

27. Aung PP, Maxwell HG, Jepson RG, et al. Lipid-lowering for peripheral arterial disease of the lower limb. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(4):CD000123.Full text  Abstract

28. Stoekenbroek RM, Boekholdt SM, Fayyad R, et al. High-dose atorvastatin is superior to moderate-dose simvastatin in preventing peripheral arterial disease. Heart. 2015 Mar;101(5):356-62. Abstract

29. Selvin E, Erlinger TP. Prevalence of and risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000. Circulation. 2004 Aug 10;110(6):738-43. Abstract

30. Andras A, Stansby G, Hansrani M. Homocysteine lowering interventions for peripheral arterial disease and bypass grafts. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(7):CD003285.Full text  Abstract

31. Lane R, Harwood A, Watson L, et al. Exercise for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(12):CD000990.Full text  Abstract

32. Małecki R, Zdrojowy K, Adamiec R. Thromboangiitis obliterans in the 21st century - a new face of disease. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Oct;206(2):328-34. Abstract

33. Esfahani F, Rooholamini SA, Azadeh B, et al. Arterial fibrodysplasia: a regional cause of peripheral occlusive vascular disease. Angiology. 1989 Feb;40(2):108-13. Abstract

34. Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019 Sep 10;140(11):e596-e646.Full text  Abstract

35. GBD 2019 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet. 2020 Oct 17;396(10258):1223-49.Full text  Abstract

36. Visseren FLJ, Mach F, Smulders YM, et al. 2021 ESC guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur Heart J. 2021 Sep 7;42(34):3227-337.Full text  Abstract

37. Mangione CM, Barry MJ, Nicholson WK, et al. Statin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2022 Aug 23;328(8):746-53.Full text  Abstract

38. US Preventive Services Task Force; Davidson KW, Barry MJ, et al. Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2022 Apr 26;327(16):1577-84.Full text  Abstract

39. McDermott MM, Liu K, Greenland P, et al. Functional decline in peripheral arterial disease: associations with the ankle brachial index and leg symptoms. JAMA. 2004 Jul 28;292(4):453-61.Full text  Abstract

40. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Peripheral arterial disease: diagnosis and management. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

41. Paraskevas KI, Kotsikoris I, Koupidis SA, et al. Ankle-brachial index: a marker of both peripheral arterial disease and systemic atherosclerosis as well as a predictor of vascular events. Angiology. 2010 Aug;61(6):521-3. Abstract

42. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria. Lower extremity arterial claudication - imaging assessment for revascularization (revised). 2022 [internet publication].Full text

43. Depalma RG. Impotence in vascular disease: relationship to vascular surgery. Br J Surg. 1982 Jun;69(suppl):S14-S16. Abstract

44. Mills JL Sr, Conte MS, Armstrong DG, et al. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System: risk stratification based on wound, ischemia, and foot infection (WIfI). J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jan;59(1):220-34;e1-2.Full text  Abstract

45. Dormandy JA, Rutherford RB. Management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). TASC Working Group. TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC). J Vasc Surg. 2000 Jan;31(1 Pt 2):S1-296. Abstract

46. TASC Steering Committee; Jaff MR, White CJ, Hiatt WR, et al. An update on methods for revascularization and expansion of the TASC lesion classification to include below-the-knee arteries: a supplement to the inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II). Vasc Med. 2015 Oct;20(5):465-78. Abstract

47. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 May 15;71(19):e127-248.Full text  Abstract

48. Razavi MK, Lee DS, Hofmann LV. Catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy for limb ischemia: current status and controversies. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004 Jan;15(1 Pt 1):13-23. Abstract

49. Broderick C, Patel JV. Infusion techniques for peripheral arterial thrombolysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Nov 17;11:CD000985.Full text  Abstract

50. Robertson I, Kessel DO, Berridge DC. Fibrinolytic agents for peripheral arterial occlusion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 19;(12):CD001099.Full text  Abstract

51. Guidon M, McGee H. Exercise-based interventions and health-related quality of life in intermittent claudication: a 20-year (1989-2008) review. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010 Apr;17(2):140-54. Abstract

52. Mays RJ, Hiatt WR, Casserly IP, et al. Community-based walking exercise for peripheral artery disease: an exploratory pilot study. Vasc Med. 2015 Aug;20(4):339-47. Abstract

53. Mangiafico RA, Fiore CE. Current management of intermittent claudication: the role of pharmacological and nonpharmacological symptom-directed therapies. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2009 Jul;7(3):394-413. Abstract

54. Pande RL, Hiatt WR, Zhang P, et al. A pooled analysis of the durability and predictors of treatment response of cilostazol in patients with intermittent claudication. Vasc Med. 2010 Jun;15(3):181-8.Full text  Abstract

55. Bedenis R, Stewart M, Cleanthis M, et al. Cilostazol for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 31;(10):CD003748.Full text  Abstract

56. Warner CJ, Greaves SW, Larson RJ, et al. Cilostazol is associated with improved outcomes after peripheral endovascular interventions. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jun;59(6):1607-14. Abstract

57. Iida O, Yokoi H, Soga Y, et al; STOP-IC investigators. Cilostazol reduces angiographic restenosis after endovascular therapy for femoropopliteal lesions in the Sufficient Treatment of Peripheral Intervention by Cilostazol study. Circulation. 2013 Jun 11;127(23):2307-15.Full text  Abstract

58. Fakhry F, Fokkenrood HJ, Spronk S, et al. Endovascular revascularisation versus conservative management for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 8;(3):CD010512.Full text  Abstract

59. Malgor RD, Alahdab F, Elraiyah TA, et al. A systematic review of treatment of intermittent claudication in the lower extremities. Vasc Surg. 2015;61:54S-73S. Abstract

60. Nicolaï SP, Kruidenier LM, Bendermacher BL, et al. Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(6):CD006888.Full text  Abstract

61. Ubbink DT, Vermeulen H. Spinal cord stimulation for non-reconstructable chronic critical leg ischaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(2):CD004001.Full text  Abstract

62. Liu Y, Xu Y, Fang F, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of stem cell-based therapy in peripheral arterial disease: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 29;10(4):e0125032. Abstract

63. Rigato M, Monami M, Fadini GP. Autologous cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, nonrandomized, and noncontrolled studies. Circ Res. 2017 Apr 14;120(8):1326-40. Abstract

64. Bachoo P, Thorpe PA, Maxwell H, et al. Endovascular stents for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(1):CD003228.Full text  Abstract

65. Chowdhury MM, McLain AD, Twine CP. Angioplasty versus bare metal stenting for superficial femoral artery lesions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(6):CD006767.Full text  Abstract

66. Nguyen BN, Amdur RL, Abugideiri M, et al. Postoperative complications after common femoral endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 2015 Jun;61(6):1489-94. Abstract

67. Micari A, Nerla R, Vadalà G, et al. 2-year results of paclitaxel-coated balloons for long femoropopliteal artery disease: dvidence from the SFA-long study. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2017 Apr 10;10(7):728-34.Full text  Abstract

68. Reifsnyder T, Arhuidese IJ, Hicks CW, et al. Contemporary outcomes for open infrainguinal bypass in the endovascular era. Ann Vasc Surg. 2016 Jan;30:52-8. Abstract

69. Bedenis R, Lethaby A, Maxwell H, et al. Antiplatelet agents for preventing thrombosis after peripheral arterial bypass surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(2):CD000535.Full text  Abstract

70. Alonso-Coello P, Bellmunt S, McGorrian C, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in peripheral artery disease: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 suppl):e669S-90S. Abstract

71. Abu Dabrh AM, Steffen MW, Asi N, et al. Bypass surgery versus endovascular interventions in severe or critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Jan;63(1):244-53.Full text  Abstract

72. Hsu CC, Kwan GN, Singh D, et al. Angioplasty versus stenting for infrapopliteal arterial lesions in chronic limb-threatening ischaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 8;(12):CD009195.Full text  Abstract

73. Momsen AH, Jensen MB, Norager CB, et al. Drug therapy for improving walking distance in intermittent claudication: a systematic review and meta-analysis of robust randomised controlled studies. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009 Oct;38(4):463-74. Abstract

74. Paraskevas KI, Athyros VG, Briana DD, et al. Statins exert multiple beneficial effects on patients undergoing percutaneous revascularization procedures. Curr Drug Targets. 2007 Aug;8(8):942-51. Abstract

75. Ahimastos AA, Walker PJ, Askew C, et al. Effect of ramipril on walking times and quality of life among patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2013 Feb 6;309(5):453-60. Abstract

76. Basili S, Raparelli V, Vestri A, et al. Comparison of efficacy of antiplatelet treatments for patients with claudication. A meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost. 2010 Apr;103(4):766-73. Abstract

77. Li L, Geraghty OC, Mehta Z, et al. Age-specific risks, severity, time course, and outcome of bleeding on long-term antiplatelet treatment after vascular events: a population-based cohort study. Lancet. 2017 Jul 29;390(10093):490-9. Abstract

78. Kayssi A1, Al-Atassi T, Oreopoulos G, et al. Drug-eluting balloon angioplasty versus uncoated balloon angioplasty for peripheral arterial disease of the lower limbs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(8):CD011319.Full text  Abstract

79. Antoniou GA, Georgiadis GS, Antoniou SA, et al. Bypass surgery for chronic lower limb ischaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(4):CD002000.Full text  Abstract

80. Abu Dabrh AM, Steffen MW, Asi N, et al. Nonrevascularization-based treatments in patients with severe or critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2015 Nov;62(5):1330-9. Abstract

81. Aboyans V, Bauersachs R, Mazzolai L, et al. Antithrombotic therapies in aortic and peripheral arterial diseases in 2021: a consensus document from the ESC working group on aorta and peripheral vascular diseases, the ESC working group on thrombosis, and the ESC working group on cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Eur Heart J. 2021 Jul 19;:.Full text  Abstract

82. Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Bosch J, et al; COMPASS Investigators. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2017 Oct 5;377(14):1319-30. Abstract

83. Anand SS, Bosch J, Eikelboom JW, et al; COMPASS Investigators. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in patients with stable peripheral or carotid artery disease: an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2018 Jan 20;391(10117):219-29.Full text  Abstract

84. Eikelboom JW, Bhatt DL, Fox KAA, et al. Mortality Benefit of Rivaroxaban Plus Aspirin in Patients With Chronic Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Jul 6;78(1):14-23.Full text  Abstract

85. Bonaca MP, Bauersachs RM, Anand SS, et al. Rivaroxaban in Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 21;382(21):1994-2004.Full text  Abstract

86. Debus ES, Nehler MR, Govsyeyev N, et al. Effect of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Surgical Revascularization: Insights from the VOYAGER PAD Trial. Circulation. 2021 Aug 12;:.Full text  Abstract

87. Paraskevas KI, Mikhailidis DP. Angiogenesis: a promising treatment option for peripheral arterial disease. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2008Apr;6(2):78-80. Abstract

88. Fadini GP, Agostini C, Avogaro A. Autologous stem cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease: meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Mar;209(1):10-7. Abstract

89. Moazzami B, Mohammadpour Z, Zabala ZE, et al. Local intramuscular transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for critical lower limb ischaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022 Jul 8;7:CD008347.Full text  Abstract

90. Teraa M, Sprengers RW, van der Graaf Y, et al. Autologous bone marrow-derived cell therapy in patients with critical limb ischemia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Ann Surg. 2013 Dec;258(6):922-9. Abstract

91. Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves first drug-coated angioplasty balloon catheter to treat vascular disease. October 2014 [internet publication].Full text

92. Food and Drug Administration. Medtronic IN.PACT Admiral paclitaxel-coated PTA balloon catheter - P140010. December 2014 [internet publication].Full text

93. Rosenfield K, Jaff MR, White CJ, et al. Trial of a paclitaxel-coated balloon for femoropopliteal artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 9;373(2):145-53.Full text  Abstract

94. Tepe G, Laird J, Schneider P, et al. Drug-coated balloon versus standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for the treatment of superficial femoral and popliteal peripheral artery disease: 12-month results from the IN.PACT SFA randomized trial. Circulation. 2015 Feb 3;131(5):495-502.Full text  Abstract

95. Kayssi A, Al-Jundi W, Papia G, et al. Drug-eluting balloon angioplasty versus uncoated balloon angioplasty for the treatment of in-stent restenosis of the femoropopliteal arteries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 26;(1):CD012510.Full text  Abstract

96. Katsanos K, Spiliopoulos S, Kitrou P, et al. Risk of death following application of paclitaxel-coated balloons and stents in the femoropopliteal artery of the leg: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Dec 18;7(24):e011245.Full text  Abstract

97. Food and Drug Administration. August 7, 2019 UPDATE: treatment of peripheral arterial disease with paclitaxel-coated balloons and paclitaxel-eluting stents potentially associated with increased mortality. August 2019 [internet publication].

98. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Recommendations for ongoing use of paclitaxel drug coated balloons (DCBs) and implantable drug eluting stents (DESs) in the treatment of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) (MDA/2019/023R). June 2019 [internet publication].Full text

99. Gryka RJ, Buckley LF, Anderson SM. Vorapaxar: the current role and future directions of a novel protease-activated receptor antagonist for risk reduction in atherosclerotic disease. Drugs R D. 2017 Mar;17(1):65-72. Abstract

100. Bonaca MP, Nault P, Giugliano RP, et al. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering with evolocumab and outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease: insights from the FOURIER trial (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk). Circulation. 2018 Jan 23;137(4):338-50.Full text  Abstract

101. Primary Panel:., Abramson BL, Al-Omran M, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2022 guidelines for peripheral arterial disease. Can J Cardiol. 2022 May;38(5):560-87.Full text  Abstract

102. Bailey SR, Beckman JA, Dao TD, et al. ACC/AHA/SCAI/SIR/SVM 2018 Appropriate Use Criteria for peripheral artery intervention: a report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Heart Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, and Society for Vascular Medicine. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Jan 22;73(2):214-37.Full text  Abstract

103. Conte MS, Bradbury AW, Kolh P, et al. Global vascular guidelines on the management of chronic limb-threatening ischemia. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2019 Jul;58(1s):S1-S109.e33.Full text  Abstract

104. Davies MG. Criticial limb ischemia: epidemiology. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2012 Oct-Dec;8(4):10-4. Abstract

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