Aortic stenosis

References

Key articles

Freeman RV, Otto CM. Spectrum of calcific aortic valve disease: pathogenesis, disease progression, and treatment strategies. Circulation. 2005 Jun 21;111(24):3316-26.Full text  Abstract

Otto CM, Nishimura RA, Bonow RO, et al. 2020 ACC/AHA guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2021 Feb 2;143(5):e72-e227.Full text  Abstract

Vahanian A, Beyersdorf F, Praz F, et al. 2021 ESC/EACTS Guidelines for the management of valvular heart disease. Eur Heart J. 2021 Aug 28;:.Full text  Abstract

Holmes DR Jr, Mack MJ, Kaul S, et al. 2012 ACCF/AATS/SCAI/STS expert consensus document on transcatheter aortic valve replacement. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Mar 27;59(13):1200-54.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Eveborn GW, Schirmer H, Heggelund G, et al. The evolving epidemiology of valvular aortic stenosis. The Tromsø study. Heart. 2013 Mar;99(6):396-400.Full text  Abstract

2. Cosmi JE, Kort S, Tunick PA, et al. The risk of the development of aortic stenosis in patients with "benign" aortic valve thickening. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Nov 11;162(20):2345-7.Full text  Abstract

3. Freeman RV, Otto CM. Spectrum of calcific aortic valve disease: pathogenesis, disease progression, and treatment strategies. Circulation. 2005 Jun 21;111(24):3316-26.Full text  Abstract

4. Lewin MB, Otto CM. The bicuspid aortic valve: adverse outcomes from infancy to old age. Circulation. 2005 Feb 22;111(7):832-4.Full text  Abstract

5. Iung B, Baron G, Butchart EG, et al. A prospective survey of patients with valvular heart disease in Europe: The Euro Heart Survey on Valvular Heart Disease. Eur Heart J. 2003 Jul;24(13):1231-43.Full text  Abstract

6. Thanassoulis G, Campbell CY, Owens DS, et al. Genetic associations with valvular calcification and aortic stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 7;368(6):503-12.Full text  Abstract

7. Stewart BF, Siscovick D, Lind BK, et al. Clinical factors associated with calcific aortic valve disease. Cardiovascular Health Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Mar 1;29(3):630-4. Abstract

8. Rattazzi M, Bertacco E, Del Vecchio A, et al. Aortic valve calcification in chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013 Dec;28(12):2968-76.Full text  Abstract

9. O'Brien KD. Pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease: a disease process comes of age (and a good deal more). Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Aug;26(8):1721-8.Full text  Abstract

10. Eveborn GW, Schirmer H, Heggelund G, et al. The evolving epidemiology of valvular aortic stenosis. The Tromsø study. Heart. 2013 Mar;99(6):396-400.Full text  Abstract

11. Roberts WC, Ko JM. Valvular heart disease: Frequency by decades of unicuspid, bicuspid, and tricuspid aortic valves in adults having isolated aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis, with or without associated aortic regurgitation. Circulation. 2005 Feb 22;111(7):920-5.Full text  Abstract

12. Umana E, Ahmed W, Alpert MA. Valvular and perivalvular abnormalities in end-stage renal disease. Am J Med Sci. 2003 Apr;325(4):237-42. Abstract

13. Adabag AS, Dykoski R, Ward H, et al. Critical stenosis of aortic and mitral valves after mediastinal irradiation. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2004 Oct;63(2):247-50. Abstract

14. Rosenhek R, Rader F, Loho N, et al. Valvular heart disease: Statins but not angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors delay progression of aortic stenosis. Circulation. 2004 Sep 7;110(10):1291-5.Full text  Abstract

15. Cowell SJ, Newby DE, Prescott RJ, et al. A randomized trial of intensive lipid-lowering therapy in calcific aortic stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 9;352(23):2389-97.Full text  Abstract

16. Ozumi K, Tasaki H, Yamashita K, et al. Valvular and supravalvular aortic stenosis in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, a case report. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2005;12(5):289-93. Abstract

17. Nazarzadeh M, Pinho-Gomes AC, Smith Byrne K, et al. Systolic blood pressure and risk of valvular heart disease: a Mendelian randomization study. JAMA Cardiol. 2019 Aug 1;4(8):788-95.Full text  Abstract

18. Otto CM, Nishimura RA, Bonow RO, et al. 2020 ACC/AHA guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2021 Feb 2;143(5):e72-e227.Full text  Abstract

19. Lombard TJ, Selzer A. Valvular aortic stenosis. A clinical and hemodynamic profile of patients. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Feb;106(2):292-8. Abstract

20. Généreux P, Stone GW, O'Gara PT, et al. Natural history, diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic strategies for patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 May 17;67(19):2263-88.Full text  Abstract

21. Ennezat PV, Maréchaux S, Iung B, et al. Exercise testing and exercise stress echocardiography in asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis. Heart. 2009 Jun;95(11):877-84. Abstract

22. Picano E, Pibarot P, Lancellotti P, et al. The emerging role of exercise testing and stress echocardiography in valvular heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Dec 8;54(24):2251-60. Abstract

23. Maréchaux S, Hachicha Z, Bellouin A, et al. Usefulness of exercise-stress echocardiography for risk stratification of true asymptomatic patients with aortic valve stenosis. Eur Heart J. 2010 Jun;31(11):1390-7.Full text  Abstract

24. Amato MC, Moffa PJ, Werner KE, et al. Treatment decision in asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis: role of exercise testing. Heart. 2001 Oct;86(4):381-6.Full text  Abstract

25. Das P, Rimington H, Chambers J. Exercise testing to stratify risk in aortic stenosis. Eur Heart J. 2005 Jul;26(13):1309-13.Full text  Abstract

26. Lombard TJ, Selzer A. Valvular aortic stenosis. A clinical and hemodynamic profile of patients. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Feb;106(2):292-8. Abstract

27. Loscalzo J. From clinical observation to mechanism--Heyde's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 15;367(20):1954-6. Abstract

28. Stoddard MF, Hammons RT, Longaker RA. Doppler transesophageal echocardiographic determination of aortic valve area in adults with aortic stenosis. Am Heart J. 1996 Aug;132(2 Pt 1):337-42. Abstract

29. Nishimura RA, Holmes DR Jr. Clinical practice. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2004 Mar 25;350(13):1320-7. Abstract

30. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: imaging for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

31. Zoghbi WA, Chambers JB, Dumesnil JG, et al. Recommendations for evaluation of prosthetic valves with echocardiography and Doppler ultrasound. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009 Sep;22(9):975-1014.Full text  Abstract

32. Vahanian A, Beyersdorf F, Praz F, et al. 2021 ESC/EACTS Guidelines for the management of valvular heart disease. Eur Heart J. 2021 Aug 28;:.Full text  Abstract

33. Baumgartner H, Hung J, Bermejo J, et al. Recommendations on the echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve stenosis: a focused update from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2017 Apr;30(4):372-92.Full text  Abstract

34. Zamorano JL, Badano LP, Bruce C, et al. EAE/ASE recommendations for the use of echocardiography in new transcatheter interventions for valvular heart disease. Eur Heart J. 2011 Sep;32(17):2189-214.Full text  Abstract

35. Brown JM, O'Brien SM, Wu C, et al. Isolated aortic valve replacement in North America comprising 108,687 patients in 10 years: changes in risks, valve types, and outcomes in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009 Jan;137(1):82-90. Abstract

36. Rahimtoola SH. Choice of prosthetic heart valve for adult patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Mar 19;41(6):893-904. Abstract

37. Hammermeister K, Sethi GK, Henderson WG, et al. Outcomes 15 years after valve replacement with a mechanical versus a bioprosthetic valve: final report of the Veterans Affairs randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Oct;36(4):1152-8. Abstract

38. Lund O, Bland M. Risk-corrected impact of mechanical versus bioprosthetic valves on long-term mortality after aortic valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006 Jul;132(1):20-6. Abstract

39. Stassano P, Di Tommaso L, Monaco M, et al. Aortic valve replacement: a prospective randomized evaluation of mechanical versus biological valves in patients ages 55 to 70 years. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Nov 10;54(20):1862-8. Abstract

40. Kundi H, Strom JB, Valsdottir LR, et al. Trends in isolated surgical aortic valve replacement according to hospital-based transcatheter aortic valve replacement volumes. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2018 Nov 12;11(21):2148-56.Full text  Abstract

41. Kodali SK, Williams MR, Smith CR, et al. Two-year outcomes after transcatheter or surgical aortic-valve replacement. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 3;366(18):1686-95. Abstract

42. Mack MJ, Leon MB, Smith CR, et al. 5-year outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement or surgical aortic valve replacement for high surgical risk patients with aortic stenosis (PARTNER 1): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Jun 20;385(9986):2477-84. Abstract

43. Smith CR, Leon MB, Mack MJ, et al; PARTNER Trial Investigators. Transcatheter versus surgical aortic-valve replacement in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 9;364(23):2187-98. Abstract

44. Généreux P, Cohen DJ, Williams MR, et al. Bleeding complications after surgical aortic valve replacement compared with transcatheter aortic valve replacement: insights from the PARTNER I Trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Mar 25;63(11):1100-9. Abstract

45. Reynolds MR, Magnuson EA, Wang K, et al; PARTNER Trial Investigators. Health-related quality of life after transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis: results from the PARTNER (Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valve) trial (Cohort A). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Aug 7;60(6):548-58.Full text  Abstract

46. Hahn RT, Pibarot P, Stewart WJ, et al. Comparison of transcatheter and surgical aortic valve replacement in severe aortic stenosis: a longitudinal study of echocardiography parameters in cohort A of the PARTNER trial (placement of aortic transcatheter valves). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jun 25;61(25):2514-21. Abstract

47. Gleason TG, Reardon MJ, Popma JJ, et al. 5-year outcomes of self-expanding transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Dec 4;72(22):2687-96.Full text  Abstract

48. Holmes DR Jr, Mack MJ, Kaul S, et al. 2012 ACCF/AATS/SCAI/STS expert consensus document on transcatheter aortic valve replacement. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Mar 27;59(13):1200-54.Full text  Abstract

49. Leon MB, Smith CR, Mack M, et al. Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation for aortic stenosis in patients who cannot undergo surgery. N Engl J Med. 2010 Oct 21;363(17):1597-607.Full text  Abstract

50. Kapadia SR, Tuzcu EM, Makkar RR, et al. Long-term outcomes of inoperable patients with aortic stenosis randomly assigned to transcatheter aortic valve replacement or standard therapy. Circulation. 2014 Oct 21;130(17):1483-92.Full text  Abstract

51. Kapadia SR, Leon MB, Makkar RR, et al. 5-year outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement compared with standard treatment for patients with inoperable aortic stenosis (PARTNER 1): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Jun 20;385(9986):2485-91. Abstract

52. Makkar RR, Fontana GP, Jilaihawi H, et al. Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement for inoperable severe aortic stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 3;366(18):1696-704. Abstract

53. Reynolds MR, Magnuson EA, Lei Y, et al. Valvular heart disease: Health-related quality of life after transcatheter aortic valve replacement in inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis. Circulation. 2011 Nov 1;124(18):1964-72.Full text  Abstract

54. Leon MB, Smith CR, Mack MJ, et al; PARTNER 2 Investigators. Transcatheter or surgical aortic-valve replacement in intermediate-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2016 Apr 28;374(17):1609-20.Full text  Abstract

55. Makkar RR, Thourani VH, Mack MJ, et al. Five-year outcomes of transcatheter or surgical aortic-valve replacement. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 27;382(9):799-809.Full text  Abstract

56. Reardon MJ, Van Mieghem NM, Popma JJ, et al; SURTAVI Investigators. Surgical or transcatheter aortic-valve replacement in intermediate-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 6;376(14):1321-31. Abstract

57. Siemieniuk RA, Agoritsas T, Manja V, et al. Transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis at low and intermediate risk: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2016 Sep 28;354:i5130.Full text  Abstract

58. Mack MJ, Leon MB, Thourani VH, et al. Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement with a balloon-expandable valve in low-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2019 May 2;380(18):1695-705.Full text  Abstract

59. Popma JJ, Deeb GM, Yakubov SJ, et al. Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement with a self-expanding valve in low-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2019 May 2;380(18):1706-15.Full text  Abstract

60. Kolkailah AA, Doukky R, Pelletier MP, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis in people with low surgical risk. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Dec 20;12:CD013319.Full text  Abstract

61. Letac B, Cribier A, Eltchaninoff H, et al. Evaluation of restenosis after balloon dilatation in adult aortic stenosis by repeat catheterization. Am Heart J. 1991 Jul;122(1 Pt 1):55-60. Abstract

62. Rossebø AB, Pedersen TR, Boman K, et al; SEAS Investigators. Intensive lipid lowering with simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2008 Sep 25;359(13):1343-56.Full text  Abstract

63. Chan KL, Teo K, Dumesnil JG, et al; ASTRONOMER Investigators. Effect of lipid lowering with rosuvastatin on progression of aortic stenosis: results of the aortic stenosis progression observation: measuring effects of rosuvastatin (ASTRONOMER) trial. Circulation. 2010 Jan 19;121(2):306-14.Full text  Abstract

64. Schwarz F, Baumann P, Manthey J, et al. The effect of aortic valve replacement on survival. Circulation. 1982;66:1105-1110.Full text  Abstract

65. Smith WT 4th, Ferguson TB Jr, Ryan T, et al. Should coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients with mild or moderate aortic stenosis undergo concomitant aortic valve replacement? A decision analysis approach to the surgical dilemma. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:1241-1247. Abstract

66. Pereira JJ, Balaban K, Lauer MS, et al. Aortic valve replacement in patients with mild or moderate aortic stenosis and coronary bypass surgery. Am J Med. 2005;118:735-742. Abstract

67. Lilly SM, Deshmukh AJ, Epstein AE, et al. 2020 ACC expert consensus decision pathway on management of conduction disturbances in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacements: a report of the American College of Cardiology Solution Set Oversight Committee. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Nov 17;76(20):2391-411.Full text  Abstract

68. Bonow RO, Brown AS, Gillam LD, et al. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/EACTS/HVS/SCA/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2017 Appropriate use criteria for the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis: a report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Heart Valve Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Nov 14;70(20):2566-98.Full text  Abstract

69. Whitlock RP, Sun JC, Fremes SE, et al. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for valvular disease. Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 suppl):e576S-e600S.Full text  Abstract

70. Asgar AW, Ouzounian M, Adams C, et al. 2019 Canadian Cardiovascular Society position statement for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Can J Cardiol. 2019 Nov;35(11):1437-48.Full text  Abstract

71. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for aortic stenosis. Jul 2017 [internet publication].Full text

72. Faggiano P, Ghizzoni G, Sorgato A, et al. Rate of progression of valvular aortic stenosis in adults. Am J Cardiol. 1992 Jul 15;70(2):229-33. Abstract

73. Sorgato A, Faggiano P, Aurigemma GP, et al. Ventricular arrhythmias in adult aortic stenosis: prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical relevance. Chest. 1998 Feb;113(2):482-91. Abstract

74. Ståhle E, Kvidal P, Nyström SO, et al. Long-term relative survival after primary heart valve replacement. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1997 Jan;11(1):81-91. Abstract

75. Kvidal P, Bergstrom R, Horte LG, et al. Observed and relative survival after aortic valve replacement. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Mar 1;35(3):747-56. Abstract

76. Vaquette B, Corbineau H, Laurent M, et al. Valve replacement in patients with critical aortic stenosis and depressed left ventricular function: predictors of operative risk, left ventricular function recovery, and long term outcome. Heart. 2005 Oct;91(10):1324-9.Full text  Abstract

77. Sharma UC, Barenbrug P, Pokharel S, et al. Systematic review of the outcome of aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004 Jul;78(1):90-5. Abstract

78. Smith CR, Leon MB, Mack MJ, et al; PARTNER Trial Investigators. Transcatheter versus surgical aortic-valve replacement in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 9;364(23):2187-98. Abstract

79. Sorgato A, Faggiano P, Aurigemma GP, et al. Ventricular arrhythmias in adult aortic stenosis: prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical relevance. Chest. 1998;113:482-491. Abstract

80. Pellikka PA, Sarano ME, Nishimura RA, et al. Valvular heart disease: Outcome of 622 adults with asymptomatic, hemodynamically significant aortic stenosis during prolonged follow-up. Circulation. 2005 Jun 21;111(24):3290-5.Full text  Abstract

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