Schizophrenia

References

Key articles

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed., (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people: recognition and management. Oct 2016 [internet publication].Full text

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Coexisting severe mental illness (psychosis) and substance misuse: assessment and management in healthcare settings. Mar 2011 [internet publication].Full text

Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 1: update 2012 on the acute treatment of schizophrenia and the management of treatment resistance. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jul;13(5):318-78.Full text  Abstract

Correll CU, Rubio JM, Inczedy-Farkas G, et al. Efficacy of 42 pharmacologic cotreatment strategies added to antipsychotic monotherapy in schizophrenia: systematic overview and quality appraisal of the meta-analytic evidence. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 1;74(7):675-84.Full text  Abstract

Fusar-Poli P, Kempton MJ, Rosenheck RA. Efficacy and safety of second-generation long-acting injections in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Mar;28(2):57-66. Abstract

Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, et al; Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Investigators. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 22;353(12):1209-23.Full text  Abstract

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Group therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia: a review of the clinical effectiveness. Nov 2009 [internet publication].Full text

Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 2: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of schizophrenia and management of antipsychotic-induced side effects. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;14(1):2-44.Full text  Abstract

Wasserman D, Rihmer Z, Rujescu D, et al. The European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on suicide treatment and prevention. Eur Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;27(2):129-41.Full text  Abstract

Barnes TR; Schizophrenia Consensus Group of British Association for Psychopharmacology. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 May;25(5):567-620.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed., (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

2. McGrath J, Saha S, Chant D, et al. Schizophrenia: a concise overview of incidence, prevalence, and mortality. Epidemiol Rev. 2008 Nov 1;30(1):67-76.Full text  Abstract

3. McGrath JJ. Myths and plain truths about schizophrenia epidemiology - the NAPE lecture 2004. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005 Jan;111(1):4-11. Abstract

4. Jablensky A, Sartorius N, Ernberg G, et al. Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study. Psychol Med Monogr Suppl. 1992;20:1-97. Abstract

5. Gupta S, Murray RM. The relationship of environmental temperature to the incidence and outcome of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. 1992 Jun;160:788-92. Abstract

6. Piotrowski P, Gondek TM, Królicka-Deręgowska A, et al. Causes of mortality in schizophrenia: an updated review of European studies. Psychiatr Danub. 2017 Jun;29(2):108-20.Full text  Abstract

7. Mitchell AJ, Malone D. Physical health and schizophrenia. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;19(4):432-7. Abstract

8. Fazel S, Wolf A, Palm C, et al. Violent crime, suicide, and premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders: a 38-year total population study in Sweden. Lancet Psychiatry. 2014 Jun;1(1):44-54.Full text  Abstract

9. Torrey EF, Miller J, Rawlings R, et al. Seasonal birth patterns of neurological disorders. Neuroepidemiology. 2000 Jul-Aug;19(4):177-85. Abstract

10. McGrath JJ, Welham JL. Season of birth and schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of data from the Southern Hemisphere. Schizophr Res. 1999 Feb 15;35(3):237-42. Abstract

11. Bota RG, Munro JS, Sagduyu K. Identification of the schizophrenia prodrome in a hospital-based patient population. Mo Med. 2005 Mar-Apr;102(2):142-6. Abstract

12. Werbeloff N, Levine SZ, Rabinowitz J. Elaboration on the association between immigration and schizophrenia: a population-based national study disaggregating annual trends, country of origin and sex over 15 years. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012 Feb;47(2):303-11. Abstract

13. Bourque F, van der Ven E, Malla A. A meta-analysis of the risk for psychotic disorders among first- and second-generation immigrants. Psychol Med. 2011 May;41(5):897-910. Abstract

14. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people: recognition and management. Oct 2016 [internet publication].Full text

15. Walker EF, Diforio D. Schizophrenia: a neural diathesis-stress model. Psychol Rev. 1997 Oct;104(4):667-85. Abstract

16. Tsuang M. Schizophrenia: genes and environment. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Feb 1;47(3):210-20. Abstract

17. Hough CJ, Ursano RJ. A guide to the genetics of psychiatric disease. Psychiatry. 2006 Spring;69(1):1-20. Abstract

18. Kuswanto CN, Teh I, Lee T-S, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging findings of white matter changes in first episode schizophrenia: a systematic review. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2012 Apr;10(1):13-24.Full text  Abstract

19. Huber G. Prodromal symptoms in schizophrenia [in German]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 1995 Apr;63(4):131-8. Abstract

20. McCarley RW, Wible CG, Frumin M, et al. MRI anatomy of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 May 1;45(9):1099-119.Full text  Abstract

21. Andreasen NC, Rezai K, Alliger R, et al. Hypofrontality in neuroleptic-naive patients and in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Assessment with xenon 133 single-photon emission computed tomography and the Tower of London. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992 Dec;49(12):943-58. Abstract

22. Keshavan MS, Reynolds CF, Miewald MJ, et al. Delta sleep deficits in schizophrenia: evidence from automated analyses of sleep data. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 May;55(5):443-8.Full text  Abstract

23. Salisbury DF, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. P300 topography differs in schizophrenia and manic psychosis. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Jan 1;45(1):98-106. Abstract

24. Light GA, Geyer MA, Clementz BA, et al. Normal P50 suppression in schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotic medications. Am J Psychiatry. 2000 May;157(5):767-71. Abstract

25. Sawa A, Snyder SH. Schizophrenia: diverse approaches to a complex disease. Science. 2002 Apr 26;296(5568):692-5. Abstract

26. Laruelle M. Imaging dopamine transmission in schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis. Q J Nucl Med. 1998 Sep;42(3):211-21. Abstract

27. Laruelle M, Abi-Dargham A. Dopamine as the wind of the psychotic fire: new evidence from brain imaging studies. J Psychopharmacol. 1999 Dec;13(4):358-71. Abstract

28. Schobel SA, Chaudhury NH, Khan UA, et al. Imaging patients with psychosis and a mouse model establishes a spreading pattern of hippocampal dysfunction and implicates glutamate as a driver. Neuron. 2013 Apr 10;78(1):81-93.Full text  Abstract

29. Smith TE, Hull JW, Huppert JD, et al. Insight and recovery from psychosis in chronic schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients. J Psychiatr Res. 2004 Mar-Apr;38(2):169-76. Abstract

30. Miller B, Messias E, Miettunen J, et al. Meta-analysis of paternal age and schizophrenia risk in male versus female offspring. Schizophr Bull. 2011 Sep;37(5):1039-47.Full text  Abstract

31. Clarke MC, Harley M, Cannon M. The role of obstetric events in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2006 Jan;32(1):3-8.Full text  Abstract

32. Macleod J, Davey Smith G, Hickman M. Does cannabis use cause schizophrenia? Lancet. 2006 Apr 1;367(9516):1055. Abstract

33. Arseneault L, Cannon M, Witton J, et al. Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence. Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Feb;184:110-7. Abstract

34. Arendt M, Rosenberg R, Foldager L, et al. Cannabis-induced psychosis and subsequent schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: follow-up study of 535 incident cases. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;187:510-5. Abstract

35. Kuepper R, van Os J, Lieb R, et al. Continued cannabis use and risk of incidence and persistence of psychotic symptoms: 10 year follow-up cohort study. BMJ. 2011 Mar 1;342:d738.Full text  Abstract

36. McGrath J, Welham J, Scott J, et al. Association between cannabis use and psychosis-related outcomes using sibling pair analysis in a cohort of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 May;67(5):440-7.Full text  Abstract

37. Hjorthøj C, Albert N, Nordentoft M. Association of substance use disorders with conversion from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Jul 1;75(7):733-9.Full text  Abstract

38. Schoeler T, Petros N, Di Forti M, et al. Poor medication adherence and risk of relapse associated with continued cannabis use in patients with first-episode psychosis: a prospective analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017 Aug;4(8):627-33.Full text  Abstract

39. Ziermans T, de Wit S, Schothorst P, et al. Neurocognitive and clinical predictors of long-term outcome in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis: a 6-year follow-up. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 4;9(4):e93994.Full text  Abstract

40. Mittal VA, Dean DJ, Bernard JA, et al. Neurological soft signs predict abnormal cerebellar-thalamic tract development and negative symptoms in adolescents at high risk for psychosis: a longitudinal perspective. Schizophr Bull. 2014 Nov;40(6):1204-15.Full text  Abstract

41. Dean DJ, Bernard JA, Orr JM, et al. Cerebellar morphology and procedural learning impairment in neuroleptic-naive youth at ultrahigh risk of psychosis. Clin Psychol Sci. 2014 Mar;2(2):152-64.Full text  Abstract

42. Bernard JA, Dean DJ, Kent JS, et al. Cerebellar networks in individuals at ultra high-risk of psychosis: impact on postural sway and symptom severity. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014 Aug;35(8):4064-78.Full text  Abstract

43. Corcoran C, Walker E, Huot R, et al. The stress cascade and schizophrenia: etiology and onset. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(4):671-92. Abstract

44. Morgan C, Fisher H. Environment and schizophrenia: environmental factors in schizophrenia: childhood trauma - a critical review. Schizophr Bull. 2007 Jan;33(1):3-10.Full text  Abstract

45. Bradbury TN, Miller GA. Season of birth in schizophrenia: a review of evidence, methodology, and etiology. Psychol Bull. 1985 Nov;98(3):569-94. Abstract

46. Norman RM, Malla AK. Duration of untreated psychosis: a critical examination of the concept and its importance. Psychol Med. 2001 Apr;31(3):381-400. Abstract

47. McGlashan TH. Duration of untreated psychosis in first-episode schizophrenia: marker or determinant of course? Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Oct 1;46(7):899-907. Abstract

48. Harrigan SM, McGorry PD, Krstev H. Does treatment delay in first-episode psychosis really matter? Psychol Med. 2003 Jan;33(1):97-110. Abstract

49. Craig TJ, Bromet EJ, Fennig S, et al. Is there an association between duration of untreated psychosis and 24-month clinical outcome in a first-admission series? Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Jan;157(1):60-6. Abstract

50. Robinson D, Woerner MG, Alvir JM, et al. Predictors of relapse following response from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 Mar;56(3):241-7. Abstract

51. Marshall M, Rathbone J. Early intervention for psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jun 15;(6):CD004718.Full text  Abstract

52. Correll CU, Galling B, Pawar A, et al. Comparison of early intervention services vs treatment as usual for early-phase psychosis: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Jun 1;75(6):555-65.Full text  Abstract

53. Tsuang MT, Stone WS, Faraone SV. Understanding predisposition to schizophrenia: toward intervention and prevention. Can J Psychiatry. 2002 Aug;47(6):518-26. Abstract

54. Yung AR, McGorry PD. The prodromal phase of first-episode psychosis: past and current conceptualizations. Schizophr Bull. 1996;22(2):353-70. Abstract

55. Klosterkötter J, Ebel H, Schultze-Lutter F, et al. Diagnostic validity of basic symptoms. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1996;246(3):147-54. Abstract

56. Klosterkötter J, Hellmich M, Steinmeyer EM, et al. Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodromal phase. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Feb;58(2):158-64.Full text  Abstract

57. Yung AR, Phillips LJ, McGorry PD, et al. Prediction of psychosis: a step towards indicated prevention of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 1998;172(33):14-20. Abstract

58. Yung AR, Phillips LJ, Yuen HP, et al. Psychosis prediction: 12-month follow up of a high-risk ("prodromal") group. Schizophr Res. 2003 Mar 1;60(1):21-32. Abstract

59. Miller TJ, McGlashan TH, Rosen JL, et al. Prospective diagnosis of the initial prodrome for schizophrenia based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes: preliminary evidence of interrater reliability and predictive validity. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 May;159(5):863-5. Abstract

60. Rector NA, Beck AT, Stolar N. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a cognitive perspective. Can J Psychiatry. 2005 Apr;50(5):247-57. Abstract

61. Chapman CL, Mullin K, Ryan CJ. Meta-analysis of the association between suicidal ideation and later suicide among patients with either a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis or a mood disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015 Mar;131(3):162-73. Abstract

62. Palmer BA, Pankratz VS, Bostwick JM. The lifetime risk of suicide in schizophrenia: a reexamination. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Mar;62(3):247-53.Full text  Abstract

63. Hawton K, Sutton L, Haw C, et al. Schizophrenia and suicide: systematic review of risk factors. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Jul;187:9-20. Abstract

64. Hor K, Taylor M. Suicide and schizophrenia: a systematic review of rates and risk factors. J Psychopharmacol. 2010 Nov;24(4 suppl):81-90.Full text  Abstract

65. Dazzan P, Murray RM. Neurological soft signs in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2002 Sep;43:s50-7. Abstract

66. Tosato S, Dazzan P. The psychopathology of schizophrenia and the presence of neurological soft signs: a review. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2005 May;18(3):285-8. Abstract

67. Rossi A, De Cataldo S, Di Michele V, et al. Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. 1990 Nov;157:735-9. Abstract

68. Venkatasubramanian G, Latha V, Gangadhar BN, et al. Neurological soft signs in never-treated schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2003 Aug;108(2):144-6. Abstract

69. World Health Organization. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 11th revision (ICD-11). Chapter 6: mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

70. Bradizza CM, Stasiewicz PR. Integrating substance abuse treatment for the seriously mentally ill into inpatient psychiatric treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1997 Mar-Apr;14(2):103-11. Abstract

71. Ebel H, Schlegel U, Klosterkötter J. Chronic schizophreniform psychosis in primary hyperparathyroidism [in German]. Nervenarzt. 1992 Mar;63(3):180-3. Abstract

72. Engelhardt. Psychosis in primary hyperparathyroidism [in German]. Internist (Berl). 1991 Dec;32(12):738. Abstract

73. Joborn C, Hetta J, Palmér M, et al. Psychiatric symptomatology in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Ups J Med Sci. 1986;91(1):77-87. Abstract

74. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Coexisting severe mental illness (psychosis) and substance misuse: assessment and management in healthcare settings. Mar 2011 [internet publication].Full text

75. Amador XF, Flaum M, Andreasen NC, et al. Awareness of illness in schizophrenia and schizoaffective and mood disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994 Oct;51(10):826-36. Abstract

76. Hjorthøj C, Stürup AE, McGrath JJ, et al. Years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017 Apr;4(4):295-301. Abstract

77. Vermeulen J, van Rooijen G, Doedens P, et al. Antipsychotic medication and long-term mortality risk in patients with schizophrenia; a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2017 Oct;47(13):2217-28. Abstract

78. Bola JR, Kao DT, Soydan H. Antipsychotic medication for early-episode schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2012 Jan;38(1):23-5.Full text  Abstract

79. Tharyan P, Adams CE. Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD000076. Abstract

80. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: prevention and management. Mar 2014 [internet publication].Full text

81. Bola J, Kao D, Soydan H. Antipsychotic medication for early episode schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jun 15;(6):CD006374.Full text  Abstract

82. Samara MT, Leucht C, Leeflang MM, et al. Early improvement as a predictor of later response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia: a diagnostic test review. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul;172(7):617-29. Abstract

83. Samara MT, Klupp E, Helfer B, et al. Increasing antipsychotic dose versus switching antipsychotic for non response in schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 May 11;(5):CD011884.Full text  Abstract

84. Kreyenbuhl J, Buchanan RW, Dickerson FB, et al. The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): updated treatment recommendations 2009. Schizophr Bull. 2010 Jan;36(1):94-103.Full text  Abstract

85. Zhu Y, Krause M, Huhn M, et al. Antipsychotic drugs for the acute treatment of patients with a first episode of schizophrenia: a systematic review with pairwise and network meta-analyses. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017 Sep;4(9):694-705. Abstract

86. Hui CL, Honer WG, Lee EH, et al. Long-term effects of discontinuation from antipsychotic maintenance following first-episode schizophrenia and related disorders: a 10 year follow-up of a randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 2018 May;5(5):432-42. Abstract

87. Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 1: update 2012 on the acute treatment of schizophrenia and the management of treatment resistance. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jul;13(5):318-78.Full text  Abstract

88. Leucht S, Tardy M, Komossa K, et al. Maintenance treatment with antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 May 16;(5):CD008016.Full text  Abstract

89. Leucht S, Tardy M, Komossa K, et al. Antipsychotic drugs versus placebo for relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2012 Jun 2;379(9831):2063-71. Abstract

90. Dudley K, Liu X, De Haan S. Chlorpromazine dose for people with schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Apr 13;(4):CD007778.Full text  Abstract

91. Correll CU, Yu X, Xiang Y, et al. Biological treatment of acute agitation or aggression with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in the inpatient setting. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2017 May;29(2):92-107. Abstract

92. Ostinelli EG, Jajawi S, Spyridi S, et al. Aripiprazole (intramuscular) for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation (rapid tranquillisation). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jan 8;(1):CD008074.Full text  Abstract

93. Howes OD, McCutcheon R, Agid O, et al. Treatment-resistant schizophrenia: Treatment Response and Resistance in Psychosis (TRRIP) working group consensus guidelines on diagnosis and terminology. Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 1;174(3):216-29.Full text  Abstract

94. Stroup TS, Gerhard T, Crystal S, et al. Comparative effectiveness of adjunctive psychotropic medications in patients with schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 May 1;76(5):508-15. Abstract

95. Correll CU, Rubio JM, Inczedy-Farkas G, et al. Efficacy of 42 pharmacologic cotreatment strategies added to antipsychotic monotherapy in schizophrenia: systematic overview and quality appraisal of the meta-analytic evidence. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 1;74(7):675-84.Full text  Abstract

96. Siskind D, McCartney L, Goldschlager R, et al. Clozapine v. first- and second-generation antipsychotics in treatment-refractory schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2016 Nov;209(5):385-92. Abstract

97. Siskind D, Siskind V, Kisely S. Clozapine response rates among people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia: data from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Psychiatry. 2017 Nov;62(11):772-77.Full text  Abstract

98. Tiihonen J, Taipale H, Mehtälä J, et al. Association of antipsychotic polypharmacy vs monotherapy with psychiatric rehospitalization among adults with schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 May 1;76(5):499-507.Full text  Abstract

99. Leucht C, Heres S, Kane JM, et al. Oral versus depot antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia - a critical systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised long-term trials. Schizophr Res. 2011 Apr;127(1-3):83-92. Abstract

100. Koola MM, Wehring HJ, Kelly DL. The potential role of long-acting injectable antipsychotics in people with schizophrenia and comorbid substance use. J Dual Diagn. 2012;8(1):50-61.Full text  Abstract

101. Kishimoto T, Nitta M, Borenstein M, et al. Long-acting injectable versus oral antipsychotics in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of mirror-image studies. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013 Oct;74(10):957-65. Abstract

102. Tiihonen J, Mittendorfer-Rutz E, Majak M, et al. Real-world effectiveness of antipsychotic treatments in a nationwide cohort of 29 823 patients with schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 1;74(7):686-93. Abstract

103. Zheng W, Xiang YT, Yang XH, et al. Clozapine augmentation with antiepileptic drugs for treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017 May;78(5):e498-505. Abstract

104. Pae CU, Wang SM, Han C, et al. Comparison between long-acting injectable aripiprazole versus paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of schizophrenia: systematic review and indirect treatment comparison. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Sep;32(5):235-48. Abstract

105. Belgamwar RB, El-Sayeh HG. Aripiprazole vs placebo for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2012 May;38(3):382-3.Full text  Abstract

106. Belgamwar RB, El-Sayeh HG. Aripiprazole versus placebo for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Aug 10;(8):CD006622.Full text  Abstract

107. Khanna P, Suo T, Komossa K, et al. Aripiprazole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jan 2;(1):CD006569.Full text  Abstract

108. Bellantuono C, Santone G. Efficacy, tolerability and safety of paliperidone extended-release in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder [in Italian]. Riv Psichiatr. 2012 Jan-Feb;47(1):5-20. Abstract

109. Singh J, Robb A, Vijapurkar U, et al. A randomized, double-blind study of paliperidone extended-release in treatment of acute schizophrenia in adolescents. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Dec 15;70(12):1179-87. Abstract

110. Srisurapanont M, Maneeton B, Maneeton N. Quetiapine for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD000967.Full text  Abstract

111. Sparshatt A, Taylor D, Patel MX, et al. Relationship between daily dose, plasma concentrations, dopamine receptor occupancy, and clinical response to quetiapine: a review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Aug;72(8):1108-23. Abstract

112. Li C, Xia J, Wang J. Risperidone dose for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD007474.Full text  Abstract

113. Bagnall A, Lewis RA, Leitner ML, et al. Ziprasidone for schizophrenia and severe mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD001945.Full text  Abstract

114. Hay A, Byers A, Sereno M, et al. Asenapine versus placebo for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 24;(11):CD011458.Full text  Abstract

115. Citrome L. Lurasidone for schizophrenia: a review of the efficacy and safety profile for this newly approved second-generation antipsychotic. Int J Clin Pract. 2011 Feb;65(2):189-210.Full text  Abstract

116. Citrome L, Cucchiaro J, Sarma K, et al. Long-term safety and tolerability of lurasidone in schizophrenia: a 12-month, double-blind, active-controlled study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012 May;27(3):165-76. Abstract

117. Correll CU, Skuban A, Ouyang J, et al. Efficacy and safety of brexpiprazole for the treatment of acute schizophrenia: a 6-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Sep 1;172(9):870-80. Abstract

118. Marder SR, Hakala MJ, Josiassen MK, et al. Brexpiprazole in patients with schizophrenia: overview of short- and long-term phase 3 controlled studies. Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2017 Oct;29(5):278-90. Abstract

119. Durgam S, Starace A, Li D, et al. An evaluation of the safety and efficacy of cariprazine in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia: a phase II, randomized clinical trial. Schizophr Res. 2014 Feb;152(2-3):450-7.Full text  Abstract

120. Nielsen J, Damkier P, Lublin H, et al. Optimizing clozapine treatment. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011 Jun;123(6):411-22. Abstract

121. Nussbaum A, Stroup TS. Oral paliperidone for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):CD006369.Full text  Abstract

122. Nussbaum AM, Stroup TS. Paliperidone palmitate for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jun 13;(6):CD008296.Full text  Abstract

123. Coppola DM, Melkote R, Lannie C, et al. Efficacy and safety of paliperidone extended release 1.5 mg/day - a double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, study in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2011 May 15;44(2):54-72.Full text  Abstract

124. Citrome L. Paliperidone palmitate - review of the efficacy, safety and cost of a new second-generation depot antipsychotic medication. Int J Clin Pract. 2010 Jan;64(2):216-39. Abstract

125. Maayan N, Quraishi SN, David A, et al. Fluphenazine decanoate (depot) and enanthate for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Feb 5;(2):CD000307.Full text  Abstract

126. Rosenheck RA, Krystal JH, Lew R, et al. Long-acting risperidone and oral antipsychotics in unstable schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 3;364(9):842-51.Full text  Abstract

127. Newton R, Hustig H, Lakshmana R, et al. Practical guidelines on the use of paliperidone palmitate in schizophrenia. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012 Apr;28(4):559-67. Abstract

128. Ascher-Svanum H, Zhao F, Detke HC, et al. Early response predicts subsequent response to olanzapine long-acting injection in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of treatment for schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry. 2011 Sep 23;11:152.Full text  Abstract

129. Witte MM, Case MG, Schuh KJ, et al. Effects of olanzapine long-acting injection on levels of functioning among acutely ill patients with schizophrenia. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012 Mar;28(3):315-23. Abstract

130. Fagiolini A, De Filippis S, Azzarelli O, et al. Intramuscular aripiprazole for the treatment of agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice. J Psychopath. 2013 Mar;19(1):34-41.Full text

131. Peuskens J. Good medical practice in antipsychotic pharmacotherapy. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998 Mar;13 suppl 3:S35-41. Abstract

132. Schneider-Thoma J, Efthimiou O, Huhn M, et al. Second-generation antipsychotic drugs and short-term mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Aug;5(8):653-63. Abstract

133. Kishimoto T, Agarwal V, Kishi T, et al. Relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of second-generation antipsychotics versus first-generation antipsychotics. Mol Psychiatry. 2013 Jan;18(1):53-66.Full text  Abstract

134. Komossa K, Rummel-Kluge C, Hunger H, et al. Olanzapine versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Mar 17;(3):CD006654.Full text  Abstract

135. Zhang Y, Liu Y, Su Y, et al. The metabolic side effects of 12 antipsychotic drugs used for the treatment of schizophrenia on glucose: a network meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Nov 21;17(1):373.Full text  Abstract

136. Corponi F, Serretti A, Montgomery S, et al. Cariprazine specificity profile in the treatment of acute schizophrenia: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized-controlled trials. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Nov;32(6):309-18. Abstract

137. Buchanan RW, Panagides J, Zhao J, et al. Asenapine versus olanzapine in people with persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012 Feb;32(1):36-45. Abstract

138. Stephenson CM, Pilowsky LS. Psychopharmacology of olanzapine: a review. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 1999;(38):52-8. Abstract

139. Leucht S, Kissling W, Davis JM. Second-generation antipsychotics for schizophrenia: can we resolve the conflict? Psychol Med. 2009 Oct;39(10):1591-602. Abstract

140. Naber D, Lambert M. The CATIE and CUtLASS studies in schizophrenia: results and implications for clinicians. CNS Drugs. 2009 Aug;23(8):649-59. Abstract

141. Sussman N. Choosing an atypical antipsychotic. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002 Aug;17 suppl 3:S29-33. Abstract

142. Zhang Y, Dai G. Efficacy and metabolic influence of paliperidone ER, aripiprazole and ziprasidone to patients with first-episode schizophrenia through 52 weeks follow-up in China. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2012 Nov;27(6):605-14. Abstract

143. Pajonk FG. Risperidone in acute and long-term therapy of schizophrenia - a clinical profile. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jan;28(1):15-23. Abstract

144. Weiden PJ. EPS profiles: the atypical antipsychotics are not all the same. J Psychiatr Pract. 2007 Jan;13(1):13-24. Abstract

145. Komossa K, Rummel-Kluge C, Schwarz S, et al. Risperidone versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19;(1):CD006626.Full text  Abstract

146. Daumit GL, Goff DC, Meyer JM, et al. Antipsychotic effects on estimated 10-year coronary heart disease risk in the CATIE schizophrenia study. Schizophr Res. 2008 Oct;105(1-3):175-87.Full text  Abstract

147. Citrome L. Activating and sedating adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: absolute risk increase and number needed to harm. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Apr;37(2):138-47. Abstract

148. Naber D, Lambert M. Aripiprazole: a new atypical antipsychotic with a different pharmacological mechanism. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Dec;28(8):1213-9. Abstract

149. Doey T. Aripiprazole in pediatric psychosis and bipolar disorder: a clinical review. J Affect Disord. 2012;138 suppl:S15-21. Abstract

150. Fusar-Poli P, Kempton MJ, Rosenheck RA. Efficacy and safety of second-generation long-acting injections in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Mar;28(2):57-66. Abstract

151. Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, et al; Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Investigators. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 22;353(12):1209-23.Full text  Abstract

152. Gentile S. Antipsychotic therapy during early and late pregnancy: a systematic review. Schizophr Bull. 2010 May;36(3):518-44.Full text  Abstract

153. Rummel C, Kissling W, Leucht S. Antidepressants for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;(3):CD005581.Full text  Abstract

154. Singh SP, Singh V, Kar N, et al. Efficacy of antidepressants in treating the negative symptoms of chronic schizophrenia: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;197(3):174-9. Abstract

155. Phan SV, Kreys TJ. Adjunct mirtazapine for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Pharmacotherapy. 2011 Oct;31(10):1017-30. Abstract

156. Helfer B, Samara MT, Huhn M, et al. Efficacy and safety of antidepressants added to antipsychotics for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 1;173(9):876-86. Abstract

157. Singh J, Kour K, Jayaram MB. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jan 18;(1):CD007967.Full text  Abstract

158. Rezaei F, Mohammad-Karimi M, Seddighi S, et al. Memantine add-on to risperidone for treatment of negative symptoms in patients with stable schizophrenia: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jun;33(3):336-42. Abstract

159. Kishi T, Matsuda Y, Iwata N. Memantine add-on to antipsychotic treatment for residual negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 Jul;234(14):2113-25. Abstract

160. Bennett AC, Vila TM. The role of ondansetron in the treatment of schizophrenia. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Jul-Aug;44(7-8):1301-6. Abstract

161. Levkovitz Y, Menlovich S, Riwkes S, et al. A double-blind, randomized study of minocycline for the treatment of negative and cognitive symptoms in early-phase schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;71(2):138-49. Abstract

162. Liu F, Guo X, Wu R, et al. Minocycline supplementation for treatment of negative symptoms in early-phase schizophrenia: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Schizophr Res. 2014 Mar;153(1-3):169-76. Abstract

163. Xiang YQ, Zheng W, Wang SB, et al. Adjunctive minocycline for schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017 Jan;27(1):8-18. Abstract

164. Singh V, Singh SP, Chan K. Review and meta-analysis of usage of ginkgo as an adjunct therapy in chronic schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010 Mar;13(2):257-71. Abstract

165. Zullino D, Delacrausaz P, Baumann P. The place of SSRIs in the treatment of schizophrenia [in French]. Encephale. 2002 Sep-Oct;28(5 Pt 1):433-8. Abstract

166. Gregory A, Mallikarjun P, Upthegrove R. Treatment of depression in schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2017 Oct;211(4):198-204. Abstract

167. van Dijk HG, Dapper EA, Vinkers CH. SSRIs and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia: a systematic review [in Dutch]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2017;59(1):40-6. Abstract

168. Chakos MH, Glick ID, Miller AL, et al. Baseline use of concomitant psychotropic medications to treat schizophrenia in the CATIE trial. Psychiatr Serv. 2006 Aug;57(8):1094-101. Abstract

169. Read J, Bentall R. The effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy: a literature review. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2010 Oct-Dec;19(4):333-47. Abstract

170. Sinclair DJ, Zhao S, Qi F, et al. Electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 19;(3):CD011847.Full text  Abstract

171. Petrides G, Malur C, Braga RJ, et al. Electroconvulsive therapy augmentation in clozapine-resistant schizophrenia: a prospective, randomized study. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Jan;172(1):52-8. Abstract

172. Asher L, Patel V, De Silva MJ. Community-based psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia in low and middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2017 Oct 30;17(1):355.Full text  Abstract

173. Chang WC, Chan GH, Jim OT, et al. Optimal duration of an early intervention programme for first-episode psychosis: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;206(6):492-500. Abstract

174. Dieterich M, Irving CB, Bergman H, et al. Intensive case management for severe mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 6;(1):CD007906.Full text  Abstract

175. Zhao S, Sampson S, Xia J, et al. Psychoeducation (brief) for people with serious mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Apr 9;(4):CD010823.Full text  Abstract

176. Almerie MQ, Okba Al Marhi M, Jawoosh M, et al. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jun 9;(6):CD009006.Full text  Abstract

177. Carmona VR, Gómez-Benito J, Huedo-Medina TB, et al. Employment outcomes for people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2017 May 8;30(3):345-66.Full text  Abstract

178. Hoffmann H, Jäckel D, Glauser S, et al. Long-term effectiveness of supported employment: 5-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 1;171(11):1183-90.Full text  Abstract

179. Suijkerbuijk YB, Schaafsma FG, van Mechelen JC, et al. Interventions for obtaining and maintaining employment in adults with severe mental illness, a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 12;(9):CD011867.Full text  Abstract

180. Drake RE, Frey W, Bond GR, et al. Assisting Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression in returning to work. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Dec;170(12):1433-41. Abstract

181. Lynch D, Laws KR, McKenna PJ. Cognitive behavioural therapy for major psychiatric disorder: does it really work? A meta-analytical review of well-controlled trials. Psychol Med. 2010 Jan;40(1):9-24. Abstract

182. Jones C, Hacker D, Meaden A, et al. Cognitive behavioural therapy plus standard care versus standard care plus other psychosocial treatments for people with schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 15;(11):CD008712.Full text  Abstract

183. Jones C, Hacker D, Xia J, et al. Cognitive behavioural therapy plus standard care versus standard care for people with schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 20;(12):CD007964.Full text  Abstract

184. Kennedy L, Xyrichis A. Cognitive behavioral therapy compared with non-specialized therapy for alleviating the effect of auditory hallucinations in people with reoccurring schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Community Ment Health J. 2017 Feb;53(2):127-33. Abstract

185. McGurk SR, Mueser KT, Xie H, et al. Cognitive enhancement treatment for people with mental illness who do not respond to supported employment: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Sep 1;172(9):852-61. Abstract

186. Kluwe-Schiavon B, Sanvicente-Vieira B, Kristensen CH, et al. Executive functions rehabilitation for schizophrenia: a critical systematic review. J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Jan;47(1):91-104. Abstract

187. Turner DT, van der Gaag M, Karyotaki E, et al. Psychological interventions for psychosis: a meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 May;171(5):523-38. Abstract

188. Jauhar S, McKenna PJ, Radua J, et al. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for the symptoms of schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis with examination of potential bias. Br J Psychiatry. 2014 Jan;204(1):20-9. Abstract

189. Cella M, Preti A, Edwards C, et al. Cognitive remediation for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a network meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2017 Mar;52:43-51.Full text  Abstract

190. Darmedru C, Demily C, Franck N. Cognitive remediation and social cognitive training for violence in schizophrenia: a systematic review. Psychiatry Res. 2017 May;251:266-74. Abstract

191. Pharoah F, Mari J, Rathbone J, et al. Family intervention for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Dec 8;(12):CD000088.Full text  Abstract

192. Xia J, Merinder LB, Belgamwar MR. Psychoeducation for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jun 15;(6):CD002831.Full text  Abstract

193. Katschnig H. Rehabilitation in schizophrenia - guidelines for including psychosocial measures [in German]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1998;148(11-12):273-80. Abstract

194. Matsui M, Arai H, Yonezawa M, et al. The effects of cognitive rehabilitation on social knowledge in patients with schizophrenia. Appl Neuropsychol. 2009 Jul;16(3):158-64. Abstract

195. Guo X, Zhai J, Liu Z, et al. Effect of antipsychotic medication alone vs combined with psychosocial intervention on outcomes of early-stage schizophrenia: a randomized, 1-year study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;67(9):895-904.Full text  Abstract

196. Barrowclough C, Haddock G, Wykes T, et al. Integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy for people with psychosis and comorbid substance misuse: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010 Nov 24;341:c6325.Full text  Abstract

197. Malmberg L, Fenton M. Individual psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis for schizophrenia and severe mental illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(3):CD001360.Full text  Abstract

198. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Group therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia: a review of the clinical effectiveness. Nov 2009 [internet publication].Full text

199. Vancampfort D, Probst M, Helvik Skjaerven L, et al. Systematic review of the benefits of physical therapy within a multidisciplinary care approach for people with schizophrenia. Phys Ther. 2012 Jan;92(1):11-23. Abstract

200. Vancampfort D, Knapen J, Probst M, et al. A systematic review of correlates of physical activity in patients with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012 May;125(5):352-62. Abstract

201. Firth J, Cotter J, Carney R, et al. The pro-cognitive mechanisms of physical exercise in people with schizophrenia. Br J Pharmacol. 2017 Oct;174(19):3161-72.Full text  Abstract

202. Firth J, Stubbs B, Rosenbaum S, et al. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull. 2017 May 1;43(3):546-56.Full text  Abstract

203. Cabral P, Meyer HB, Ames D. Effectiveness of yoga therapy as a complementary treatment for major psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2011;13(4):PCC.0r01068.Full text  Abstract

204. Vancampfort D, Vansteelandt K, Scheewe T, et al. Yoga in schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012 Jul;126(1):12-20. Abstract

205. Broderick J, Knowles A, Chadwick J, et al. Yoga versus standard care for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Oct 21;(10):CD010554.Full text  Abstract

206. Broderick J, Vancampfort D. Yoga as part of a package of care versus standard care for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 29;(9):CD012145.Full text  Abstract

207. Geretsegger M, Mössler KA, Bieleninik Ł, et al. Music therapy for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 29;(5):CD004025.Full text  Abstract

208. Lee TY, Chang SC, Chu H, et al. The effects of assertiveness training in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, single-blind, controlled study. J Adv Nurs. 2013 Nov;69(11):2549-59. Abstract

209. Zhuo C, Triplett PT. Association of schizophrenia with the risk of breast cancer incidence: a meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Apr 1;75(4):363-9.Full text  Abstract

210. Munetz MR, Benjamin S. How to examine patients using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1988 Nov;39(11):1172-7. Abstract

211. Bora E, Akdede BB, Alptekin K. The relationship between cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2017 Apr;47(6):1030-40. Abstract

212. Pillinger T, Beck K, Gobjila C, et al. Impaired glucose homeostasis in first-episode schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 1;74(3):261-9. Abstract

213. American Diabetes Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, et al. Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Feb;65(2):267-72. Abstract

214. Daumit GL, Dickerson FB, Wang NY, et al. A behavioral weight-loss intervention in persons with serious mental illness. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 25;368(17):1594-602.Full text  Abstract

215. Bartels SJ, Pratt SI, Aschbrenner KA, et al. Pragmatic replication trial of health promotion coaching for obesity in serious mental illness and maintenance of outcomes. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;172(4):344-52.Full text  Abstract

216. Halbreich U, Kahn LS. Hyperprolactinemia and schizophrenia: mechanisms and clinical aspects. J Psychiatr Pract. 2003 Sep;9(5):344-53. Abstract

217. Royal Pharmaceutical Society; British Medical Association. British national formulary. London: BNF Publications; 2019.Full text

218. Ayerbe L, Forgnone I, Addo J, et al. Hypertension risk and clinical care in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia; a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2018 Jan 1;225:665-70. Abstract

219. Bauer-Staeb C, Jörgensen L, Lewis G, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness: a total population study of Sweden. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017 Sep;4(9):685-93.Full text  Abstract

220. González-Rodríguez A, Seeman MV. Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia in postmenopausal women. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2018 Jun;19(8):809-21. Abstract

221. Brzezinski A, Brzezinski-Sinai NA, Seeman MV. Treating schizophrenia during menopause. Menopause. 2017 May;24(5):582-8. Abstract

222. Conley RR, Kelly DL. Second-generation antipsychotics for schizophrenia: a review of clinical pharmacology and medication-associated side effects. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2005;42(1):51-60. Abstract

223. Tandon R, Fleischhacker WW. Comparative efficacy of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: a critical assessment. Schizophr Res. 2005 Nov 15;79(2-3):145-55. Abstract

224. VanderZwaag C, McGee M, McEvoy JP, et al. Response of patients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia to clozapine within three serum level ranges. Am J Psychiatry. 1996 Dec;153(12):1579-84. Abstract

225. Remington G, Chong SA. Conventional versus novel antipsychotics: changing concepts and clinical implications. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 1999 Nov;24(5):431-41.Full text  Abstract

226. Haddad PM, Taylor M, Niaz OS. First-generation antipsychotic long-acting injections v. oral antipsychotics in schizophrenia: systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2009 Nov;52:S20-8. Abstract

227. European Medicines Agency. New measures to avoid valproate exposure in pregnancy endorsed. Mar 2018 [internet publication].Full text

228. Zaman H, Sampson SJ, Beck AL, et al. Benzodiazepines for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 8;(12):CD003079.Full text  Abstract

229. Centorrino F, Baldessarini RJ, Frankenburg FR, et al. Serum levels of clozapine and norclozapine in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Am J Psychiatry. 1996 Jun;153(6):820-2. Abstract

230. Zheng W, Cai DB, Yang XH, et al. Adjunctive celecoxib for schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Sep;92:139-46. Abstract

231. Sommer IE, de Witte L, Begemann M, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in schizophrenia: ready for practice or a good start? A meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Apr;73(4):414-9. Abstract

232. Kishi T, Matsuda Y, Nakamura H, et al. Blonanserin for schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized, controlled trials. J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Feb;47(2):149-54. Abstract

233. Lane HY, Lin CH, Green MF, et al. Add-on treatment of benzoate for schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Dec;70(12):1267-75. Abstract

234. Matthews PR, Horder J, Pearce M. Selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jan 25;(1):CD010219.Full text  Abstract

235. Kulkarni J, Gavrilidis E, Gwini SM, et al. Effect of adjunctive raloxifene therapy on severity of refractory schizophrenia in women: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 1;73(9):947-54. Abstract

236. Yu H, Yan H, Wang L, et al; Chinese Antipsychotics Pharmacogenomics Consortium. Five novel loci associated with antipsychotic treatment response in patients with schizophrenia: a genome-wide association study. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Apr;5(4):327-38. Abstract

237. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins. ACOG practice bulletin: clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists number 92, April 2008. Use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Apr;111(4):1001-20. Abstract

238. Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia - a short version for primary care. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2017 Feb 24;21(2):82-90.Full text  Abstract

239. Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 2: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of schizophrenia and management of antipsychotic-induced side effects. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;14(1):2-44.Full text  Abstract

240. Wasserman D, Rihmer Z, Rujescu D, et al. The European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on suicide treatment and prevention. Eur Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;27(2):129-41.Full text  Abstract

241. Barnes TR; Schizophrenia Consensus Group of British Association for Psychopharmacology. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 May;25(5):567-620.Full text  Abstract

242. Essali A, Al-Haj Haasan N, Li C, et al. Clozapine versus typical neuroleptic medication for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21;(1):CD000059.Full text  Abstract

243. Ananth J, Parameswaran S, Hara B. Drug therapy in schizophrenia. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(18):2205-17. Abstract

244. Kern RS, Glynn SM, Horan WP, et al. Psychosocial treatments to promote functional recovery in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2009 Mar;35(2):347-61.Full text  Abstract

245. Horan WP, Kern RS, Shokat-Fadai K, et al. Social cognitive skills training in schizophrenia: an initial efficacy study of stabilized outpatients. Schizophr Res. 2009 Jan;107(1):47-54.Full text  Abstract

246. Kane JM, McGlashan TH. Treatment of schizophrenia. Lancet. 1995 Sep 23;346(8978):820-5. Abstract

247. Wyatt RJ. Neuroleptics and the natural course of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1991;17(2):325-51. Abstract

248. Larsen TK, McGlashan TH, Moe LC. First-episode schizophrenia: I. Early course parameters. Schizophr Bull. 1996;22(2):241-56. Abstract

249. Malla AK, Norman RM, Manchanda R, et al. Status of patients with first-episode psychosis after one year of phase-specific community-oriented treatment. Psychiatr Serv. 2002 Apr;53(4):458-63. Abstract

250. Robinson DG, Woerner MG, Alvir JM, et al. Predictors of treatment response from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1999 Apr;156(4):544-9. Abstract

251. Coyle JT. Substance use disorders and schizophrenia: a question of shared glutamatergic mechanisms. Neurotox Res. 2006 Dec;10(3-4):221-33. Abstract

252. Tsoi DT, Porwal M, Webster AC. Interventions for smoking cessation and reduction in individuals with schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Feb 28;(2):CD007253.Full text  Abstract

253. Barnes TR, Soares-Weiser K, Bacaltchuk J, et al. Central action beta-blockers versus placebo for neuroleptic-induced acute akathisia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004 Oct 18;(4):CD001946.Full text  Abstract

254. Cubo E, Gracies JM, Benabou R, et al. Early morning off-medication dyskinesias, dystonia, and choreic subtypes. Arch Neurol. 2001 Sep;58(9):1379-82.Full text  Abstract

255. Glassman AH. Schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs, and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66 suppl 6:5-10. Abstract

256. Gray R, Gournay K. What can we do about acute extrapyramidal symptoms? J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2000 Jun;7(3):205-11. Abstract

257. Velamoor VR, Swamy GN, Parmar RS, et al. Management of suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Can J Psychiatry. 1995 Nov;40(9):545-50. Abstract

258. Klemp M, Tvete IF, Skomedal T, et al. A review and Bayesian meta-analysis of clinical efficacy and adverse effects of 4 atypical neuroleptic drugs compared with haloperidol and placebo. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011 Dec;31(6):698-704. Abstract

259. Nasrallah H. A review of the effect of atypical antipsychotics on weight. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003 Jan;28 suppl 1:83-96. Abstract

260. Das C, Mendez G, Jagasia S, et al. Second-generation antipsychotic use in schizophrenia and associated weight gain: a critical review and meta-analysis of behavioral and pharmacologic treatments. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Aug;24(3):225-39. Abstract

261. Mahmood S, Booker I, Huang J, et al. Effect of topiramate on weight gain in patients receiving atypical antipsychotic agents. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Feb;33(1):90-4. Abstract

262. Mukundan A, Faulkner G, Cohn T, et al. Antipsychotic switching for people with schizophrenia who have neuroleptic-induced weight or metabolic problems.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Dec 8;(12):CD006629.Full text  Abstract

263. Jin H, Meyer JM, Jeste DV. Atypical antipsychotics and glucose dysregulation: a systematic review. Schizophr Res. 2004 Dec 1;71(2-3):195-212. Abstract

264. Newcomer JW. Metabolic considerations in the use of antipsychotic medications: a review of recent evidence. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 suppl 1:20-7. Abstract

265. Nunes LV, Moreira HC, Razzouk D, et al. Strategies for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced sexual dysfunction and/or hyperprolactinemia among patients of the schizophrenia spectrum: a review. J Sex Marital Ther. 2012;38(3):281-301. Abstract

266. Bacconi L, Gressier F. Efficacy and tolerance of PDE-5 in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in schizophrenic patients: a literature review [in French]. Encephale. 2017 Feb;43(1):55-61. Abstract

267. Glassman AH, Bigger JT, Jr. Antipsychotic drugs: prolonged QTc interval, torsade de pointes, and sudden death. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Nov;158(11):1774-82.Full text  Abstract

268. Collaborative Working Group on Clinical Trial Evaluations. Adverse effects of the atypical antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59 suppl 12:17-22. Abstract

269. Farooq S, Johal RK, Ziff C, et al. Different communication strategies for disclosing a diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct 24;(10):CD011707.Full text  Abstract

270. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (UK). Valproate medicines (Epilim, Depakote): Pregnancy Prevention Programme materials online. May 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer