Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

References

Key articles

Chung SA, Langford CA, Maz M, et al. 2021 American College of Rheumatology/Vasculitis Foundation guideline for the management of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2021 Aug;73(8):1088-105.Full text  Abstract

Yates M, Watts RA, Bajema IM, et al. EULAR/ERA-EDTA recommendations for the management of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Sep;75(9):1583-94.Full text  Abstract

Stone JH, Merkel PA, Spiera R, et al; RAVE-ITN Research Group. Rituximab versus cyclophosphamide for ANCA-associated vasculitis. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 15;363(3):221-32.Full text  Abstract

Jayne D, Rasmussen N, Andrassy K, et al. A randomized trial of maintenance therapy for vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 3;349(1):36-44.Full text  Abstract

De Groot K, Rasmussen N, Bacon PA, et al. Randomized trial of cyclophosphamide versus methotrexate for induction of remission in early systemic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Aug;52(8):2461-9.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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8. Mohammad AJ, Jacobsson LT, Mahr AD, et al. Prevalence of Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome within a defined population in southern Sweden. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Aug;46(8):1329-37.Full text  Abstract

9. Naidu GSRSNK, Misra DP, Rathi M, et al. Is granulomatosis with polyangiitis in Asia different from the West? Int J Rheum Dis. 2019 Jan;22(suppl 1):90-4. Abstract

10. Hoffman GS, Kerr GS, Leavitt RY, et al. Wegener granulomatosis: an analysis of 158 patients. Ann Intern Med. 1992 Mar 15;116(6):488-98. Abstract

11. Koldingsnes W, Nossent H. Epidemiology of Wegener's granulomatosis in northern Norway. Arthritis Rheum. 2000 Nov;43(11):2481-7.Full text  Abstract

12. Knight A, Ekbom A, Brandt L, et al. Increasing incidence of Wegener's granulomatosis in Sweden, 1975-2001. J Rheumatol. 2006 Oct;33(10):2060-3. Abstract

13. McKinney EF, Willcocks LC, Broecker V, et al. The immunopathology of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Semin Immunopathol. 2014 Jul;36(4):461-78.Full text  Abstract

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15. Lyons PA, Rayner TF, Trivedi S, et al. Genetically distinct subsets within ANCA-associated vasculitis. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 19;367(3):214-23.Full text  Abstract

16. Mahr AD, Neogi T, Merkel PA. Epidemiology of Wegener's granulomatosis: lessons from descriptive studies and analyses of genetic and environmental risk determinants. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006 Mar-Apr;24(2 Suppl 41):S82-91. Abstract

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19. Fagin U, Csernok E, Müller A, et al. Distinct proteinase 3-induced cytokine patterns in Wegener´s granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and healthy controls. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2011 Jan-Feb;29(1 suppl 64):S57-62. Abstract

20. Sneller MC. Rituximab and Wegener's granulomatosis: are B cells a target in vasculitis treatment? Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jan;52(1):1-5.Full text  Abstract

21. Robson JC, Grayson PC, Ponte C, et al. 2022 American College of Rheumatology/European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology classification criteria for granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2022 Mar;81(3):315-20. Abstract

22. Hunter RW, Welsh N, Farrah TE, et al. ANCA associated vasculitis. BMJ. 2020 Apr 14;369:m1070.Full text  Abstract

23. Marroquín-Fabián E, Ruiz N, Mena-Zúñiga J, et al. Frequency, treatment, evolution, and factors associated with the presence of tracheobronchial stenoses in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Retrospective analysis of a case series from a single respiratory referral center. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2019 Feb;48(4):714-9. Abstract

24. Catano J, Uzunhan Y, Paule R, et al. Presentation, diagnosis, and management of subglottic and tracheal stenosis during systemic inflammatory diseases. Chest. 2022 Jan;161(1):257-65. Abstract

25. Singh S, Kaura D, Kumari S, et al. Wegener's presenting as submandibular swelling. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 1997 Mar;14(1):81-2. Abstract

26. Holl-Ulrich K, Klass M. Wegener's granulomatosis with granulomatous liver involvement. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010 Jan-Feb;28(1 suppl 57):88-9. Abstract

27. Papaioannides D, Nikas SN, Fotinou M, et al. Asymptomatic splenic infarction in Wegener's granulomatosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002 Feb;61(2):185-6.Full text  Abstract

28. Bossuyt X, Cohen Tervaert JW, Arimura Y, et al. Position paper: revised 2017 international consensus on testing of ANCAs in granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2017 Nov;13(11):683-92.Full text  Abstract

29. Cornec D, Cornec-Le Gall E, Fervenza FC, et al. ANCA-associated vasculitis - clinical utility of using ANCA specificity to classify patients. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2016 Oct;12(10):570-9. Abstract

30. Damoiseaux J, Csernok E, Rasmussen N, et al. Detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs): a multicentre European Vasculitis Study Group (EUVAS) evaluation of the value of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) versus antigen-specific immunoassays. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Apr;76(4):647-53. Abstract

31. Finkielman JD, Lee AS, Hummel AM, et al. ANCA are detectable in nearly all patients with active severe Wegener's granulomatosis. Am J Med. 2007 Jul;120(7):643.e9-14.Full text  Abstract

32. Finkielman JD, Merkel PA, Schroeder D, et al; WGET Research Group. Antiproteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and disease activity in Wegener granulomatosis. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Nov 6;147(9):611-9. Abstract

33. Lohrmann C, Uhl M, Kotter E, et al. Pulmonary manifestations of wegener granulomatosis: CT findings in 57 patients and a review of the literature. Eur J Radiol. 2005 Mar;53(3):471-7. Abstract

34. Lohrmann C, Uhl M, Warnatz K, et al. Sinonasal computed tomography in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2006 Jan-Feb;30(1):122-5. Abstract

35. Veerysami M, Freeth M, Carmichael AR, et al. Wegener's granulomatosis of the breast. Breast J. 2006 May-Jun;12(3):268-70. Abstract

36. Jennette JC, Falk RJ, Bacon PA, et al. 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature of vasculitides. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 Jan;65(1):1-11. Abstract

37. Chung SA, Langford CA, Maz M, et al. 2021 American College of Rheumatology/Vasculitis Foundation guideline for the management of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2021 Aug;73(8):1088-105.Full text  Abstract

38. Yates M, Watts RA, Bajema IM, et al. EULAR/ERA-EDTA recommendations for the management of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Sep;75(9):1583-94.Full text  Abstract

39. Langford CA, Talar-Williams C, Barron KS, et al. A staged approach to the treatment of Wegener's granulomatosis: induction of remission with glucocorticoids and daily cyclophosphamide switching to methotrexate for remission maintenance. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Dec;42(12):2666-73.Full text  Abstract

40. Walton EW. Giant-cell granuloma of the respiratory tract (Wegener's granulomatosis). Br Med J. 1958 Aug 2;2(5091):265-70.Full text  Abstract

41. Walsh M, Merkel PA, Peh CA, et al. Plasma exchange and glucocorticoids in severe ANCA-associated vasculitis. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 13;382(7):622-31.Full text  Abstract

42. Buckley L, Guyatt G, Fink HA, et al. 2017 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Aug;69(8):1521-37.Full text  Abstract

43. Stone JH, Merkel PA, Spiera R, et al; RAVE-ITN Research Group. Rituximab versus cyclophosphamide for ANCA-associated vasculitis. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 15;363(3):221-32.Full text  Abstract

44. Jones RB, Tervaert JW, Hauser T, et al; European Vasculitis Study Group. Rituximab versus cyclophosphamide in ANCA-associated renal vasculitis. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 15;363(3):211-20. Abstract

45. Jayne D, Rasmussen N, Andrassy K, et al. A randomized trial of maintenance therapy for vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 3;349(1):36-44.Full text  Abstract

46. De Groot K, Rasmussen N, Bacon PA, et al. Randomized trial of cyclophosphamide versus methotrexate for induction of remission in early systemic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Aug;52(8):2461-9.Full text  Abstract

47. De Groot K, Harper L, Jayne DR, et al; EUVAS (European Vasculitis Study Group). Pulse versus daily oral cyclophosphamide for induction of remission in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009 May 19;150(10):670-80. Abstract

48. Harper L, Morgan MD, Walsh M, et al. Pulse versus daily oral cyclophosphamide for induction of remission in ANCA-associated vasculitis: long-term follow-up. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Jun;71(6):955-60. Abstract

49. Jayne DR, Gaskin G, Rasmussen N, et al; European Vasculitis Study Group. Randomized trial of plasma exchange or high-dosage methylprednisolone as adjunctive therapy for severe renal vasculitis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 Jul;18(7):2180-8.Full text  Abstract

50. Shemin D, Briggs D, Greenan M. Complications of therapeutic plasma exchange: a prospective study of 1,727 procedures. J Clin Apher. 2007;22(5):270-6. Abstract

51. Sammaritano LR, Bermas BL, Chakravarty EE, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of reproductive health in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2020 Apr;72(4):529-56.Full text  Abstract

52. Jones RB, Hiemstra TF, Ballarin J, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclophosphamide for remission induction in ANCA-associated vasculitis: a randomised, non-inferiority trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Mar;78(3):399-405.Full text  Abstract

53. Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial (WGET) Research Group. Etanercept plus standard therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jan 27;352(4):351-61.Full text  Abstract

54. Guillevin L, Pagnoux C, Karras A, et al. Rituximab versus azathioprine for maintenance in ANCA-associated vasculitis. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 6;371(19):1771-80. Abstract

55. Ho C, Adcock L. Rituximab maintenance therapy for the management of granulomatosis with polyangiitis or microscopic polyangiitis: a review of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and guidelines. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2018 Jul 31.Full text  Abstract

56. Clinicaltrials.gov. Rituximab vasculitis maintenance study (RITAZAREM). NCT01697267. Mar 2022 [internet publication].Full text

57. Charles P, Perrodeau É, Samson M, et al. Long-term rituximab use to maintain remission of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Aug 4;173(3):179-87. Abstract

58. Tieu J, Smith R, Basu N, et al. Rituximab for maintenance of remission in ANCA-associated vasculitis: expert consensus guidelines. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2020 Apr 1;59(4):e24-e32.Full text  Abstract

59. Pagnoux C, Mahr A, Hamidou MA, et al. Azathioprine or methotrexate maintenance for ANCA-associated vasculitis. N Engl J Med. 2008 Dec 25;359(26):2790-803.Full text  Abstract

60. Hiemstra TF, Walsh M, Mahr A, et al; European Vasculitis Study Group (EUVAS). Mycophenolate mofetil vs azathioprine for remission maintenance in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010 Dec 1;304(21):2381-8. Abstract

61. Walsh M, Merkel PA, Mahr A, et al. Effects of duration of glucocorticoid therapy on relapse rate in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: a meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010 Aug;62(8):1166-73.Full text  Abstract

62. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Rituximab in combination with glucocorticoids for treating anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Mar 2014 [internet publication].Full text

63. Langford CA, Sneller MC, Hallahan CW, et al. Clinical features and therapeutic management of subglottic stenosis in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Oct;39(10):1754-60. Abstract

64. Jayne DRW, Merkel PA, Schall TJ, et al. Avacopan for the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis. N Engl J Med. 2021 Feb 18;384(7):599-609.Full text  Abstract

65. Langford CA, Monach PA, Specks U, et al; Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium. An open-label trial of abatacept (CTLA4-IG) in non-severe relapsing granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's). Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jul;73(7):1376-9. Abstract

66. Flossmann O, Jayne DR. Long-term treatment of relapsing Wegener's granulomatosis with 15-deoxyspergualin. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010 Mar;49(3):556-62.Full text  Abstract

67. Hoes JN, Jacobs JW, Boers M, et al. EULAR evidence-based recommendations on the management of systemic glucocorticoid therapy in rheumatic diseases. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Dec;66(12):1560-7.Full text  Abstract

68. Little MA, Nightingale P, Verburgh CA, et al; European Vasculitis Study (EUVAS) Group. Early mortality in systemic vasculitis: relative contribution of adverse events and active vasculitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 Jun;69(6):1036-43. Abstract

69. Mohammad AJ, Jacobsson LT, Westman KW, et al. Incidence and survival rates in Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome and polyarteritis nodosa. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009 Dec;48(12):1560-5. Abstract

70. Seo P, Min YI, Holbrook JT, et al; WGET Research Group. Damage caused by Wegener's granulomatosis and its treatment: prospective data from the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jul;52(7):2168-78.Full text  Abstract

71. Flossmann O, Berden A, de Groot K, et al; European Vasculitis Study Group. Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 Mar;70(3):488-94. Abstract

72. de Leeuw K, Sanders JS, Stegeman C, et al. Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005 May;64(5):753-9.Full text  Abstract

73. Knight A, Askling J, Ekbom A. Cancer incidence in a population-based cohort of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Int J Cancer. 2002 Jul 1;100(1):82-5.Full text  Abstract

74. Hellmich B, Kausch I, Doehn C, et al. Urinary bladder cancer in Wegener's granulomatosis: is it more than cyclophosphamide? Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Oct;63(10):1183-5.Full text  Abstract

75. Faurschou M, Mellemkjaer L, Voss A, et al. Prolonged risk of specific malignancies following cyclophosphamide therapy among patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Aug;54(8):1345-50.Full text  Abstract

76. Bakthavachalam S, Driver MS, Cox C, et al. Hearing loss in Wegener's granulomatosis. Otol Neurotol. 2004 Sep;25(5):833-7. Abstract

77. Stone JH, Hoffman GS, Merkel PA, et al; International Network for the Study of the Systemic Vasculitides (INSSYS). A disease-specific activity index for Wegener's granulomatosis: modification of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Apr;44(4):912-20. Abstract

78. Exley AR, Bacon PA, Lugmani RA, et al. Development and initial validation of the Vasculitis Damage Index for the standardized clinical assessment of damage in the systemic vasculitides. Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Feb;40(2):371-80. Abstract

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