Key articles

American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International classification of sleep disorders - third edition (ICSD-3). 2014 [internet publication].

Smith MT, McCrae CS, Cheung J, et al. Use of actigraphy for the evaluation of sleep disorders and circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018 Jul 15;14(7):1231-7.Full text  Abstract

Maski K, Trotti LM, Kotagal S, et al. Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021 Sep 1;17(9):1881-93.Full text  Abstract

Bassetti CLA, Kallweit U, Vignatelli L, et al. European guideline and expert statements on the management of narcolepsy in adults and children. Eur J Neurol. 2021 Sep;28(9):2815-30.Full text  Abstract

Maski K, Trotti LM, Kotagal S, et al. Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021 Sep 1;17(9):1895-945.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International classification of sleep disorders - third edition (ICSD-3). 2014 [internet publication].

2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed., text revision (DSM-5-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2021.

3. Berry BR, Gilmore RL. Narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. In: Carney PR, Berry RB, Geyer JD, eds. Clinical sleep disorders. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincot Williams and Wilkins; 2005.

4. Rosen GM, Bendel AE, Neglia JP, et al. Sleep in children with neoplasms of the central nervous system: case review of 14 children. Pediatrics. 2003 Jul;112(1 Pt 1):e46-54. Abstract

5. Guilleminault C, Fromherz S. Narcolepsy: diagnosis and management. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2005.

6. Marcus CL, Trescher WH, Halbower AC, et al. Secondary narcolepsy in children with brain tumors. Sleep. 2002 Jun 15;25(4):435-9. Abstract

7. Aldrich MS. The clinical spectrum of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. Neurology. 1996 Feb;46(2):393-401. Abstract

8. Hublin C, Partinen M, Kaprio J, et al. Epidemiology of narcolepsy. Sleep. 1994 Dec;17(8 Suppl):S7-12. Abstract

9. Silber MH, Krahn LE, Olson EJ, et al. The epidemiology of narcolepsy in Olmsted County, Minnesota: a population-based study. Sleep. 2002 Mar 15;25(2):197-202. Abstract

10. Zeman A, Britton T, Douglas N, et al. Narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness. BMJ. 2004 Sep 25;329(7468):724-8. Abstract

11. Ohayon MM, Priest RG, Zulley J, et al. Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population. Neurology. 2002 Jun 25;58(12):1826-33. Abstract

12. Okun ML, Lin L, Pelin Z, et al. Clinical aspects of narcolepsy-cataplexy across ethnic groups. Sleep. 2002 Feb 1;25(1):27-35. Abstract

13. Ebrahim IO, Peacock KW, Williams AJ. Posttraumatic narcolepsy - two case reports and a mini review. J Clin Sleep Med. 2005 Apr 15;(2)1:153-6. Abstract

14. Silber MH. Narcolepsy, head injury, and the problem of causality. J Clin Sleep Med. 2005 Apr 15;1(2):157-8. Abstract

15. Bruck D, Broughton RJ. Diagnostic ambiguities in a case of post-traumatic narcolepsy with cataplexy. Brain Inj. 2004 Mar;18(3):321-6. Abstract

16. Scammell TE, Nishino S, Mignot E, et al. Narcolepsy and low CSF orexin (hypocretin) concentration after a diencephalic stroke. Neurology. 2001 Jun 26;56(12):1751-3. Abstract

17. Bjornstad B, Goodman SH, Sirven JI, et al. Paroxysmal sleep as a presenting symptom of bilateral paramedian thalamic infarctions. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Mar;78(3):347-9. Abstract

18. Rosenfeld MR, Eichen JG, Wade DF, et al. Molecular and clinical diversity in paraneoplastic immunity to Ma proteins. Ann Neurol. 2001 Sep;50(3):339-48. Abstract

19. Schwartz WJ, Stakes JW, Hobson JA. Transient cataplexy after removal of a craniopharyngioma. Neurology. 1984 Oct;34(10):1372-5. Abstract

20. Aldrich MS, Naylor MW. Narcolepsy associated with lesions of the diencephalon. Neurology. 1989 Nov;39(11):1505-8. Abstract

21. Arii J, Kanbayashi T, Tanabe Y, et al. A hypersomnolent girl with decreased CSF hypocretin level after removal of a hypothalamic tumor. Neurology. 2001 Jun 26;56(12):1775-6. Abstract

22. Malik S, Boeve BF, Krahn LE, et al. Narcolepsy associated with other central nervous system disorders. Neurology. 2001 Aug 14;57(3):539-41. Abstract

23. Gledhill RF, Bartel PR, Yoshida Y, et al. Narcolepsy caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Arch Neurol. 2004 May;61(5):758-60.Full text  Abstract

24. Rubinstein I, Gray TA, Moldofsky H, et al. Neurosarcoidosis associated with hypersomnolence treated with corticosteroids and brain irradiation. Chest. 1988 July;94(1):205-6. Abstract

25. Servan J, Marchand F, Garma L, et al. Narcolepsy disclosing neurosarcoidosis [in French]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 1995 Apr;151(4):281-3. Abstract

26. Clavelou P, Tournilhac M, Vidal C, et al. Narcolepsy associated with arteriovenous malformation of the diencephalon. Sleep. 1995 Apr;18(3):202-5. Abstract

27. Fleming WE, Pollak CP. Sleep disorders in multiple sclerosis. Semin Neurol. 2005 Mar;25(1):64-8. Abstract

28. Dalmau J, Graus F, Villarejo A, et al. Clinical analysis of anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis. Brain. 2004 Aug;127(pt 8):1831-44.Full text  Abstract

29. Landolfi JC, Nadkarni M. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis and possible narcolepsy in a patient with testicular cancer: case study. Neuro Oncol. 2003 Jul;5(3):214-6.Full text  Abstract

30. Overeem S, Dalmau J, Bataller L, et al. Hypocretin-1 CSF levels in anti-Ma2 associated encephalitis. Neurology. 2004 Jan 13;62(1):138-40. Abstract

31. Kandt RS, Emerson RG, Singer HS, et al. Cataplexy in variant forms of Niemann-Pick disease. Ann Neurol. 1982 Sept;12(3):284-8. Abstract

32. Vankova J, Stepanova I, Jech R, et al. Sleep disturbances and hypocretin deficiency in Niemann-Pick disease type C. Sleep. 2003 Jun 15;26(4):427-30.Full text  Abstract

33. Vossler DG, Wyler AR, Wilkus RJ, et al. Cataplexy and monoamine oxidase deficiency in Norrie disease. Neurology. 1996 May;46(5):1258-61. Abstract

34. Manni R, Politini L, Nobili L, et al. Hypersomnia in the Prader Willi syndrome: clinical-electrophysiological features and underlying factors. Clin Neurophysiol. 2001 May;112(5):800-5. Abstract

35. Hayduk R, Flodman P, Spence MA, et al. HLA haplotypes, polysomnography, and pedigrees in a case series of patients with narcolepsy. Sleep. 1997 Oct;20(10):850-7.Full text  Abstract

36. Taheri S, Mignot E. The genetics of sleep disorders. Lancet Neurol. 2002 Aug;1(4):242-50. Abstract

37. Mignot E, Hayduk R, Black J, et al. HLA DQB1*0602 is associated with cataplexy in 509 narcoleptic patients. Sleep. 1997 Nov;20(11):1012-20. Abstract

38. Pelin Z, Guilleminault C, Risch N, et al. HLA-DQB1*0602 homozygosity increases relative risk for narcolepsy but not disease severity in two ethnic groups: US Modafinil in Narcolepsy Multicenter Study Group. Tissue Antigens. 1998 Jan;51(1):96-100. Abstract

39. Han F, Lin L, Li J, et al. HLA-DQ association and allele competition in Chinese narcolepsy. Tissue Antigens. 2012 Oct;80(4):328-35. Abstract

40. Hallmayer J, Faraco J, Lin L, et al. Narcolepsy is strongly associated with the T-cell receptor alpha locus. Nat Genet. 2009 Jun;41(6):708-11. Abstract

41. Kornum BR, Kawashima M, Faraco J, et al. Common variants in P2RY11 are associated with narcolepsy. Nat Genet. 2011 Jan;43(1):66-71.Full text  Abstract

42. Han F, Faraco J, Dong XS, et al. Genome wide analysis of narcolepsy in China implicates novel immune loci and reveals changes in association prior to versus after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. PLoS Genet. 2013 Oct;9(10):e1003880.Full text  Abstract

43. Guilleminault C, Heinzer R, Mignot E, et al. Investigations into the neurologic basis of narcolepsy. Neurology. 1998 Feb;50(2 suppl 1):S8-15. Abstract

44. Faull KF, Thiemann S, King RJ, et al. Monoamine interactions in narcolepsy and hypersomnia: reanalysis. Sleep. 1989 Apr;12(2):185-6. Abstract

45. Faull KF, Barchas JD, Foutz AS, et al. Monoamine metabolite concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of normal and narcoleptic dogs. Brain Res. 1982 Jun 17;242(1):137-43. Abstract

46. Aldrich MS, Hollingsworth Z, Penney JB. Dopamine-receptor autoradiography of human narcoleptic brain. Neurology. 1992 Feb;42(2):410-5. Abstract

47. Nishino S, Sakurai E, Nevsimalova S, et al. Decreased CSF histamine in narcolepsy with and without low CSF hypocretin-1 in comparison to healthy controls. Sleep. 2009 Feb;32(2):175-80.Full text  Abstract

48. Kanbayashi T, Kodama T, Kondo H, et al. CSF histamine contents in narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep. 2009 Feb;32(2):181-7. Abstract

49. Mignot E. Narcolepsy. In: Ioachimescu OC, ed. Contemporary sleep medicine for patients. Bentham Science; 2011 [e-book].

50. de Lecea L, Kilduff TS, Peyron C, et al. The hypocretins: hypothalamus-specific peptides with neuroexcitatory activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jan 6;95(1):322-7.Full text  Abstract

51. Sakurai T, Amemiya A, Ishii M, et al. Orexins and orexin receptors: a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior. Cell. 1998 Mar 6;92(5):697. Abstract

52. Mignot E, Lammers GJ, Ripley B, et al. The role of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin measurement in the diagnosis of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias. Arch Neurol. 2002 Oct;59(10):1553-62.Full text  Abstract

53. Ripley B, Overeem S, Fujiki N, et al. CSF hypocretin/orexin levels in narcolepsy and other neurological conditions. Neurology. 2001 Dec 26;57(12):2253-8. Abstract

54. Peyron C, Faraco J, Rogers W, et al. A mutation in a case of early onset narcolepsy and a generalized absence of hypocretin peptides in human narcoleptic brains. Nat Med. 2000 Sept;6(9):991-7. Abstract

55. Thannickal TC, Moore RY, Nienhuis R, et al. Reduced number of hypocretin neurons in human narcolepsy. Neuron. 2000 Sep;27(3):469-74. Abstract

56. Thannickal TC, Nienhuis R, Siegel JM. Localized loss of hypocretin (orexin) cells in narcolepsy without cataplexy. Sleep. 2009 Aug;32(8):993-8.Full text  Abstract

57. Cvetkovic-Lopes V, Bayer L, Dorsaz S, et al. Elevated Tribbles homolog 2-specific antibody levels in narcolepsy patients. J Clin Invest. 2010 Mar;120(3):713-9.Full text  Abstract

58. Kawashima M, Lin L, Tanaka S, et al. Anti-Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) autoantibodies in narcolepsy are associated with recent onset of cataplexy. Sleep. 2010 Jul;33(7):869-74.Full text  Abstract

59. Lim AS, Scammell TE. The trouble with Tribbles: do antibodies against TRIB2 cause narcolepsy? Sleep. 2010 Jul;33(7):857-8.Full text  Abstract

60. Toyoda H, Tanaka S, Miyagawa T, et al. Anti-Tribbles homolog 2 autoantibodies in Japanese patients with narcolepsy. Sleep. 2010 Jul;33(7):875-8.Full text  Abstract

61. Aran A, Lin L, Nevsimalova S, et al. Elevated anti-streptococcal antibodies in patients with recent narcolepsy onset. Sleep. 2009 Aug;32(8):979-83. Abstract

62. Longstreth WT Jr, Ton TG, Koepsell TD. Narcolepsy and streptococcal infections. Sleep. 2009 Dec;32(12):1548. Abstract

63. Okun ML, Giese S, Lin L, et al. Exploring the cytokine and endocrine involvement in narcolepsy. Brain Behav Immun. 2004 Jul;18(4):326-32. Abstract

64. Hohjoh H, Nakayama T, Ohashi J, et al. Significant association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter with human narcolepsy. Tissue Antigens. 1999 Aug;54(2):138-45. Abstract

65. Himmerich H, Beitinger PA, Fulda S, et al. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in patients with narcolepsy. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Sep 18;166(16):1739-43.Full text  Abstract

66. Hohjoh H, Terada N, Kawashima M, et al. Significant association of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) gene with human narcolepsy. Tissue Antigens. 2000 Nov;56(5):446-8. Abstract

67. Dauvilliers Y, Carlander B, Rivier F, et al. Successful management of cataplexy with intravenous immunoglobulins at narcolepsy onset. Ann Neurol. 2004 Dec;56(6):905-8. Abstract

68. Dauvilliers Y, Abril B, Mas E, et al. Normalization of hypocretin-1 in narcolepsy after intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. Neurology. 2009 Oct 26;73(16):1333-4. Abstract

69. Mignot E. Genetic and familial aspects of narcolepsy. Neurology. 1998 Feb;50(2 suppl 1):S16-22. Abstract

70. Fronczek R, Lammers GJ, Balesar R, et al. The number of hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons is not affected in Prader-Willi syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Sep;90(9):5466-50.Full text  Abstract

71. Schüle B, Albalwi M, Northrop E, et al. Molecular breakpoint cloning and gene expression studies of a novel translocation t(4;15)(q27;q11.2) associated with Prader-Willi syndrome. BMC Med Genet. 2005 May 6;6:18.Full text  Abstract

72. Richdale AL, Cotton S, Hibbit K. Sleep and behaviour disturbance in Prader-Willi syndrome: a questionnaire study. J Intellect Disabil Res. 1999 Oct;43(pt 5):380-92. Abstract

73. Smit LS, Lammers GJ, Catsman-Berrevoets CE. Cataplexy leading to the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease type C. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Jul;35(1):82-4. Abstract

74. Miyake S, Inoue H, Ohtahara S, et al. A case of Niemann-Pick disease type C with narcolepsy syndrome [in Japanese]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1983 Jan;23(1):44-52. Abstract

75. Nishino S, Ripley B, Overeem S, et al. Hypocretin (orexin) deficiency in human narcolepsy. Lancet. 2000 Jan 1;355(9197):39-40. Abstract

76. Nakayama J, Miura M, Honda M, et al. Linkage of human narcolepsy with HLA association to chromosome 4p13-q21. Genomics. 2000 Apr 1;65(1):84-6. Abstract

77. Miyagawa T, Hohjoh H, Honda Y, et al. Identification of a telomeric boundary of the HLA region with potential for predisposition to human narcolepsy. Immunogenetics. 2000 Nov;52(1-2):12-8. Abstract

78. Dauvilliers Y, Blouin JL, Neidhart E, et al. A narcolepsy susceptibility locus maps to a 5 Mb region of chromosome 21q. Ann Neurol. 2004 Sep;56(3):382-8. Abstract

79. Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep. 1991 Dec;14(6):540-5. Abstract

80. Johns MW. Reliability and factor analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep. 1992 Aug;15(4):376-81. Abstract

81. Chasens ER, Williams LL, Umlauf MG. Excessive sleepiness. In: Capezuti E, Zwicker D, Mezey M, et al, eds. Evidence-based geriatric nursing protocols for best practice. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2009:459-76.

82. Broughton R, Dunham W, Newman J, et al. Ambulatory 24 hour sleep-wake monitoring in narcolepsy-cataplexy compared to matched controls. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1988 Dec;70(6):473-81. Abstract

83. Dantz B, Edgar DM, Dement WC. Circadian rhythms in narcolepsy: studies on a 90 minute day. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1994 Jan;90(1):24-35. Abstract

84. Guilleminault C, Gelb M. Clinical aspects and features of cataplexy. Adv Neurol. 1995;67:65-77. Abstract

85. Anic-Labat S, Guilleminault C, Kraemer HC, et al. Validation of a cataplexy questionnaire in 983 sleep-disorders patients. Sleep. 1999 Feb 1;22(1):77-87. Abstract

86. Littner M, Johnson SF, McCall WV, et al. Practice parameters for the treatment of narcolepsy: an update for 2000. Sleep. 2001 Jun 15;24(4):451-66. Abstract

87. Harsh J, Peszka J, Hartwig G, et al. Night-time sleep and daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. J Sleep Res. 2000 Sep;9(3):309-16. Abstract

88. Mayer G, Meier-Ewert K. Motor dyscontrol in sleep of narcoleptic patients (a lifelong development?). J Sleep Res. 1993 Sep;2(3):143-8. Abstract

89. Schenck CH, Mahowald MW. Motor dyscontrol in narcolepsy: rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep without atonia and REM sleep behavior disorder. Ann Neurol. 1992 Jul;32(1):3-10. Abstract

90. Krahn LE, Arand DL, Avidan AY, et al. Recommended protocols for the Multiple Sleep Latency Test and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test in adults: guidance from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021 Dec 1;17(12):2489-98.Full text  Abstract

91. Aldrich MS, Chervin RD, Malow BA. Value of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) for the diagnosis of narcolepsy. Sleep. 1997 Aug;20(8):620-9. Abstract

92. Amira SA, Johnson TS, Logowitz NB. Diagnosis of narcolepsy using the multiple sleep latency test: analysis of current laboratory criteria. Sleep. 1985 Dec;8(4):325-31. Abstract

93. Roehrs T, Roth T. Multiple sleep latency test: technical aspects and normal values. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1992 Jan;9(1):63-7. Abstract

94. Mignot E, Lin L, Finn L, et al. Correlates of sleep-onset REM periods during the multiple sleep latency test in community adults. Brain. 2006 Jun;129(Pt 6):1609-23.Full text  Abstract

95. Dauvilliers Y, Gosselin A, Paquet J, et al. Effect of age on MSLT results in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. Neurology. 2004 Jan 13;62(1):46-50. Abstract

96. Dauvilliers Y, Billiard M, Montplaisir J. Clinical aspects and pathophysiology of narcolepsy. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003 Nov;114(11):2000-17. Abstract

97. Overeem S, Scammell TE, Lammers GJ. Hypocretin/orexin and sleep: implications for the pathophysiology and diagnosis of narcolepsy. Curr Opin Neurol. 2002 Dec;15(6):739-45. Abstract

98. Smith MT, McCrae CS, Cheung J, et al. Use of actigraphy for the evaluation of sleep disorders and circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018 Jul 15;14(7):1231-7.Full text  Abstract

99. Carskadon MA, Dement WC, Mitler MM, et al. Guidelines for the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT): a standard measure of sleepiness. Sleep. 1986 Dec;9(4):519-24. Abstract

100. Chervin RD, Aldrich MS. Sleep onset REM periods during multiple sleep latency tests in patients evaluated for sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Feb;161(2 Pt 1):426-31.Full text  Abstract

101. Krahn LE, Pankratz VS, Oliver L, et al. Hypocretin (orexin) levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with narcolepsy: relationship to cataplexy and HLA DQB1*0602 status. Sleep. 2002 Nov 1;25(7):733-6. Abstract

102. Miyagawa T, Kawamura H, Obuchi M, et al. Effects of oral L-carnitine administration in narcolepsy patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53707.Full text  Abstract

103. Dauvilliers Y, Bassetti C, Lammers GJ, et al. Pitolisant versus placebo or modafinil in patients with narcolepsy: a double-blind, randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2013 Nov;12(11):1068-75. Abstract

104. Weinhold SL, Seeck-Hirschner M, Nowak A, et al. The effect of intranasal orexin-A (hypocretin-1) on sleep, wakefulness and attention in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Behav Brain Res. 2014 Apr 1;262:8-13. Abstract

105. Lopez R, Dauvilliers Y. Pharmacotherapy options for cataplexy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 May;14(7):895-903. Abstract

106. Andlauer O, Moore H, Jouhier L, et al. Nocturnal REM sleep latency for identifying patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. JAMA Neurol. 2013 Jul;70(7):891-902.Full text  Abstract

107. Maski K, Trotti LM, Kotagal S, et al. Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021 Sep 1;17(9):1881-93.Full text  Abstract

108. Bassetti CLA, Kallweit U, Vignatelli L, et al. European guideline and expert statements on the management of narcolepsy in adults and children. Eur J Neurol. 2021 Sep;28(9):2815-30.Full text  Abstract

109. Maski K, Trotti LM, Kotagal S, et al. Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021 Sep 1;17(9):1895-945.Full text  Abstract

110. Goswami M. The influence of clinical symptoms on quality of life in patients with narcolepsy. Neurology. 1998 Feb;50(2 suppl 1):S31-6. Abstract

111. Dauvilliers Y, Bassetti C, Lammers GJ, et al. Pitolisant versus placebo or modafinil in patients with narcolepsy: a double-blind, randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2013 Nov;12(11):1068-75. Abstract

112. Romigi A, Vitrani G, Lo Giudice T, et al. Profile of pitolisant in the management of narcolepsy: design, development, and place in therapy. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2018 Aug 30;12:2665-75.Full text  Abstract

113. Lehert P, Falissard B. Multiple treatment comparison in narcolepsy: a network meta-analysis. Sleep. 2018 Dec 1;41(12):zsy185.Full text  Abstract

114. Dauvilliers Y, Arnulf I, Szakacs Z, et al. Long-term use of pitolisant to treat patients with narcolepsy: Harmony III Study. Sleep. 2019 Oct 21;42(11):zsz174.Full text  Abstract

115. Xu XM, Wei YD, Liu Y, et al. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for narcolepsy in adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med. 2019 Dec;64:62-70. Abstract

116. Bogan RK, Thorpy MJ, Dauvilliers Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium oxybates (lower-sodium oxybate [LXB]; JZP-258) in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized withdrawal study in adults with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Sleep. 2021 Mar 12;44(3):zsaa206.Full text  Abstract

117. Thorpy MJ. Recently approved and upcoming treatments for narcolepsy. CNS Drugs. 2020 Jan;34(1):9-27.Full text  Abstract

118. Thorpy MJ, Shapiro C, Mayer G, et al. A randomized study of solriamfetol for excessive sleepiness in narcolepsy. Ann Neurol. 2019 Mar;85(3):359-70.Full text  Abstract

119. Malhotra A, Shapiro C, Pepin JL. Long-term study of the safety and maintenance of efficacy of solriamfetol (JZP-110) in the treatment of excessive sleepiness in participants with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep. 2020 Feb 13;43(2):zsz220.Full text  Abstract

120. Szakacs Z, Dauvilliers Y, Mikhaylov V, et al. Safety and efficacy of pitolisant on cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2017 Mar;16(3):200-7. Abstract

121. Vignatelli L, D'Alessandro R, Candelise L. Antidepressant drugs for narcolepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD003724.Full text  Abstract

122. Avis KT, Shen J, Weaver P, et al. Psychosocial characteristics of children with central disorders of hypersomnolence versus matched healthy children. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015 Nov 15;11(11):1281-8.Full text  Abstract

123. Huang YS, Guilleminault C. Narcolepsy: action of two gamma-aminobutyric acid type B agonists, baclofen and sodium oxybate. Pediatr Neurol. 2009 Jul;41(1):9-16. Abstract

124. Lee EK, Douglass AB. Baclofen for narcolepsy with cataplexy: two cases. Nat Sci Sleep. 2015 Jul 29;7:81-3.Full text  Abstract

125. Morse AM, Kelly-Pieper K, Kothare SV. Management of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy with baclofen. Pediatr Neurol. 2019 Apr;93:39-42. Abstract

126. Swick TJ. Treatment paradigms for cataplexy in narcolepsy: past, present, and future. Nat Sci Sleep. 2015 Dec 11;7:159-69.Full text  Abstract

127. Roy A. Psychiatric aspects of narcolepsy. Br J Psychiatry. 1976 Jun;128:562-5. Abstract

128. Mitler MM, Aldrich MS, Koob GF, et al. Narcolepsy and its treatment with stimulants. ASDA standards of practice. Sleep. 1994 Jun;17(4):352-71. Abstract

129. Boivin DB, Montplaisir J, Petit D, et al. Effects of modafinil on symptomatology of human narcolepsy. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1993 Feb;16(1):46-53. Abstract

130. Miller MM, Hajdukovic R, Erman MK. Treatment of narcolepsy with methamphetamine. Sleep. 1993 Jun;16(4):306-17.Full text  Abstract

131. Arand D, Bonnet M, Hurwitz T, et al. The clinical use of the MSLT and MWT. Sleep. 2005 Jan;28(1):123-44. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer