Osteomyelitis

References

Key articles

Cierny G 3rd, Mader JT, Penninck JJ. A clinical staging system for adult osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003 Sep;(414):7-24. Abstract

Berbari EF, Kanj SS, Kowalski TJ, et al. 2015 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of native vertebral osteomyelitis in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Sep 15;61(6):e26-46.Full text  Abstract

Lipsky BA, Senneville É, Abbas ZG, et al. Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of foot infection in persons with diabetes (IWGDF 2019 update). Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2020 Mar;36 Suppl 1:e3280.Full text  Abstract

Woods CR, Bradley JS, Chatterjee A, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America: 2021 Guideline on Diagnosis and Management of Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in Pediatrics. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2021 Sep 23;10(8):801-44.Full text  Abstract

Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging, Beaman FD, von Herrmann PF, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® suspected osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, or soft tissue infection (excluding spine and diabetic foot). J Am Coll Radiol. 2017 May;14(5s):S326-37.Full text  Abstract

Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging:., Beaman FD, von Herrmann PF, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® suspected osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, or soft tissue infection (excluding spine and diabetic foot). J Am Coll Radiol. 2017 May;14(5s):S326-37.Full text  Abstract

American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: suspected osteomyelitis of the foot in patients with diabetes mellitus. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Cierny G 3rd, Mader JT, Penninck JJ. A clinical staging system for adult osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003 Sep;(414):7-24. Abstract

2. Hotchen AJ, Dudareva M, Ferguson JY, et al. The BACH classification of long bone osteomyelitis. Bone Joint Res. 2019 Oct;8(10):459-68.Full text  Abstract

3. Hotchen AJ, Dudareva M, Corrigan RA, et al. Can we predict outcome after treatment of long bone osteomyelitis? Bone Joint J. 2020 Nov;102-B(11):1587-96. Abstract

4. Glaudemans AWJM, Jutte PC, Cataldo MA, et al. Consensus document for the diagnosis of peripheral bone infection in adults: a joint paper by the EANM, EBJIS, and ESR (with ESCMID endorsement). Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2019 Apr;46(4):957-70.Full text  Abstract

5. Kremers HM, Nwojo ME, Ransom JE, et al. Trends in the epidemiology of osteomyelitis: a population-based study, 1969 to 2009. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015 May 20;97(10):837-45.Full text  Abstract

6. Beronius M, Bergman B, Andersson R. Vertebral osteomyelitis in Goteborg, Sweden: a retrospective study of patients during 1990-95. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33(7):527-32. Abstract

7. Broner FA, Garland DE, Zigler JE. Spinal infections in the immunocompromised host. Orthop Clin North Am. 1996 Jan;27(1):37-46. Abstract

8. Saavedra-Lozano J, Falup-Pecurariu O, Faust SN, et al. Bone and joint infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Aug;36(8):788-99.Full text  Abstract

9. Samara E, Spyropoulou V, Tabard-Fougère A, et al. Kingella kingae and osteoarticular infections. Pediatrics. 2019 Dec;144(6):e20191509.Full text  Abstract

10. Le Saux N. Diagnosis and management of acute osteoarticular infections in children. [in fre]. Paediatr Child Health. 2018 Aug;23(5):336-43.Full text  Abstract

11. Berbari EF, Kanj SS, Kowalski TJ, et al. 2015 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of native vertebral osteomyelitis in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Sep 15;61(6):e26-46.Full text  Abstract

12. Stewart PS, Costerton JW. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms. Lancet. 2001 Jul 14;358(9276):135-8. Abstract

13. Gristina AG, Costerton JW. Bacterial adherence and the glycocalyx and their role in musculoskeletal infection. Orthop Clin North Am. 1984 Jul;15(3):517-35. Abstract

14. Davies DG, Parsek MR, Pearson JP. The involvement of cell-to-cell signals in the development of bacterial biofilm. Science. 1998 Apr 10;280(5361):295-8. Abstract

15. Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science. 1999 May 21;284(5418):1318-22. Abstract

16. Costerton JW, Lewandowski Z, Caldwell DE, et al. Microbial biofilms. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1995;49:711-45. Abstract

17. Trampuz A, Zimmerli W. Antimicrobial agents in orthopaedic surgery: prophylaxis and treatment. Drugs. 2006;66(8):1089-105. Abstract

18. Brady RA, Leid JG, Calhoun JH, et al. Osteomyelitis and the role of biofilms in chronic infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008 Jan;52(1):13-22. Abstract

19. Tröbs R, Möritz R, Bühligen U, et al. Changing pattern of osteomyelitis in infants and children. Pediatr Surg Int. 1999 Jul;15(5-6):363-72. Abstract

20. Wallace WC, Cinat M, Gornick WB, et al. Nosocomial infections in the surgical intensive care unit: a difference between trauma and surgical patients. Am Surg. 1999 Oct;65(10):987-90. Abstract

21. Ottino G, De Paulis R, Pansini S, et al. Major sternal wound infection after open-heart surgery: a multivariate analysis of risk factors in 2579 consecutive operative procedures. Ann Thorac Surg. 1987 Aug;44(2):173-9. Abstract

22. Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, Wunderlich RP, et al. Risk factors for foot infections in individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Jun;29(6):1288-93.Full text  Abstract

23. Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging., Walker EA, Beaman FD, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® suspected osteomyelitis of the foot in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Radiol. 2019 Nov;16(11s):S440-50.Full text  Abstract

24. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management. October 2019 [internet publication].Full text

25. Lipsky BA, Senneville É, Abbas ZG, et al. Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of foot infection in persons with diabetes (IWGDF 2019 update). Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2020 Mar;36 Suppl 1:e3280.Full text  Abstract

26. Sharkawy AA. Cervicofacial actinomycosis and mandibular osteomyelitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2007 Jun;21(2):543-56. Abstract

27. Lipsky BA, Berendt AR, Cornia PB, et al. 2012 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;54(12):e132-73.Full text  Abstract

28. Calhoun JH, Cantrell J, Cobos J, et al. Treatment of diabetic foot infections: Wagner classification, therapy, and outcome. Foot Ankle. 1988 Dec;9(3):101-6. Abstract

29. Woods CR, Bradley JS, Chatterjee A, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America: 2021 Guideline on Diagnosis and Management of Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in Pediatrics. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2021 Sep 23;10(8):801-44.Full text  Abstract

30. Mitha A, Boulyana M, Hue V, et al; European French-speaking expert group. Consensus in diagnostic definitions for bone or joint infections in children by a Delphi method with European French-speaking experts. Acta Paediatr. 2012 Aug;101(8):e350-6. Abstract

31. Mader JT, Calhoun JH, Lazzarini L. Adult long bone osteomyelitis. In: Mader JT, Calhoun JH, eds. Musculoskeletal infections. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2003:149-82.

32. Dimaala J, Chaljub G, Oto A, et al. Odontoid osteomyelitis masquerading as a C2 fracture in an 18-month-old male with torticollis: CT and MRI features. Emerg Radiol. 2006 Jul;12(5):234-6. Abstract

33. McKnight P, Friedman J. Torticollis due to cervical epidural abscess and osteomyelitis. Neurology. 1992 Mar;42(3 Pt 1):696-7. Abstract

34. Ursprung WM, Kettner NW, Boesch R. Vertebral osteomyelitis: a case report of a patient presenting with acute low back pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2005 Nov-Dec;28(9):713-8. Abstract

35. Buoncristiani AM, McCullen G, Shin AY, et al. An unusual cause of low back pain. Osteomyelitis of the spinous process. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1998 Apr 1;23(7):839-41. Abstract

36. Schulak DJ, Rayhack JM, Lippert FG 3rd, et al. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate in orthopaedic patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982 Jul;(167):197-202. Abstract

37. Carragee EJ, Kim D, van der Vlugt T, et al. The clinical use of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997 Sep 15;22(18):2089-93. Abstract

38. Perry M. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein in the assessment of suspected bone infection - are they reliable indexes? J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1996 Apr;41(2):116-8. Abstract

39. Roine I, Faingezicht I, Arguedas A, et al. Serial serum C-reactive protein to monitor recovery from acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1995 Jan;14(1):40-4. Abstract

40. Unkila-Kallio L, Kallio MJ, Eskola J, et al. Serum C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood cell count in acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of children. Pediatrics. 1994 Jan;93(1):59-62. Abstract

41. Trampuz A, Piper KE, Hanssen AD, et al. Sonication of explanted prosthetic components in bags for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection is associated with risk of contamination. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Feb;44(2):628-31.Full text  Abstract

42. Calhoun JH, Manring MM. Adult osteomyelitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2005 Dec;19(4):765-86. Abstract

43. Ericsson HM, Sherris JC. Antibiotic sensitivity testing: report of an international collaborative study. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand B Microbiol Immunol. 1971;217:(suppl 217):1. Abstract

44. Trampuz A, Piper KE, Jacobson MJ, et al. Sonication of removed hip and knee prostheses for diagnosis of infection. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 16;357(7):654-63.Full text  Abstract

45. Mackowiak PA, Jones SR, Smith JW. Diagnostic value of sinus tract cultures in chronic osteomyelitis. JAMA. 1978 Jun 30;239(26):2772-5. Abstract

46. Morgenstern M, Athanasou NA, Ferguson JY, et al. The value of quantitative histology in the diagnosis of fracture-related infection. Bone Joint J. 2018 Jul;100-B(7):966-72. Abstract

47. Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging, Beaman FD, von Herrmann PF, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® suspected osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, or soft tissue infection (excluding spine and diabetic foot). J Am Coll Radiol. 2017 May;14(5s):S326-37.Full text  Abstract

48. Jevtic V. Vertebral infection. Eur Radiol. 2004 Mar;14(suppl 3):E43-52. Abstract

49. Theodorou DJ, Theodorou SJ, Kakitsubata Y, et al. Imaging characteristics and epidemiologic features of atypical mycobacterial infections involving the musculoskeletal system. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001 Feb;176(2):341-9.Full text  Abstract

50. Flemming D, Murphey M, McCarthy K. Imaging of the foot and ankle: summary and update. Curr Opin Orthop. 2005;16:54-9.

51. Butt WP. The radiology of infection. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1973 Oct;(96):20-30. Abstract

52. Jones AG, Francis MD, Davis MA. Bone scanning: radionuclidic reaction mechanisms. Semin Nucl Med. 1976 Jan;6(1):3-18. Abstract

53. Kuhn JP, Berger PE. Computed tomographic diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Radiology. 1979 Feb;130(2):503-6. Abstract

54. Pineda C, Vargas A, Rodriguez AV. Imaging of osteomyelitis: current concepts. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Dec;20(4):789-825. Abstract

55. Wang GL, Zhao K, Liu ZF, et al. A meta-analysis of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography versus scintigraphy in the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis. Nucl Med Commun. 2011 Dec;32(12):1134-42. Abstract

56. Carragee EJ. Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997 Jun;79(6):874-80. Abstract

57. Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging:., Beaman FD, von Herrmann PF, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® suspected osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, or soft tissue infection (excluding spine and diabetic foot). J Am Coll Radiol. 2017 May;14(5s):S326-37.Full text  Abstract

58. Kesselring FO, Penn W. Radiological aspects of 'classic' primary osteosarcoma: value of some radiological investigations - a review. Diagn Imaging. 1982;51(2):78-92. Abstract

59. Sajadi KR, Heck RK, Neel MD, et al. The incidence and prognosis of osteosarcoma skip metastases. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004;426:92-96. Abstract

60. Gross T, Kaim AH, Regazzoni P, et al. Current concepts in post-traumatic osteomyelitis: a diagnostic challenge with new imaging options. J Trauma. 2002 Jun;52(6):1210-9. Abstract

61. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: suspected osteomyelitis of the foot in patients with diabetes mellitus. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

62. Lazzeri E, Bozzao A, Cataldo MA, et al. Joint EANM/ESNR and ESCMID-endorsed consensus document for the diagnosis of spine infection (spondylodiscitis) in adults. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2019 Nov;46(12):2464-87. Abstract

63. Howard-Jones AR, Isaacs D. Systematic review of duration and choice of systemic antibiotic therapy for acute haematogenous bacterial osteomyelitis in children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Sep;49(9):760-8. Abstract

64. Bouchoucha S, Gafsi K, Trifa M, et al. Intravenous antibiotic therapy for acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children: short versus long course [in French]. Arch Pediatr. 2013 May;20(5):464-9. Abstract

65. Atkins BL, Athanasou N, Deeks JJ, et al. Prospective evaluation of criteria for microbiological diagnosis of prosthetic-joint infection at revision arthroplasty: the OSIRIS Collaborative Study Group. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Oct;36(10):2932-9.Full text  Abstract

66. Sheehy SH, Atkins BA, Bejon P, et al. The microbiology of chronic osteomyelitis: prevalence of resistance to common empirical anti-microbial regimens. J Infect. 2010 May;60(5):338-43. Abstract

67. Cierny G 3rd, Mader JT. The surgical treatment of adult osteomyelitis. In: Evarts CMC, ed. Surgery of the musculoskeletal system. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1983:4337-79.

68. Anthony JP, Mathes SJ, Alpert BS. The muscle flap in the treatment of chronic lower extremity osteomyelitis: results in patients over 5 years after treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1991 Aug;88(2):311-8. Abstract

69. May JW Jr, Jupiter JB, Gallico GG 3rd, et al. Treatment of chronic traumatic bone wounds. Microvascular free tissue transfer: a 13-year experience in 96 patients. Ann Surg. 1991 Sep;214(3):241-50.Full text  Abstract

70. Mayberry-Carson KJ, Tober-Meyer B, Smith JK, et al. Bacterial adherence and glycocalyx formation in osteomyelitis experimentally induced with Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 1984 Mar;43(3):825-33.Full text  Abstract

71. Walenkamp GH, Vree TB, van Rens TJ. Gentamicin-PMMA beads: pharmacokinetic and nephrotoxicological study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986 Apr;(205):171-83. Abstract

72. Buchholz HW, Elson RA, Heinert K. Antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement: current concepts. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984 Nov;(190):96-108. Abstract

73. Cho SH, Song HR, Koo KH, et al. Antibiotic-impregnated cement beads in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. Bull Hosp Jt Dis. 1997;56(3):140-4. Abstract

74. Evans RP, Nelson CL. Gentamicin-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads compared with systemic antibiotic therapy in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993 Oct;(295):37-42. Abstract

75. Walenkamp GH, Kleijn LL, de Leeuw M. Osteomyelitis treated with gentamicin-PMMA beads: 100 patients followed for 1-12 years. Acta Orthop Scand. 1998 Oct;69(5):518-22. Abstract

76. Neut D, van de Belt H, van Horn JR, et al. Residual gentamicin-release from antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate beads after 5 years of implantation. Biomaterials. 2003 May;24(10):1829-31. Abstract

77. Kendall RW, Duncan CP, Smith JA, et al. Persistence of bacteria on antibiotic loaded acrylic depots: a reason for caution. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996 Aug;(329):273-80. Abstract

78. Fleiter N, Walter G, Bösebeck H, et al. Clinical use and safety of a novel gentamicin-releasing resorbable bone graft substitute in the treatment of osteomyelitis/osteitis. Bone Joint Res. 2014 Jul;3(7):223-9.Full text  Abstract

79. McKee MD, Wild LM, Schemitsch EH, et al. The use of an antibiotic-impregnated, osteoconductive, bioabsorbable bone substitute in the treatment of infected long bone defects: early results of a prospective trial. J Orthop Trauma. 2002 Oct;16(9):622-7. Abstract

80. Gitelis S, Brebach GT. The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with a biodegradable antibiotic-impregnated implant. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2002 Jun;10(1):53-60. Abstract

81. Chang W, Colangeli M, Colangeli S, et al. Adult osteomyelitis: debridement versus debridement plus Osteoset T pellets. Acta Orthop Belg. 2007 Apr;73(2):238-43. Abstract

82. McKee MD, Li-Bland EA, Wild LM, et al. A prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing an antibiotic-impregnated bioabsorbable bone substitute with standard antibiotic-impregnated cement beads in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis and infected nonunion. J Orthop Trauma. 2010 Aug;24(8):483-90. Abstract

83. Humm G, Noor S, Bridgeman P, et al. Adjuvant treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia following exogenous trauma using OSTEOSET(®)-T: a review of 21 patients in a regional trauma centre. Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr. 2014 Nov;9(3):157-61.Full text  Abstract

84. Ferguson JY, Dudareva M, Riley ND, et al. The use of a biodegradable antibiotic-loaded calcium sulphate carrier containing tobramycin for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis: a series of 195 cases. Bone Joint J. 2014 Jun;96-B(6):829-36.Full text  Abstract

85. Romanò CL, Logoluso N, Meani E, et al. A comparative study of the use of bioactive glass S53P4 and antibiotic-loaded calcium-based bone substitutes in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis: a retrospective comparative study. Bone Joint J. 2014 Jun;96-B(6):845-50. Abstract

86. McNally MA, Ferguson JY, Lau AC, et al. Single-stage treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with a new absorbable, gentamicin-loaded, calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite biocomposite: a prospective series of 100 cases. Bone Joint J. 2016 Sep;98-B(9):1289-96. Abstract

87. Daculsi G, Passuti N. Effect of the macroporosity for osseous substitution of calcium phosphate ceramics. Biomaterials. 1990 Jul;11:86-7. Abstract

88. Blokhuis TJ, Termaat MF, den Boer FC, et al. Properties of calcium phosphate ceramics in relation to their in vivo behavior. J Trauma. 2000 Jan;48(1):179-86. Abstract

89. Campana V, Milano G, Pagano E, et al. Bone substitutes in orthopaedic surgery: from basic science to clinical practice. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2014 Oct;25(10):2445-61.Full text  Abstract

90. McNally M, Nagarajah K. Osteomyelitis. Orthop Trauma. 2010;24(6):416-29.

91. Sigmund IK, Ferguson J, Govaert GAM, et al. Comparison of ilizarov bifocal, acute shortening and relengthening with bone transport in the treatment of infected, segmental defects of the tibia. J Clin Med. 2020 Jan 28;9(2):279.Full text  Abstract

92. McNally MA, Small JO, Tofighi HG, et al. Two-stage management of chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones: the Belfast technique. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1993 May;75(3):375-80. Abstract

93. Cierny G 3rd, Zorn KE. Segmental tibial defects: comparing conventional and Ilizarov methodologies. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1994 Apr;(301):118-23. Abstract

94. Beals RK, Bryant RE. The treatment of chronic open osteomyelitis of the tibia in adults. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005 Apr;(433):212-7. Abstract

95. Cierny G 3rd, DiPasquale D. Treatment of chronic infection. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2006;14(10 Spec No.):S105-10. Abstract

96. Tsang ST, Mills LA, Frantzias J, et al. Exchange nailing for nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia: our results and an analysis of the risk factors for failure. Bone Joint J. 2016 Apr;98-B(4):534-41.Full text  Abstract

97. Mader JT, Ortiz M, Calhoun JH. Update on the diagnosis and management of osteomyelitis. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 1996 Oct;13(4):701-24. Abstract

98. Li HK, Rombach I, Zambellas R, et al. Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for bone and joint infection. N Engl J Med. 2019 Jan 31;380(5):425-36.Full text  Abstract

99. Graham DR, Keldermans MM, Klemm LW, et al. Infectious complications among patients receiving home intravenous therapy with peripheral, central, or peripherally placed central venous catheters. Am J Med. 1991 Sep 16;91(3B):95S-100S. Abstract

100. Evans RP, Nelson CL, Harrison BH. The effect of wound environment on the incidence of acute osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993 Jan;(286):289-97. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer