Digoxin overdose

References

Key articles

Gheorghiade M, van Veldhuisen DJ, Colucci WS. Contemporary use of digoxin in the management of cardiovascular disorders. Circulation. 2006 May 30;113(21):2556-64. Abstract

Smith TW, Haber E, Yeatman L, et al. Reversal of advanced digoxin intoxication with Fab fragments of digoxin-specific antibodies. N Engl J Med. 1976 Apr 8;294(15):797-800. Abstract

Smith TW, Butler VP Jr, Haber E, et al. Treatment of life-threatening digitalis intoxication with digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments: experience in 26 cases. N Engl J Med. 1982 Nov 25;307(22):1357-62. Abstract

Bismuth C, Gaultier M, Conso F, et al. Hyperkalemia in acute digitalis poisoning: prognostic significance and therapeutic implications. Clin Toxicol. 1973;6(2):153-62. Abstract

Taboulet P, Baud FJ, Bismuth C, et al. Acute digitalis intoxication--is pacing still appropriate? J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1993;31(2):261-73. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Yang EH, Shah S, Criley JM. Digitalis toxicity: a fading but crucial complication to recognize. Am J Med. 2012 Apr;125(4):337-43. Abstract

3. See I, Shehab N, Kegler SR, et al. Emergency department visits and hospitalizations for digoxin toxicity: United States, 2005 to 2010. Circ Heart Fail. 2014 Jan;7(1):28-34.Full text  Abstract

4. Gummin DD, Mowry JB, Spyker DA, et al. 2017 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 35th Annual Report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Dec 21;56(12):1213-1415.Full text  Abstract

5. Ordog GJ, Benaron S, Bhasin V, et al. Serum digoxin levels and mortality in 5100 patients. Ann Emerg Med. 1987 Jan;16(1):32-9. Abstract

6. Obreli-Neto PR, Nobili A, de Oliveira Baldoni A, et al. Adverse drug reactions caused by drug-drug interactions in elderly outpatients: a prospective cohort study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Dec;68(12):1667-76. Abstract

7. Aarnoudse AL, Dieleman JP, Stricker BH. Age- and gender-specific incidence of hospitalisation for digoxin intoxication. Drug Saf. 2007;30(5):431-6.Full text  Abstract

8. Bizjak ED, Mauro VF. Digoxin-macrolide drug interaction. Ann Pharmacother. 1997 Sep;31(9):1077-9. Abstract

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10. Hanratty CG, McGlinchey P, Johnston GD, et al. Differential pharmacokinetics of digoxin in elderly patients. Drugs Aging. 2000 Nov;17(4):353-62. Abstract

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12. Moysey JO, Jaggarao NS, Grundy EN, et al. Amiodarone increases plasma digoxin concentrations. Br Med J 1981 Jan 24;282(6260):272.Full text  Abstract

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17. Steiness E. Digoxin toxicity compared with myocardial digoxin and potassium concentration. Br J Pharmacol. 1978 Jun;63(2):233-7.Full text  Abstract

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20. Mandreperla SA, Johnson MA, Nakatani K. Electrophysiologic and electroretinographic evidence for photoreceptor dysfunction as a toxic effect of digoxin. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994 Jun;112(6):807-12. Abstract

21. Wofford JL, Hickey AR, Ettinger WH, et al. Lack of age-related differences in the clinical presentation of digoxin toxicity. Arch Intern Med. 1992 Nov;152(11):2261-4. Abstract

22. Gheorghiade M, van Veldhuisen DJ, Colucci WS. Contemporary use of digoxin in the management of cardiovascular disorders. Circulation. 2006 May 30;113(21):2556-64. Abstract

23. Rathore SS, Curtis JP, Wang Y, et al. Association of serum digoxin concentration and outcomes in patients with heart failure. JAMA. 2003 Feb 19;289(7):871-8. Abstract

24. Baugher BW, Berman M, Dierksen JE, et al. Digoxin immunoassays on the ARCHITECT i2000SR and ARCHITECT c8000 analyzers are free from interferences of Asian, Siberian, and American Ginseng. J Clin Lab Anal. 2015 Jan;29(1):1-4. Abstract

25. Marchlinski FE, Hook BG, Callans DJ, et al. Which cardiac disturbances should be treated with digoxin immune Fab (ovine) antibody? Am J Emerg Med. 1991 Mar;9(2 Suppl 1):24-8. Abstract

26. Dart RC, Goldfrank LR, Erstad BL, et al. Expert Consensus guidelines for stocking of antidotes in hospitals that provide emergency care. Ann Emerg Med. 2018 Mar;71(3):314-25.e1.Full text  Abstract

27. Chan BS, Buckley NA. Digoxin-specific antibody fragments in the treatment of digoxin toxicity. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Sep-Oct;52(8):824-36. Abstract

28. Antman EM, Wenger TL, Butler VP Jr, et al. Treatment of 150 cases of life-threatening digitalis intoxication with digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments: final report of a multicenter study. Circulation. 1990;81:1744-1752. Abstract

29. Smith TW, Haber E, Yeatman L, et al. Reversal of advanced digoxin intoxication with Fab fragments of digoxin-specific antibodies. N Engl J Med. 1976 Apr 8;294(15):797-800. Abstract

30. Smith TW, Butler VP Jr, Haber E, et al. Treatment of life-threatening digitalis intoxication with digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments: experience in 26 cases. N Engl J Med. 1982 Nov 25;307(22):1357-62. Abstract

31. Kusumoto FM, Schoenfeld MH, Barrett C, et al. 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline on the evaluation and management of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction delay: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol.2019 Aug 20;74(7):e51-156.Full text  Abstract

32. Lemon M, Andrews DJ, Binks AM, et al. Concentrations of free serum digoxin after treatment with antibody fragments. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987 Dec 12;295(6612):1520-1.Full text  Abstract

33. Miller JJ, Straub RW Jr, Valdes R Jr. Analytical performance of a monoclonal digoxin assay with increased specificity on the ACS:180. Ther Drug Monit. 1996 Feb;18(1):65-72. Abstract

34. Rainey PM. Effects of digoxin immune Fab (ovine) on digoxin immunoassays. Am J Clin Pathol. 1989 Dec;92(6):779-86. Abstract

35. Chan BS, Isbister GK, Page CB, et al. Clinical outcomes from early use of digoxin-specific antibodies versus observation in chronic digoxin poisoning (ATOM-4). Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Dec 26:1-6. Abstract

36. Oubaassine R, Weckering M, Kessler L, et al. Insulin interacts directly with Na(+)/K(+)ATPase and protects from digoxin toxicity. Toxicology. 2012 Sep 4;299(1):1-9. Abstract

37. de Silva HA, Fonseka MM, Pathmeswaran A, et al. Multiple-dose activated charcoal for treatment of yellow oleander poisoning: a single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003 Jun 7;361(9373):1935-8. Abstract

38. Boldy DA, Smart V, Vale JA. Multiple doses of charcoal in digoxin poisoning. Lancet. 1985 Nov 9;2(8463):1076-7. Abstract

39. Ibanez C, Carcas AJ, Frias J, et al. Activated charcoal increases digoxin elimination in patients. Int J Cardiol. 1995 Jan 27;48(1):27-30. Abstract

40. Sarubbi B, Ducceschi V, D'Andrea A, et al. Atrial fibrillation: what are the effects of drug therapy on the effectiveness and complications of electrical cardioversion? Can J Cardiol. 1998 Oct;14(10):1267-73. Abstract

41. Bismuth C, Gaultier M, Conso F, et al. Hyperkalemia in acute digitalis poisoning: prognostic significance and therapeutic implications. Clin Toxicol. 1973;6(2):153-62. Abstract

42. Taboulet P, Baud FJ, Bismuth C, et al. Acute digitalis intoxication--is pacing still appropriate? J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1993;31(2):261-73. Abstract

43. Bateman DN. Digoxin-specific antibody fragments: how much and when? Toxicol Rev. 2004;23(3):135-43. Abstract

44. Helfant RH, Scherlag BJ, Damato AN. Protection from digitalis toxicity with the prophylactic use of diphenylhydantoin sodium. An arrhythmic-inotropic dissociation. Circulation. 1967 Jul;36(4):119-24. Abstract

45. Rumack BH, Wolfe RR, Gilfrich H. Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin) treatment of massive digoxin overdose. Br Heart J. 1974 Apr;36(4):405-8.Full text  Abstract

46. American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. Position statement and practice guidelines on the use of multi-dose activated charcoal in the treatment of acute poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(6):731-51.Full text  Abstract

47. Kirkpatrick CH. Allergic histories and reactions of patients treated with digoxin immune Fab (ovine) antibody. The Digibind Study Advisory Panel. Am J Emerg Med. 1991 Mar;9(2 Suppl 1):7-10. Abstract

48. Smith TW. Review of clinical experience with digoxin immune Fab (ovine). Am J Emerg Med. 1991 Mar;9(2 Suppl 1):1-6. Abstract

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