Ankylosing spondylitis


Key articles

Dougados M, van der Linden S, Juhlin R, et al. The European Spondylarthropathy Study Group preliminary criteria for the classification of spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum. 1991 Oct;34(10):1218-27.Full text  Abstract

Jenkinson TR, Mallorie PA, Whitelock HC, et al. Defining spinal mobility in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The Bath AS Metrology Index. J Rheumatol.1994 Sep;21(9):1694-8. Abstract

Garrett S, Jenkinson T, Kennedy LG, et al. A new approach to defining disease status in ankylosing spondylitis: the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index. J Rheumatol. 1994 Dec;21(12):2286-91. Abstract

Calin A, Garrett S, Whitelock H, et al. A new approach to defining functional ability in ankylosing spondylitis: the development of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index. J Rheumatol. 1994 Dec;21(12):2281-5. Abstract

Callhoff J, Sieper J, Weiss A, et al. Efficacy of TNFalpha blockers in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: a meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Jun;74(6):1241-8. Abstract

Maxwell LJ, Zochling J, Boonen A, et al. TNF-alpha inhibitors for ankylosing spondylitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Apr 18;(4):CD005468.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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16. Lee W, Reveille JD, Weisman MH. Women with ankylosing spondylitis: a review. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Mar 15;59(3):449-54.Full text  Abstract

17. Chatzikyriakidou A, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA. What is the role of HLA-B27 in spondyloarthropathies? Autoimmun Rev. 2011 Jun;10(8):464-8. Abstract

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21. Wang R, Ward MM. Epidemiology of axial spondyloarthritis: an update. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2018 Mar;30(2):137-43.Full text  Abstract

22. Dean LE, Jones GT, MacDonald AG, et al. Global prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Apr;53(4):650-7.Full text  Abstract

23. Reveille JD, Witter JP, Weisman MH. Prevalence of axial spondylarthritis in the United States: estimates from a cross-sectional survey. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012 Jun;64(6):905-10.Full text  Abstract

24. Hukuda S, Minami M, Saito T, et al. Spondyloarthropathies in Japan: nationwide questionnaire survey performed by the Japan Ankylosing Spondylitis Society. J Rheumatol. 2001 Mar;28(3):554-9. Abstract

25. Alamanos Y, Papadopoulos NG, Voulgari PV, et al. Epidemiology of ankylosing spondylitis in Northwest Greece, 1983-2002. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004 May;43(5):615-8.Full text  Abstract

26. De Angelis R, Salaffi F, Grassi W. Prevalence of spondyloarthropathies in an Italian population sample: a regional community-based study. Scand J Rheumatol. 2007 Jan-Feb;36(1):14-21. Abstract

27. Saraux A, Guillemin F, Guggenbuhl P, et al. Prevalence of spondyloarthropathies in France: 2001. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005 Oct;64(10):1431-5.Full text  Abstract

28. Braun J, Bollow M, Remlinger G, et al. Prevalence of spondylarthropathies in HLA-B27 positive and negative blood donors. Arthritis Rheum. 1998 Jan;41(1):58-67. Abstract

29. Bohn R, Cooney M, Deodhar A, et al. Incidence and prevalence of axial spondyloarthritis: methodologic challenges and gaps in the literature. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2018 Mar-Apr;36(2):263-74.Full text  Abstract

30. Carbone LD, Cooper C, Michet CJ, et al. Ankylosing spondylitis in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935-1989. Is the epidemiology changing? Arthritis Rheum. 1992 Dec;35(12):1476-82. Abstract

31. Feldtkeller E, Bruckel J, Khan MA. Scientific contributions of ankylosing spondylitis patient advocacy groups. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2000 Jul;12(4):239-47. Abstract

32. Kennedy LG, Will R, Calin A. Sex ratio in the spondyloarthropathies and its relationship to phenotypic expression, mode of inheritance and age at onset. J Rheumatol. 1993 Nov;20(11):1900-4. Abstract

33. Will R, Edmunds L, Elswood J, et al. Is there sexual inequality in ankylosing spondylitis? A study of 498 women and 1202 men. J Rheumatol. 1990 Dec;17(12):1649-52. Abstract

34. Moll JM, Wright V. New York clinical criteria for ankylosing spondylitis. A statistical evaluation. Ann Rheum Dis. 1973 Jul;32(4):354-63.Full text  Abstract

35. Haroon NN, Paterson JM, Li P, et al. Increasing proportion of female patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based study of trends in the incidence and prevalence of AS. BMJ Open. 2014 Dec 15;4(12):e006634.Full text  Abstract

36. Braun J, Sieper J. Inception cohorts for spondyloarthropathies [in German]. Z Rheumatol. 2000 Apr;59(2):117-21. Abstract

37. Hamersma J, Cardon LR, Bradbury L, et al. Is disease severity in ankylosing spondylitis genetically determined? Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Jun;44(6):1396-400.Full text  Abstract

38. Brophy S, Hickey S, Menon A, et al. Concordance of disease severity among family members with ankylosing spondylitis? J Rheumatol. 2004 Sep;31(9):1775-8. Abstract

39. Kollnberger S, Bowness P. The role of B27 heavy chain dimer immune receptor interactions in spondyloarthritis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;649:277-85. Abstract

40. Kollnberger S, Bird L, Sun MY, et al. Cell-surface expression and immune receptor recognition of HLA-B27 homodimers. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Nov;46(11):2972-82. Abstract

41. Rezaei R, Mostafaei S, Aslani S, et al. Association study between killer immunoglobulin-like receptor polymorphisms and ankylosing spondylitis disease: an updated meta-analysis. Int J Rheum Dis. 2018 Oct;21(10):1746-55. Abstract

42. Brown MA. Breakthroughs in genetic studies of ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 Feb;47(2):132-7. Abstract

43. Lee YH, Song GG. Associations between ERAP1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis. Clin Rheumatol. 2016 Aug;35(8):2009-25. Abstract

44. Castro-Santos P, Moro-García MA, Marcos-Fernández R, et al. ERAP1 and HLA-C interaction in inflammatory bowel disease in the Spanish population. Innate Immun. 2017 Jul;23(5):476-81.Full text  Abstract

45. Evans DM, Spencer CC, Pointon JJ, et al. Interaction between ERAP1 and HLA-B27 in ankylosing spondylitis implicates peptide handling in the mechanism for HLA-B27 in disease susceptibility. Nat Genet. 2011 Jul 10;43(8):761-7. Abstract

46. Thomas GP, Brown MA. Genetics and genomics of ankylosing spondylitis. Immunol Rev. 2010 Jan;233(1):162-80. Abstract

47. Reveille JD, Sims AM, Danoy P, et al; Australo-Anglo-American Spondyloarthritis Consortium (TASC). Genome-wide association study of ankylosing spondylitis identifies non-MHC susceptibility loci. Nat Genet. 2010 Feb;42(2):123-7. Abstract

48. Han R, Xia Q, Xu S, et al. Interleukin-23 receptor polymorphism (rs10889677 A/C) in ankylosing spondylitis: meta-analysis in Caucasian and Asian populations. Clin Chim Acta. 2018 Feb;477:53-9. Abstract

49. Loddenkemper K, Burmester GR. What is the rank of RANKL in spondylarthritis? Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Mar;58(3):641-4. Abstract

50. Vandooren B, Cantaert T, Noordenbos T, et al. The abundant synovial expression of the RANK/RANKL/Osteoprotegerin system in peripheral spondylarthritis is partially disconnected from inflammation. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Mar;58(3):718-29. Abstract

51. Sieper J, Appel H, Braun J, et al. Critical appraisal of assessment of structural damage in ankylosing spondylitis: implications for treatment outcomes. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Mar;58(3):649-56. Abstract

52. Schett G, Landewe R, van der Heijde D. Tumour necrosis factor blockers and structural remodelling in ankylosing spondylitis: what is reality and what is fiction? Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Jun;66(6):709-11.Full text  Abstract

53. Cruickshank B. Lesions of cartilaginous joints in ankylosing spondylitis. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1956 Jan;71(1):73-84. Abstract

54. Ball J. Enthesopathy of rheumatoid and ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1971 May;30(3):213-23.Full text  Abstract

55. Aufdermaur M. Pathogenesis of square bodies in ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1989 Aug;48(8):628-31.Full text  Abstract

56. Appel H, Kuhne M, Spiekermann S, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of hip arthritis in ankylosing spondylitis: evaluation of the bone-cartilage interface and subchondral bone marrow. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Jun;54(6):1805-13.Full text  Abstract

57. Gratacos J, Collado A, Pons F, et al. Significant loss of bone mass in patients with early, active ankylosing spondylitis: a followup study. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Nov;42(11):2319-24.Full text  Abstract

58. Toussirot E, Ricard-Blum S, Dumoulin G, et al. Relationship between urinary pyridinium cross-links, disease activity and disease subsets of ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 1999 Jan;38(1):21-7.Full text  Abstract

59. Bollow M, Fischer T, Reisshauer H, et al. Quantitative analyses of sacroiliac biopsies in spondyloarthropathies: T cells and macrophages predominate in early and active sacroiliitis-cellularity correlates with the degree of enhancement detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Rheum Dis. 2000 Feb;59(2):135-40.Full text  Abstract

60. François RJ, Neure L, Sieper J, et al. Immunohistological examination of open sacroiliac biopsies of patients with ankylosing spondylitis: detection of tumour necrosis factor alpha in two patients with early disease and transforming growth factor beta in three more advanced cases. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006 Jun;65(6):713-20.Full text  Abstract

61. Appel H, Kuhne M, Spiekermann S, et al. Immunohistologic analysis of zygapophyseal joints in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Sep;54(9):2845-51.Full text  Abstract

62. François RJ, Gardner DL, Degrave EJ, et al. Histopathologic evidence that sacroiliitis in ankylosing spondylitis is not merely enthesitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2000 Sep;43(9):2011-24.Full text  Abstract

63. Zochling J, Baraliakos X, Hermann KG, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2007 Jul;19(4):346-52. Abstract

64. van der Heijde DM, Landewe RB, Ory P, et al. Two-year etanercept therapy does not inhibit radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. EULAR Congress Abstract OP0090. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65(suppl II):81.Full text

65. van der Heijde D, Landewe R, Deoadar A, et al. Radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis after 2 years of treatment not inhibited with infliximab. EULAR Congress Abstract OP0111. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66(suppl II):85.Full text

66. LaSalle SP, Deodhar AA. Appropriate management of axial spondyloarthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2007 Oct;9(5):375-82. Abstract

67. van der Linden SM, Valkenburg HA, de Jongh BM, et al. The risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis in HLA-B27 positive individuals. A comparison of relatives of spondylitis patients with the general population. Arthritis Rheum. 1984 Mar;27(3):241-9.Full text  Abstract

68. Puccetti A, Dolcino M, Tinazzi E, et al. Antibodies directed against a peptide epitope of a Klebsiella pneumoniae-derived protein are present in ankylosing spondylitis. PLoS One. 2017 Jan 30;12(1):e0171073.Full text  Abstract

69. de Winter JJ, van Mens LJ, van der Heijde D, et al. Prevalence of peripheral and extra-articular disease in ankylosing spondylitis versus non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: a meta-analysis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016 Sep 1;18(1):196.Full text  Abstract

70. Jenkinson TR, Mallorie PA, Whitelock HC, et al. Defining spinal mobility in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The Bath AS Metrology Index. J Rheumatol.1994 Sep;21(9):1694-8. Abstract

71. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria. Inflammatory back pain: known or suspected axial spondyloarthritis. 2021 [intermet publication].Full text

72. Ritchlin C, Adamopoulos IE. Axial spondyloarthritis: new advances in diagnosis and management. BMJ. 2021 Jan 4;372:m4447.Full text  Abstract

73. Song IH, Carrasco-Fernández J, Rudwaleit M, et al. The diagnostic value of scintigraphy in assessing sacroiliitis in ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic literature research. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008 Nov;67(11):1535-40. Abstract

74. Spoorenberg A, van der Heijde D, de Klerk E, et al. Relative value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in assessment of disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol. 1999 Apr;26(4):980-4. Abstract

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76. Garrett S, Jenkinson T, Kennedy LG, et al. A new approach to defining disease status in ankylosing spondylitis: the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index. J Rheumatol. 1994 Dec;21(12):2286-91. Abstract

77. Calin A, Garrett S, Whitelock H, et al. A new approach to defining functional ability in ankylosing spondylitis: the development of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index. J Rheumatol. 1994 Dec;21(12):2281-5. Abstract

78. Ball EJ, Khan MA. HLA-B27 polymorphism. Joint Bone Spine. 2001 Oct;68(5):378-82. Abstract

79. Brown MA, Rudwaleit M, Pile KD, et al. The role of germline polymorphisms in the T-cell receptor in susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis. Br J Rheumatol. 1998 Apr;37(4):454-8.Full text  Abstract

80. Martin TM, Smith JR, Rosenbaum JT. Anterior uveitis: current concepts of pathogenesis and interactions with the spondyloarthropathies. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2002 Jul;14(4):337-41. Abstract

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89. Heuft-Dorenbosch L, Landewé R, Weijers R, et al. Performance of various criteria sets in patients with inflammatory back pain of short duration; the Maastricht early spondyloarthritis clinic. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Jan;66(1):92-8.Full text  Abstract

90. Sieper J, Rudwaleit M. Early referral recommendations for ankylosing spondylitis (including pre-radiographic and radiographic forms) in primary care. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005 May;64(5):659-63.Full text  Abstract

91. Oostveen J, Prevo R, den Boer J, et al. Early detection of sacroiliitis on magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent development of sacroiliitis on plain radiography: a prospective, longitudinal study. J Rheumatol. 1999 Sep;26(9):1953-8. Abstract

92. Eshed I, Bollow M, McGonagle DG, et al. MRI of enthesitis of the appendicular skeleton in spondyloarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Dec;66(12):1553-9. Abstract

93. Creemers MC, Franssen MJ, van't Hof MA, et al. Assessment of outcome in ankylosing spondylitis: an extended radiographic scoring system. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005 Jan;64(1):127-9.Full text  Abstract

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95. Boonen A, Braun J, van der Horst Bruinsma IE, et al. ASAS/WHO ICF core sets for ankylosing spondylitis (AS): how to classify the impact of AS on functioning and health. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 Jan;69(1):102-7. Abstract

96. van der Heijde D, Ramiro S, Landewé R, et al. 2016 update of the ASAS-EULAR management recommendations for axial spondyloarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Jun;76(6):978-91.Full text  Abstract

97. Poddubnyy D, Haibel H, Listing J, et al. Baseline radiographic damage, elevated acute-phase reactant levels, and cigarette smoking status predict spinal radiographic progression in early axial spondylarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 May;64(5):1388-98. Abstract

98. Kraag G, Stokes B, Groh J, et al. The effects of comprehensive home physiotherapy and supervision on patients with ankylosing spondylitis - a randomized controlled trial. J Rheumatol. 1990 Feb;17(2):228-33. Abstract

99. Sharan D, Rajkumar JS. Physiotherapy for ankylosing spondylitis: systematic review and a proposed rehabilitation protocol. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2017;13(2):121-5. Abstract

100. Ward MM, Deodhar A, Gensler LS, et al. 2019 update of the American College of Rheumatology/Spondylitis Association of America/Spondyloarthritis Research and Treatment Network recommendations for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis andnonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Oct;71(10):1599-613.Full text  Abstract

101. Ward MM, Deodhar A, Akl EA, et al. American College of Rheumatology/Spondylitis Association of America/Spondyloarthritis Research and Treatment Network 2015 recommendations for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Feb;68(2):282-98.Full text  Abstract

102. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK). Spondyloarthritis in over 16s: diagnosis and management. Jun 2017 [internet publication].Full text

103. Millner JR, Barron JS, Beinke KM, et al. Exercise for ankylosing spondylitis: an evidence-based consensus statement. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016 Feb;45(4):411-27.Full text  Abstract

104. Liang Z, Fu C, Zhang Q, et al. Effects of water therapy on disease activity, functional capacity, spinal mobility and severity of pain in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Disabil Rehabil. 2021 Apr;43(7):895-902. Abstract

105. Pécourneau V, Degboé Y, Barnetche T, et al. Effectiveness of exercise programs in ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Feb;99(2):383-9. Abstract

106. Regnaux JP, Davergne T, Palazzo C, et al. Exercise programmes for ankylosing spondylitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Oct 2;(10):CD011321.Full text  Abstract

107. Dagfinrud H, Kvien TK, Hagen KB. Physiotherapy interventions for ankylosing spondylitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD002822.Full text  Abstract

108. Kasapoglu Aksoy M, Birtane M, Taştekin N, et al. The effectiveness of structured group education on ankylosing spondylitis patients. J Clin Rheumatol. 2017 Apr;23(3):138-43. Abstract

109. Peters MJ, van der Horst-Bruinsma IE, Dijkmans BA, et al. Cardiovascular risk profile of patients with spondylarthropathies, particularly ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Dec;34(3):585-92. Abstract

110. Mathieu S, Pereira B, Soubrier M. Cardiovascular events in ankylosing spondylitis: an updated meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2015 Apr;44(5):551-5. Abstract

111. Schieir O, Tosevski C, Glazier RH, et al. Incident myocardial infarction associated with major types of arthritis in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Aug;76(8):1396-404. Abstract

112. Brophy S, Cooksey R, Atkinson M, et al. No increased rate of acute myocardial infarction or stroke among patients with ankylosing spondylitis - a retrospective cohort study using routine data. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Oct;42(2):140-5. Abstract

113. Agca R, Smulders Y, Nurmohamed M. Cardiovascular disease risk in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: recommendations for clinical practice. Heart. 2021 Mar 4;heartjnl-2019-316378.Full text  Abstract

114. Agca R, Heslinga SC, Rollefstad S, et al. EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disorders: 2015/2016 update. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Jan;76(1):17-28.Full text  Abstract

115. Conroy RM, Pyörälä K, Fitzgerald AP, et al; SCORE project group. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J. 2003 Jun;24(11):987-1003. Abstract

116. Villaverde-García V, Cobo-Ibáñez T, Candelas-Rodríguez G, et al. The effect of smoking on clinical and structural damage in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: a systematic literature review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2017 Apr;46(5):569-83. Abstract

117. Wanders A, Heijde D, Landewe R, et al. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs reduce radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jun;52(6):1756-65.Full text  Abstract

118. Poddubnyy D, Rudwaleit M, Haibel H, et al. Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on radiographic spinal progression in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: results from the German Spondyloarthritis Inception Cohort. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Oct;71(10):1616-22.Full text  Abstract

119. Kroon F, Landewé R, Dougados M, et al. Continuous NSAID use reverts the effects of inflammation on radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Oct;71(10):1623-9. Abstract

120. Kroon FP, van der Burg LR, Ramiro S, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jul 17;(7):CD010952.Full text  Abstract

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