Epistaxis

References

Key articles

Tan L, Calhoun K. Epistaxis. Med Clin North Am. 1999 Jan;83(1):43-56. Abstract

Perretta L, Denslow B, Brown C. Emergency evaluation and management of epistaxis. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1987 May;5(2):265-77. Abstract

Santos P, Lepore M. Epistaxis. In: Bailey B, Healy G, Johnson J, et al., eds. Head & neck surgery-otolaryngology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2001:415-28.

Massick D, Tobin E. Epistaxis. In: Cummings C, Flint P, Harker L, et al., eds. Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; 2005:942-61.

Santos P, Lepore M. Epistaxis. In: Bailey B, Healy G, Johnson J, et al., eds. Head & neck surgery-otolaryngology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2001:415-428.

Massick D, Tobin E. Epistaxis. In: Cummings C, Flint P, Harker L, et al., eds. Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; 2005:942-961.

Tunkel DE, Anne S, Payne SC, et al. Clinical practice guideline: nosebleed (epistaxis). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Jan;162(1 suppl):S1-S38.Full text  Abstract

Pond F, Sizeland A. Epistaxis: strategies for management. Aust Fam Physician. 2000 Oct;29(10):933-8. Abstract

Randall DA. Epistaxis packing. Practical pointers for nosebleed control. Postgrad Med. 2006 Jun-Jul;119(1):77-82. Abstract

Ruddy J, Proops DW, Pearman K, et al. Management of epistaxis in children. Int J Paediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1991 Apr;21(2):139-42. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Tan L, Calhoun K. Epistaxis. Med Clin North Am. 1999 Jan;83(1):43-56. Abstract

2. Perretta L, Denslow B, Brown C. Emergency evaluation and management of epistaxis. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1987 May;5(2):265-77. Abstract

3. Santos P, Lepore M. Epistaxis. In: Bailey B, Healy G, Johnson J, et al., eds. Head & neck surgery-otolaryngology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2001:415-28.

4. Massick D, Tobin E. Epistaxis. In: Cummings C, Flint P, Harker L, et al., eds. Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; 2005:942-61.

5. Santos P, Lepore M. Epistaxis. In: Bailey B, Healy G, Johnson J, et al., eds. Head & neck surgery-otolaryngology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2001:415-428.

6. Massick D, Tobin E. Epistaxis. In: Cummings C, Flint P, Harker L, et al., eds. Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; 2005:942-961.

7. Yau S. An update on epistaxis. Aust Fam Physician. 2015 Sep;44(9):653-6.Full text  Abstract

8. Tunkel DE, Anne S, Payne SC, et al. Clinical practice guideline: nosebleed (epistaxis). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Jan;162(1 suppl):S1-S38.Full text  Abstract

9. Viehweg TL, Roberson JB, Hudson JW. Epistaxis: diagnosis and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006 Mar;64(3):511-8. Abstract

10. Pond F, Sizeland A. Epistaxis: strategies for management. Aust Fam Physician. 2000 Oct;29(10):933-8. Abstract

11. Davis KR. Embolization of epistaxis and juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987 Jan;148(1):209-18.Full text  Abstract

12. Pryor SG, Moore EJ, Kasperbauer JL. Endoscopic versus traditional approaches for excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Laryngoscope. 2005 Jul;115(7):1201-7. Abstract

13. Viducich R, Blanda MP, Gerson LW. Posterior epistaxis: clinical features and acute complications. Ann Emerg Med. 1995 May;25(5):592-6. Abstract

14. Herkner H, Havel C, Müllner M, et al. Active epistaxis at ED presentation is associated with arterial hypertension. Am J Emerg Med. 2002 Mar;20(2):92-5. Abstract

15. Min HJ, Kang H, Choi GJ, et al. Association between hypertension and epistaxis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 Dec;157(6):921-7. Abstract

16. Byun H, Chung JH, Lee SH, et al. Association of hypertension with the risk and severity of epistaxis. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Sep 10;147(1):1-7. Abstract

17. Sanders YV, Fijnvandraat K, Boender J, et al. Bleeding spectrum in children with moderate or severe von Willebrand disease: relevance of pediatric-specific bleeding. Am J Hematol. 2015 Dec;90(12):1142-8.Full text  Abstract

18. Soyka MB, Rufibach K, Huber A, et al. Is severe epistaxis associated with acetylsalicylic acid intake? Laryngoscope. 2010 Jan;120(1):200-7.Full text  Abstract

19. Reibez EE, Bryan DJ, Ehrlichman RJ, et al. Surgical management of life threatening epistaxis in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease. Ann Plast Surg. 1995 Aug;35(2):208-13. Abstract

20. Lund VJ, Howard DJ. A treatment algorithm for the management of epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasias. Am J Rhinol. 1999 Jul-Aug;13(4):319-22. Abstract

21. Javed F, Golagani A, Sharp H, et al. Potential effects of herbal medicines and nutritional supplements on coagulation in ENT practice. J Laryngol Otol. 2008 Feb;122(2):116-9. Abstract

22. Bequignon E, Vérillaud B, Robard L, et al. Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL). First-line treatment of epistaxis in adults. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2017 May;134(3):185-9.Full text  Abstract

23. Dehn R, Asprey D. Essential clinical procedures. 3rd ed. Chapter 17: Epistaxis and nasal foreign body removal. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:166-78.

24. Kucik CJ, Clenney T. Management of epistaxis. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71(2):305-11.Full text  Abstract

25. Biggs TC, Nightingale K, Patel NN, et al. Should prophylactic antibiotics be used routinely in epistaxis patients with nasal packs? Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2013 Jan;95(1):40-2.Full text  Abstract

26. Randall DA. Epistaxis packing. Practical pointers for nosebleed control. Postgrad Med. 2006 Jun-Jul;119(1):77-82. Abstract

27. National ENT Trainee Research Network. The British Rhinological Society multidisciplinary consensus recommendations on the hospital management of epistaxis. J Laryngol Otol. 2017 Dec;131(12):1142-56. Abstract

28. Barr G. Silver nitrate cautery and epistaxis. Arch Emerg Med. 1989 Sep;6(3):233.Full text  Abstract

29. Upile T, Jerjes W, Sipaul F, et al. A change in UK epistaxis management. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008 Nov;265(11):1349-54. Abstract

30. Morganstein S. Surgical management of epistaxis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1987 Dec;113(12):1338. Abstract

31. Moshaver A, Harris JR, Liu R, et al. Early operative intervention versus conventional treatment in epistaxis: randomized prospective trial. J Otolaryngol. 2004 Jun;33(3):185-8. Abstract

32. Durr DG. Endoscopic electrosurgical management of posterior epistaxis: shifting paradigm. J Otolaryngol. 2004 Aug;33(4):211-6. Abstract

33. Stankiewicz J. Nasal endoscopy and control of epistaxis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004 Feb;12(1):43-5. Abstract

34. Kumar S, Shetty A, Rockey J, et al. Contemporary surgical treatment of epistaxis: what is the evidence for sphenopalatine artery ligation? Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2003 Aug;28(4):360-3. Abstract

35. Strong E, Bell D, Johnson L, et al. Intractable epistaxis: transantral ligation vs embolization: efficacy review and cost analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995 Dec;113(6):674-8. Abstract

36. Christensen N, Smith D, Barnwell S, et al. Arterial embolization in the management of posterior epistaxis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Nov;133(5):748-53. Abstract

37. Leung RM, Smith TL, Rudmik L. Developing a laddered algorithm for the management of intractable epistaxis: a risk analysis. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 May 1;141(5):405-9.Full text  Abstract

38. Douglas R, Wormald PJ. Update on epistaxis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Jun;15(3):180-3. Abstract

39. Scaramuzzi N, Walsh R, Brennan P, et al. Treatment of intractable epistaxis using arterial embolization. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2001 Aug;26(4):307-9. Abstract

40. Webster J, Osborne S, Rickard CM, et al. Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 23;(1):CD007798.Full text  Abstract

41. Qureishi A, Burton MJ. Interventions for recurrent idiopathic epistaxis (nosebleeds) in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD004461.Full text  Abstract

42. Loughran S, Spinou E, Clement E, et al. A prospective, single blind, randomised controlled trial of petroleum jelly/Vaseline for recurrent paediatric epistaxis. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2004 Jun;29(3):266-9. Abstract

43. Calder N, Kang S, Fraser L, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of management of recurrent nosebleeds in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 May;140(5):670-4. Abstract

44. Zohar Y, Straus M. Epistaxis due to hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Laryngoscope. 1995 Apr;105(4 Pt 1):445-6. Abstract

45. Ruddy J, Proops DW, Pearman K, et al. Management of epistaxis in children. Int J Paediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1991 Apr;21(2):139-42. Abstract

46. Zahed R, Moharamzadeh P, Alizadeharasi S, et al. A new and rapid method for epistaxis treatment using injectable form of tranexamic acid topically: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Sep;31(9):1389-92. Abstract

47. Joseph J, Martinez-Devesa P, Bellorini J, et al. Tranexamic acid for patients with nasal haemorrhage (epistaxis). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 31;12:CD004328.Full text  Abstract

48. ENT UK. Guideline for management of idiopathic epistaxis in adults. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text

49. Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne. Clinical guideline: epistaxis. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

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