Otitis externa

References

Key articles

Rosenfeld RM, Schwartz SR, Cannon CR, et al. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Clinical practice guideline: acute otitis externa. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Feb;150(1 Suppl):S1-S24.Full text  Abstract

Hirsch BE. Infections of the external ear. Am J Otolaryngol. 1992 May-Jun;13(3):145-55. Abstract

Selesnick SH. Otitis externa: management of the recalcitrant case. Am J Otology. 1994 May;15(3):408-12. Abstract

Mösges R, Nematian-Samani M, Hellmich M, et al. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of quinolone containing otics in comparison to antibiotic-steroid combination drugs in the local treatment of otitis externa. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011 Oct;27(10):2053-60. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Rosenfeld RM, Schwartz SR, Cannon CR, et al. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Clinical practice guideline: acute otitis externa. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Feb;150(1 Suppl):S1-S24.Full text  Abstract

2. Browning GG. Aetiopathology of inflammatory conditions of the external and middle ear. In: Kerr AG, ed. Scott-Brown's Otolaryngology. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1997.

3. Hirsch BE. Infections of the external ear. Am J Otolaryngol. 1992 May-Jun;13(3):145-55. Abstract

4. Lee SK, Lee SA, Seon SW, et al. Analysis of prognostic factors in malignant external otitis. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Sep;10(3):228-35.Full text  Abstract

5. Walshe P, Cleary M, McConn WR, et al. Malignant otitis externa: a high index of suspicion is still needed for diagnosis. Irish Med J. 2002 Jan;95(1):14-6. Abstract

6. Johnson AK, Batra PS. Central skull base osteomyelitis: an emerging clinical entity. Laryngoscope. 2014 May;124(5):1083-7. Abstract

7. Schaefer P, Baugh RF. Acute otitis externa: an update. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Dec 1;86(11):1055-61.Full text  Abstract

8. Selesnick SH. Otitis externa: management of the recalcitrant case. Am J Otology. 1994 May;15(3):408-12. Abstract

9. Roland PS, Stroman DW. Microbiology of acute otitis externa. Laryngoscope. 2002 Jul;112(7 Pt 1):1166-77. Abstract

10. Rowlands S, Devalia H, Smith C, et al. Otitis externa in UK general practice: a survey using the UK General Practice Research Database. Br J Gen Pract. 2001 Jul;51(468):533-8.Full text  Abstract

11. Livingstone DM, Smith KA, Lange B. Scuba diving and otology: a systematic review with recommendations on diagnosis, treatment and post-operative care. Diving Hyperb Med. 2017 Jun;47(2):97-109. Abstract

12. Schwartz SR, Magit AE, Rosenfeld RM, et al. Clinical practice guideline (update): earwax (cerumen impaction). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 Jan;156(1_suppl):S1-29.Full text  Abstract

13. Chan KL, Soo G, van Hasselt CA. Furunculosis. Ear Nose Throat J. 1997;76:126. Abstract

14. Dubach P, Mantokoudis G, Caversaccio M. Ear canal cholesteatoma: meta-analysis of clinical characteristics with update on classification, staging and treatment. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Oct;18(5):369-76. Abstract

15. Leung DY, Boguniewicz M, Howell MD, et al. New insights into atopic dermatitis. J Clin Invest. 2004 Mar;113(5):651-7.Full text  Abstract

16. Clark GW, Pope SM, Jaboori KA. Diagnosis and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Am Fam Physician. 2015 Feb 1;91(3):185-90.Full text  Abstract

17. Dimitroulis G. Temporomandibular disorders: a clinical update. BMJ. 1998 Jul 18;317(7152):190-4.Full text  Abstract

18. Hui CP, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee. Acute otitis externa. [in fre]. Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Feb;18(2):96-101.Full text  Abstract

19. Kaushik V, Malik T, Saeed SR. Interventions for acute otitis externa. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD004740. Abstract

20. Kantas I, Balatsouras DG, Vafiadis M, et al. The use of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of acute external otitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Jan;264(1):9-14. Abstract

21. Dohar JE. Evolution of management approaches for otitis externa. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Apr;22(4):299-305; quiz 306-8. Abstract

22. van Balen FA, Smit WM, Zuithoff NP, et al. Clinical efficacy of three common treatments in acute otitis externa in primary care: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2003 Nov 22;327(7425):1201-5.Full text  Abstract

23. Lambert IJ. A comparison of the treatment of otitis externa with "Otosporin" and aluminium acetate: a report from a services practice in Cyprus. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1981 May;31(226):291-4.Full text  Abstract

24. Mösges R, Schröder T, Baues CM, et al. Dexamethasone phosphate in antibiotic ear drops for the treatment of acute bacterial otitis externa. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Aug;24(8):2339-47. Abstract

25. Pistorius B, Westberry K, Drehobl M, et al. Prospective, randomized, comparative trial of ciprofloxacin otic drops, with or without hydrocortisone, vs. polymyxin B-neomycin-hydrocortisone otic suspension in the treatment of acute diffuse otitis externa. Infect Dis Clin Pract. 1999;8:387-95.

26. Jones RN, Milazzo J, Seidlin M. Ofloxacin otic solution for treatment of otitis externa in children and adults. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997 Nov;123(11):1193-200. Abstract

27. Wall GM, Stroman DW, Roland PS, et al. Ciprofloxacin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1% sterile otic suspension for the topical treatment of ear infections: a review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Feb;28(2):141-4. Abstract

28. Mösges R, Nematian-Samani M, Hellmich M, et al. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of quinolone containing otics in comparison to antibiotic-steroid combination drugs in the local treatment of otitis externa. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011 Oct;27(10):2053-60. Abstract

29. Wang X, Winterstein AG, Alrwisan A, et al. Risk for tympanic membrane perforation after quinolone ear drops for acute otitis externa. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 May 2. pii: ciz345. Abstract

30. Rahman A, Rizwan S, Waycaster C, et al. Pooled analysis of two clinical trials comparing the clinical outcomes of topical ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone otic suspension and polymyxin B/neomycin/hydrocortisone otic suspension for the treatment of acute otitis externa in adults and children. Clin Ther. 2007 Sep;29(9):1950-6. Abstract

31. Roland PS, Belcher BP, Bettis R, et al; Cipro HC Study Group. A single topical agent is clinically equivalent to the combination of topical and oral antibiotic treatment for otitis externa. Am J Otolaryngol. 2008 Jul-Aug;29(4):255-61. Abstract

32. Hannley MT, Denneny JC 3rd, Holzer SS. Use of ototopical antibiotics in treating 3 common ear diseases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000 Jun;122(6):934-40. Abstract

33. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. November 2018 [internet publication].Full text

34. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects. March 2019 [internet publication].Full text

35. US Food & Drug Administraton. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA advises restricting fluoroquinolone antibiotic use for certain uncomplicated infections; warns about disabling side effects that can occur together. May 2016 [internet publication].Full text

36. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. December 2018 [internet publication].Full text

37. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. July 2018 [internet publication].Full text

38. Hopkins ME, Bennett A, Henderson N, et al. A retrospective review and multi-specialty, evidence-based guideline for the management of necrotising otitis externa. J Laryngol Otol. 2020 Jun;134(6):487-92.Full text  Abstract

39. Carfrae MJ, Kesser BW. Malignant otitis externa. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2008 Jun;41(3):537-49, viii-ix. Abstract

40. Bernstein JM, Holland NJ, Porter GC, et al. Resistance of Pseudomonas to ciprofloxacin: implications for the treatment of malignant otitis externa. J Laryngol Otol. 2007 Feb;121(2):118-23. Abstract

41. Sreepada GS, Kwartler JA. Skull base osteomyelitis secondary to malignant otitis externa. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Oct;11(5):316-23. Abstract

42. Franco-Vidal V, Blanchet H, Bebear C, et al. Necrotizing external otitis: a report of 46 cases. Otol Neurotol. 2007 Sep;28(6):771-3. Abstract

43. Amaro CE, Espiney R, Radu L, et al. Malignant (necrotizing) externa otitis: the experience of a single hyperbaric centre. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Jul;276(7):1881-87.Full text  Abstract

44. Phillips JS, Jones SE. Hyperbaric oxygen as an adjuvant treatment for malignant otitis externa. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 May 31;(5):CD004617.Full text  Abstract

45. Martin TJ, Kerschner JE, Flanary VA. Fungal causes of otitis externa and tympanostomy tube otorrhea. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2005 Nov;69(11):1503-8. Abstract

46. Mion M, Bovo R, Marchese-Ragona R, et al. Outcome predictors of treatment effectiveness for fungal malignant external otitis: a systematic review. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2015 Oct;35(5):307-13.Full text  Abstract

47. Demir D, Yılmaz MS, Güven M, et al. Comparison of clinical outcomes of three different packing materials in the treatment of severe acute otitis externa. J Laryngol Otol. 2018 Jun 13;132(6):523-28. Abstract

48. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA restricts use of prescription codeine pain and cough medicines and tramadol pain medicines in children; recommends against use in breastfeeding women. April 2017 [internet publication].Full text

49. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. Codeine: restricted use as analgesic in children and adolescents after European safety review. Drug Safety Update. December 2014 [internet publication].Full text

50. European Medicines Agency. Restrictions on use of codeine for pain relief in children - CMDh endorses PRAC recommendation. June 2013 [internet publication].Full text

51. Ali T, Meade K, Anari S, et al. Malignant otitis externa: case series. J Laryngol Otol. 2010 Aug;124(8):846-51. Abstract

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