Rheumatic fever

References

Key articles

World Health Organization. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: report of a WHO Expert Consultation. 2004 [internet publication].Full text

Gewitz MH, Baltimore RS, Tani LY, et al. Revision of the Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the era of Doppler echocardiography: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015 May 19;131(20):1806-18.Full text  Abstract

Denny F, Wannamaker LW, Brink WR, et al. Prevention of rheumatic fever; treatment of preceding streptococci infection. J Am Med Assoc. 1950 May 13;143(2):151-3. Abstract

Manyemba J, Mayosi BM. Penicillin for secondary prevention of rheumatic fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD002227.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. World Health Organization. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: report of a WHO Expert Consultation. 2004 [internet publication].Full text

2. Gewitz MH, Baltimore RS, Tani LY, et al. Revision of the Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the era of Doppler echocardiography: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015 May 19;131(20):1806-18.Full text  Abstract

3. Punukollu M, Mushet N, Linney M, et al. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of Sydenham's chorea: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2016 Jan;58(1):16-28.Full text  Abstract

4. Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, et al. The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Nov;5(11):685-94. Abstract

5. Watkins DA, Johnson CO, Colquhoun SM, et al. Global, regional, and national burden of rheumatic heart disease, 1990-2015. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 24;377(8):713-22.Full text  Abstract

6. Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, et al. The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Nov;5(11):685-94. Abstract

7. Miyake CY, Gauvreau K, Tani LY, et al. Characteristics of children discharged from hospitals in the United States in 2000 with the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever. Pediatrics. 2007 Sep;120(3):503-8. Abstract

8. Milne RJ, Lennon DR, Stewart JM, et al. Incidence of acute rheumatic fever in New Zealand children and youth. J Paediatr Child Health. 2012 Aug;48(8):685-91. Abstract

9. Quinn RW. Comprehensive review of morbidity and mortality trends for rheumatic fever, streptococcal disease, and scarlet fever: the decline of rheumatic fever. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Nov-Dec;11(6):928-53. Abstract

10. Veasy LG, Tani LY, Hill HR. Persistence of acute rheumatic fever in the intermountain area of the United States. J Pediatr. 1994 Jan;124(1):9-16. Abstract

11. Veasy LG, Wiedmeier SE, Orsmond GS, et al. Resurgence of acute rheumatic fever in the intermountain area of the United States. N Engl J Med. 1987 Feb 19;316(8):421-7. Abstract

12. Johnson DR, Stevens DL, Kaplan EL. Epidemiologic analysis of group A streptococcal serotypes associated with severe systemic infections, rheumatic fever, or uncomplicated pharyngitis. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):374-82. Abstract

13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Group A Streptococcal Disease. Acute rheumatic fever. July 2018 [internet publication].Full text

14. Carapetis JR, Currie BJ, Mathews JD. Cumulative incidence of rheumatic fever in an endemic region: a guide to the susceptibility of the population? Epidemiol Infect. 2000 Apr;124(2):239-44.Full text  Abstract

15. Wilson MG, Schweitzer MD, Lubschez R. The familial epidemiology of rheumatic fever: genetic and epidemiologic studies. J Peds. 1943;22:468-92.

16. Engel ME, Stander R, Vogel J, et al. Genetic susceptibility to acute rheumatic fever: a systematic review and meta-analysis of twin studies. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25326.Full text  Abstract

17. Harel L, Zeharia A, Kodman Y, et al. Presence of the d8/17 B-cell marker in children with rheumatic fever in Israel. Clin Genet. 2002 Apr;61(4):293-8. Abstract

18. Harrington Z, Visvanathan K, Skinner NA, et al. B-cell antigen D8/17 is a marker of rheumatic fever susceptibility in Aboriginal Australians and can be tested in remote settings. Med J Aust. 2006 May 15;184(10):507-10.Full text  Abstract

19. Khanna AK, Buskirk DR, Williams RC Jr, et al. Presence of a non-HLA B cell antigen in rheumatic fever patients and their families as defined by a monoclonal antibody. J Clin Invest. 1989 May;83(5):1710-6.Full text  Abstract

20. Weisz JL, McMahon WM, Moore JC, et al. D8/17 and CD19 expression on lymphocytes of patients with acute rheumatic fever and Tourette's disorder. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004 Mar;11(2):330-6.Full text  Abstract

21. Chun LT, Reddy DV, Yamamoto LG. Rheumatic fever in children and adolescents in Hawaii. Pediatrics. 1987 Apr;79(4):549-52. Abstract

22. Chun LT, Reddy V, Rhoads GG. Occurrence and prevention of rheumatic fever among ethnic groups of Hawaii. Am J Dis Child. 1984 May;138(5):476-8. Abstract

23. Pearce N, Pomare E, Marshall S, et al. Mortality and social class in Maori and nonMaori New Zealand men: changes between 1975-7 and 1985-7. N Z Med J. 1993 May 26;106(956):193-6. Abstract

24. Carapetis JR, Wolff DR, Currie BJ. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in the top end of Australia's Northern Territory. Med J Aust. 1996 Feb 5;164(3):146-9. Abstract

25. McDonald M, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR. Acute rheumatic fever: a chink in the chain that links the heart to the throat? Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Apr;4(4):240-5. Abstract

26. Guilherme L, Kalil J, Cunningham M. Molecular mimicry in the autoimmune pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease. Autoimmunity. 2006 Feb;39(1):31-9. Abstract

27. Carapetis JR, Beaton A, Cunningham MW, et al. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2016 Jan 14;2:15084.Full text  Abstract

28. Galvin JE, Hemric ME, Ward K, et al. Cytotoxic mAb from rheumatic carditis recognizes heart valves and laminin. J Clin Invest. 2000 Jul;106(2):217-24.Full text  Abstract

29. Martin WJ, Steer AC, Smeesters PR, et al. Post-infectious group A streptococcal autoimmune syndromes and the heart. Autoimmun Rev. 2015 Aug;14(8):710-25. Abstract

30. Kumar V, Fausto N, Abbas A. Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2004.

31. Coffey PM, Ralph AP, Krause VL. The role of social determinants of health in the risk and prevention of group A streptococcal infection, acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Jun;12(6):e0006577.Full text  Abstract

32. Kumar P, Garhwal S, Chaudhary V. Rheumatic heart disease: a school survey in a rural area of Rajasthan. Indian Heart J. 1992 Jul-Aug;44(4):245-6. Abstract

33. Jaine R, Baker M, Venugopal K. Acute rheumatic fever associated with household crowding in a developed country. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Apr;30(4):315-9. Abstract

34. Steer AC, Carapetis JR, Nolan TM, et al. Systematic review of rheumatic heart disease prevalence in children in developing countries: the role of environmental factors. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Jun;38(3):229-3. Abstract

35. Wannamaker LW. The epidemiology of streptococcal infections. In: McCarty M, ed. Streptococcal infections. New York: Columbia University Press; 1954.

36. Taranta A, Torodsag S, Metrakoset, et al. Rheumatic fever in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Circulation. 1959;20:778.

37. Kemeny E, Husby GW, Williams RC Jr, et al. Tissue distribution of antigen(s) defined by monoclonal antibody D8/17 reacting with B lymphocytes of patients with rheumatic heart disease. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1994 Jul;72(1):35-43. Abstract

38. Kaur S, Kumar D, Grover A, et al. Ethnic differences in expression of susceptibility marker(s) in rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease patients. Int J Cardiol. 1998 Mar 13;64(1):9-14. Abstract

39. Guedez Y, Kotby A, El-Demellawy M, et al. HLA class II associations with rheumatic heart disease are more evident and consistent among clinically homogeneous patients. Circulation. 1999 Jun 1;99(21):2784-90.Full text  Abstract

40. Parks T, Mirabel MM, Kado J, et al; Pacific Islands Rheumatic Heart Disease Genetics Network. Association between a common immunoglobulin heavy chain allele and rheumatic heart disease risk in Oceania. Nat Commun. 2017 May 11;8:14946.Full text  Abstract

41. Gray LA, D'Antoine HA, Tong SYC, et al. Genome-wide analysis of genetic risk factors for rheumatic heart disease in Aboriginal Australians provides support for pathogenic molecular mimicry. J Infect Dis. 2017 Dec 12;216(11):1460-70. Abstract

42. Azevedo PM, Merriman TR, Topless RK, et al. Association study involving polymorphisms in IL-6, IL-1RA, and CTLA4 genes and rheumatic heart disease in New Zealand population of Māori and Pacific ancestry. Cytokine. 2016 Sep;85:201-6. Abstract

43. Denny F, Wannamaker LW, Brink WR, et al. Prevention of rheumatic fever; treatment of preceding streptococci infection. J Am Med Assoc. 1950 May 13;143(2):151-3. Abstract

44. Gerber MA, Baltimore RS, Eaton CB, et al. Prevention of rheumatic fever and diagnosis and treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, the Interdisciplinary Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology, and the Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation. 2009 Mar 24;119(11):1541-51.Full text  Abstract

45. Altamimi S, Khalil A, Khalaiwi KA, et al. Short-term late-generation antibiotics versus longer term penicillin for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15;(8):CD004872.Full text  Abstract

46. Lennon D, Kerdemelidis M, Arroll B. Meta-analysis of trials of streptococcal throat treatment programs to prevent rheumatic fever. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Jul;28(7):e259-64. Abstract

47. Lennon D, Stewart J, Farrell E, et al. School-based prevention of acute rheumatic fever: a group randomized trial in New Zealand. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Sep;28(9):787-94. Abstract

48. New Zealand Ministry of Health. Reducing rheumatic fever. November 2018 [internet publication].Full text

49. Lennon D, Anderson P, Kerdemelidis M, et al. First presentation acute rheumatic fever is preventable in a community setting: a school-based intervention. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Dec;36(12):1113-8. Abstract

50. Carapetis J, Steer A. Prevention of rheumatic fever. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Jan;29(1):91-2;author reply 92. Abstract

51. Jones TD. The diagnosis of rheumatic fever. J Am Med Assoc. 1944;126:481-4.

52. Reményi B, Wilson N, Steer A, et al. World Heart Federation criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease - an evidence-based guideline. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012 Feb 28;9(5):297-309.Full text  Abstract

53. Vasan RS, Shrivastava S, Vijayakumar M, et al. Echocardiographic evaluation of patients with acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic carditis. Circulation. 1996 Jul 1;94(1):73-82.Full text  Abstract

54. Steer AC, Kado J, Jenney AW, et al. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Fiji: prospective surveillance, 2005-2007. Med J Aust. 2009 Feb 2;190(3):133-5. Abstract

55. Feinstein AR, Spagnuolo M, Wood HF, et al. Rheumatic fever in children and adolescents. A long-term epidemiologic study of subsequent prophylaxis, streptococcal infections, and clinical sequelae. VI. Clinical features of streptococcal infections and rheumatic recurrences. Ann Intern Med. 1964 Feb;60(suppl 5):68-86. Abstract

56. Carapetis JR, Currie BJ. Rheumatic chorea in northern Australia: a clinical and epidemiological study. Arch Dis Child. 1999 Apr;80(4):353-8.Full text  Abstract

57. RHDAustralia (ARF/RHD writing group); National Heart Foundation of Australia; Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Australian guideline for prevention, diagnosis and management of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (3rd ed). 2020 [internet publication].Full text

58. Carapetis JR, Currie BJ. Rheumatic fever in a high incidence population: the importance of monoarthritis and low grade fever. Arch Dis Child. 2001 Sep;85(3):223-7.Full text  Abstract

59. Veasy LG. Time to take soundings in acute rheumatic fever. Lancet. 2001 Jun 23;357(9273):1994-5. Abstract

60. Narula J, Kaplan EL. Echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic fever. Lancet. 2001 Dec 8;358(9297):2000. Abstract

61. Abernethy M, Bass N, Sharpe N, et al. Doppler echocardiography and the early diagnosis of carditis in acute rheumatic fever. Aust N Z J Med. 1994 Oct;24(5):530-5. Abstract

62. Vijayalakshmi IB, Vishnuprabhu RO, Chitra N, et al. The efficacy of echocardiographic criterions for the diagnosis of carditis in acute rheumatic fever. Cardiol Young. 2008 Dec;18(6):586-92. Abstract

63. Martin DR, Voss LM, Walker SJ, et al. Acute rheumatic fever in Auckland, New Zealand: spectrum of associated group A streptococci different from expected. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994 Apr;13(4):264-9. Abstract

64. Upton A, Lowe C, Stewart J, et al. In vitro comparison of four rapid antigen tests for group A streptococcus detection. N Z Med J. 2014 Jul 18;127(1398):77-83. Abstract

65. Cohen JF, Bertille N, Cohen R, et al. Rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 4;7:CD010502.Full text  Abstract

66. Wang F, Tian Y, Chen L, et al. Accurate Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes at the Point of Care Using the cobas Liat Strep A Nucleic Acid Test. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2017 Oct;56(12):1128-34.Full text  Abstract

67. Parker KG, Gandra S, Matushek S, et al. Comparison of 3 nucleic acid amplification tests and a rapid antigen test with culture for the detection of group A streptococci from throat swabs. J Appl Lab Med. 2019 Sep;4(2):164-69.Full text  Abstract

68. Gentles TL, Colan SD, Wilson NJ, et al. Left ventricular mechanics during and after acute rheumatic fever: contractile dysfunction is closely related to valve regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Jan;37(1):201-7.Full text  Abstract

69. Tubridy-Clark M, Carapetis JR. Subclinical carditis in rheumatic fever: a systematic review. Int J Cardiol. 2007 Jun 25;119(1):54-8. Abstract

70. Wilson NJ, Neutze JM. Echocardiographic diagnosis of subclinical carditis in acute rheumatic fever. Int J Cardiol. 1995 Jun 2;50(1):1-6. Abstract

71. Upton A, Farrell E, Stewart J, e al. Disappointing performance of rapid antigen detection tests for group A streptococcus in the Auckland school-based sore throat programme. N Z Med J. 2014 Feb 14;127(1389):103-5. Abstract

72. Kaplan EL, Rothermel CD, Johnson DR. Antistreptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B titers: normal values for children ages 2 to 12 in the United States. Pediatrics. 1998 Jan;101(1 Pt 1):86-8. Abstract

73. Danchin MH, Carlin JB, Devenish W, et al. New normal ranges of antistreptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B titres for Australian children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2005 Nov;41(11):583-6. Abstract

74. Parker KG, Gandra S, Matushek S, et al. Comparison of 3 Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests and a Rapid Antigen Test with Culture for the Detection of Group A Streptococci from Throat Swabs. J Appl Lab Med. 2019 Sep;4(2):164-69.Full text  Abstract

75. Jones TD. The diagnosis of rheumatic fever. J Am Med Assoc. 1944;126:481-4.

76. American Heart Association. Guidelines for the diagnosis of rheumatic fever. Jones Criteria, 1992 update. Special Writing Group of the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young of the American Heart Association. JAMA. 1992 Oct 21;268(15):2069-73. [Erratum in: JAMA. 1993 Jan 27;269(4):476.] Abstract

77. Rutstein DD. Report of the committee on standards and criteria for programs of care of the council of rheumatic fever and congenital heart disease of the American Heart Association: Jones criteria (modified) for guidance in the diagnosis of rheumatic fever. Circulation. 1956 Apr;13(4):617-20.Full text  Abstract

78. Stollerman GH, Markowitz M, Taranta A, et al. Committee report: Jones criteria (revised) for guidance in the diagnosis of rheumatic fever. Circulation. 1965 Oct;32(4):664-8. Abstract

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80. Carapetis JR. Rheumatic heart disease in developing countries. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 2;357(5):439-41. Abstract

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82. Marijon E, Ou P, Celermajer DS, et al. Prevelance of rheumatic heart disease detected by echocardiographic screening. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 2;357(5):470-6.Full text  Abstract

83. Rothenbühler M, O'Sullivan CJ, Stortecky S, et al. Active surveillance for rheumatic heart disease in endemic regions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence among children and adolescents. Lancet Glob Health. 2014 Dec;2(12):e717-26.Full text  Abstract

84. Yacoub M, Mayosi B, ElGuindy A, et al. Eliminating acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Lancet. 2017 Jul 15;390(10091):212-3. Abstract

85. Heart Foundation of New Zealand. New Zealand guidelines for rheumatic fever: diagnosis, management and secondary prevention of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: 2014 update. 2014 [internet publication].Full text

86. Heart Foundation of New Zealand. New Zealand guidelines for rheumatic fever: group A streptococcal sore throat management guideline - 2019 update. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

87. Cilliers A, Adler AJ, Saloojee H. Anti-inflammatory treatment for carditis in acute rheumatic fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 May 28;(5):CD003176.Full text  Abstract

88. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA requires labeling changes for prescription opioid cough and cold medicines to limit their use to adults 18 years and older. January 2018 [internet publication].Full text

89. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. Codeine: restricted use as analgesic in children and adolescents after European safety review. Drug Safety Update. 2013;6:S1.Full text

90. European Medicines Agency. Restrictions on use of codeine for pain relief in children - CMDh endorses PRAC recommendation. June 2013 [internet publication].Full text

91. Mortimer EA Jr, Vaisman S, Vigneau A, et al. The effect of penicillin on acute rheumatic fever and valvular heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1959 Jan 15;260(3):101-12. Abstract

92. Illingworth RS, Lorber J, Holt KS, et al. Acute rheumatic fever in children: a comparison of six forms of treatment in 200 cases. Lancet. 1957 Oct 5;273(6997):653-9. Abstract

93. Bywaters EG, Thomas GT. Bed rest, salicylates, and steroid in rheumatic fever. Br Med J. 1961 Jun 10;1(5240):1628-34.Full text  Abstract

94. Dorfman A, Gross JI, Lorincz AE. The treatment of acute rheumatic fever. Pediatrics. 1961 May;27:692-706. Abstract

95. Hashkes PJ, Tauber T, Somekh E, et al; Pediatric Rheumatlogy Study Group of Israel. Naproxen as an alternative to aspirin for the treatment of arthritis of rheumatic fever: a randomized trial. J Pediatr. 2003 Sep;143(3):399-401. Abstract

96. Çetin İİ, Ekici F, Kocabaş A, et al. The efficacy and safety of naproxen in acute rheumatic fever: The comparative results of 11-year experience with acetylsalicylic acid and naproxen. Turk J Pediatr. 2016;58(5):473-9. Abstract

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98. Voss LM, Wilson NJ, Neutze JM, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin in acute rheumatic fever: a randomized controlled trial. Circulation. 2001 Jan 23;103(3):401-6.Full text  Abstract

99. Pena J, Mora E, Cardozo J, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of carbamazepine, haloperidol and valproic acid in the treatment of children with Sydenham's chorea: clinical follow-up of 18 patients. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2002 Jun;60(2-B):374-7.Full text  Abstract

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102. Mohammad SS, Nosadini M, Grattan-Smith P, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin in acute Sydenham's chorea: a systematic review. J Paediatr Child Health. 2015 Dec;51(12):1235-8. Abstract

103. Feinstein AR, Stern EK, Spagnuolo M. The prognosis of acute rheumatic fever. Am Heart J. 1964 Dec;68:817-34. Abstract

104. Sanyal SK, Berry AM, Duggal S, et al. Sequelae of the initial attack of acute rheumatic fever in children from north India. A prospective 5-year follow-up study. Circulation. 1982 Feb;65(2):375-9. Abstract

105. Stollerman GH. Rheumatic fever and streptococcal infection. New York: Grune & Stratton; 1975.

106. Manyemba J, Mayosi BM. Penicillin for secondary prevention of rheumatic fever. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD002227.Full text  Abstract

107. Karthikeyan G, Devasenapathy N, Zühlke L, et al. Digoxin and clinical outcomes in the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry. Heart. 2018 Sep 12 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

108. Working Group on Pediatric Acute Rheumatic Fever and Cardiology Chapter of Indian Academy of Pediatrics, Saxena A, Kumar RK, et al. Consensus guidelines on pediatric acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Indian Pediatr. 2008 Jul;45(7):565-73.Full text  Abstract

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114. Tompkins RK, Burnes DC, Cable WE. An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of pharyngitis management and acute rheumatic fever prevention. Ann Intern Med. 1977 Apr;86(4):481-92. Abstract

115. Dajani A, Taubert K, Ferrieri P, et al. Treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis and prevention of rheumatic fever: a statement for health professionals. Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, the American Heart Association. Pediatrics. 1995 Oct;96(4 Pt 1):758-64. Abstract

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117. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: antimicrobial prophylaxis against infective endocarditis in adults and children undergoing interventional procedures. July 2016 [internet publication].Full text

118. Otto CM, Nishimura RA, Bonow RO, et al. 2020 ACC/AHA guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2021 Feb 2;143(5):e72-e227.Full text  Abstract

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