Graves disease

References

Key articles

Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1552-65. Abstract

Davies TF, Andersen S, Latif R, et al. Graves' disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020 Jul 2;6(1):52.Full text  Abstract

Kahaly GJ, Bartalena L, Hegedüs L, et al. 2018 European Thyroid Association Guideline for the management of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Eur Thyroid J. 2018 Jul 25;7(4):167-86.Full text  Abstract

Bartalena L, Kahaly GJ, Baldeschi L, et al. The 2021 European Group on Graves' orbitopathy (EUGOGO) clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of Graves' orbitopathy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2021 Aug 27;185(4):G43-G67.Full text  Abstract

Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1552-65. Abstract

Kahaly GJ. Management of Graves thyroidal and extrathyroidal disease: an update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Dec 1;105(12):3704-20Full text  Abstract

Fatourechi V. Pretibial myxedema: pathophysiology and treatment options. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6(5):295-309. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1552-65. Abstract

3. Davies TF, Andersen S, Latif R, et al. Graves' disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020 Jul 2;6(1):52.Full text  Abstract

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17. Zhyzhneuskaya S, Addison C, Tsatlidis V, et al. The natural history of subclinical hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease: the rule of thirds. Thyroid. 2016 Jun;26(6):765-9. Abstract

18. Fatourechi V. Pretibial myxedema: pathophysiology and treatment options. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6(5):295-309. Abstract

19. Fatourechi V, Pajouhi M, Fransway AF. Dermopathy of Graves disease (pretibial myxedema): review of 150 cases. Medicine. 1994 Jan;73(1):1-7. Abstract

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21. Perros P, Žarković M, Azzolini C, et al. PREGO (presentation of Graves' orbitopathy) study: changes in referral patterns to European Group On Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) centres over the period from 2000 to 2012. Br J Ophthalmol. 2015 Nov;99(11):1531-5. Abstract

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27. Carlé A, Bülow Pedersen I, Knudsen N, et al. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Jul;79(1):111-9. Abstract

28. Wiersinga WM. Smoking and thyroid. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Aug;79(2):145-51.Full text  Abstract

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30. Fatourechi V, Garrity JA, Bartley GB, et al. Orbital decompression in Graves' ophthalmopathy associated with pretibial myxedema. J Endocrinol Invest. 1993 Jun;16(6):433-7. Abstract

31. Łacheta D, Miśkiewicz P, Głuszko A, et al. Immunological Aspects of Graves' Ophthalmopathy. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:7453260.Full text  Abstract

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38. Roque C, Vasconcelos CA. <sup>131</sup>I-Induced Graves' disease in patients treated for toxic multinodular goitre: systematic review and descriptive analysis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018 Sep;41(9):1019-1028.Full text  Abstract

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40. Pearce EN. Diagnosis and management of thyrotoxicosis. BMJ. 2006 Jun 10;332(7554):1369-73. Abstract

41. Kakuno Y, Amino N, Kanoh M, et al. Menstrual disturbances in various thyroid diseases. Endocr J. 2010;57(12):1017-22.Full text  Abstract

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43. Kahaly GJ, Bartalena L, Hegedüs L, et al. 2018 European Thyroid Association Guideline for the management of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Eur Thyroid J. 2018 Jul 25;7(4):167-86.Full text  Abstract

44. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 2016 Oct;26(10):1343-421.Full text  Abstract

45. Bano A, Gan E, Addison C, et al. Age may influence the impact of TRAbs on thyroid function and relapse-risk in patients with Graves disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 May 1;104(5):1378-85. Abstract

46. Amino N, Yabu Y, Miki T, et al. Serum ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine, and thyroxine-binding globulin and calcitonin concentration in Graves' disease and destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981 Jul;53(1):113-6. Abstract

47. Yoshimura Noh J, Momotani N, Fukada S, et al. Ratio of serum free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine in Graves' hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis caused by painless thyroiditis. Endocr J. 2005 Oct;52(5):537-42.Full text  Abstract

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49. Bogazzi F, Vitti P. Could improved ultrasound and power Doppler replace thyroidal radioiodine uptake to assess thyroid disease? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Feb;4(2):70-1. Abstract

50. Bartalena L, Kahaly GJ, Baldeschi L, et al. The 2021 European Group on Graves' orbitopathy (EUGOGO) clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of Graves' orbitopathy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2021 Aug 27;185(4):G43-G67.Full text  Abstract

51. Schwartz KM, Fatourechi V, Ahmed DD, et al. Dermopathy of Graves' disease (pretibial myxedema): long-term outcome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb;87(2):438-46. Abstract

52. Fatourechi V, Ahmed DDF, Schwartz KM. Thyroid acropachy: report of 40 patients treated at a single institution in a 26-year period. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec;87(12):5435-41. Abstract

53. Anagnostis P, Boboridis K, Adamidou F, et al. Natural course of mild Graves' orbitopathy: is it a chronic remitting or a transient disease? J Endocrinol Invest. 2017 Mar;40(3):257-61. Abstract

54. Mitchell AL, Goss L, Mathiopoulou L, et al. Diagnosis of Graves' orbitopathy (DiaGO): results of a pilot study to assess the utility of an office tool for practicing endocrinologists. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Mar;100(3):E458-62. Abstract

55. Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1552-65. Abstract

56. Wiersinga WM. Smoking and thyroid. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Aug;79(2):145-51.Full text  Abstract

57. Cawood TJ, Moriarty P, O'Farrelly C, et al. Smoking and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: A novel explanation of the biological link. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan;92(1):59-64. Abstract

58. Tanda ML, Piantanida E, Liparulo L, et al. Prevalence and natural history of Graves' orbitopathy in a large series of patients with newly diagnosed graves' hyperthyroidism seen at a single center. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Apr;98(4):1443-9.Full text  Abstract

59. Bartalena L. Graves' disease: complications. Thyroid Disease Manager. February 2018 [internet publication].Full text

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65. Hershman JM. The role of human chorionic gonadotropin as a thyroid stimulator in normal pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Sep;93(9):3305-6. Abstract

66. Izumi Y, Hidaka Y, Tada H, et al. Simple and practical parameters for differentiation between destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis and Graves' thyrotoxicosis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002 Jul;57(1):51-8. Abstract

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76. Cooper DS. Antithyroid drugs in the management of patients with Graves' disease: an evidence-based approach to therapeutic controversies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Aug;88(8):3474-81. Abstract

77. Kahaly GJ. Management of Graves thyroidal and extrathyroidal disease: an update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Dec 1;105(12):3704-20Full text  Abstract

78. Weber KJ, Solorzano CC, Lee JK, et al. Thyroidectomy remains an effective treatment option for Graves' disease. Am J Surg. 2006 Mar;191(3):400-5. Abstract

79. Hegedüs L. Treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism: evidence-based and emerging modalities. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;38(2):355-71. Abstract

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84. Vijayakumar V, Nusynowitz ML, Ali S. Is it safe to treat hyperthyroid patients with I-131 without fear of thyroid storm? Ann Nucl Med. 2006 Jul;20(6):383-5. Abstract

85. Cooper DS. Approach to the patient with subclinical hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan;92(1):3-9. Abstract

86. Burch HB, Burman KD, Cooper DS. A 2011 survey of clinical practice patterns in the management of Graves' disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;97(12):4549-58.Full text  Abstract

87. Committee on Pharmaceutical Affairs, Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Thyroid Disease Committee, Japan Thyroid Association (Taskforce for the Revision of the Guidelines for the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Graves’ Disease)., Minamitani K, Sato H, et al. Guidelines for the treatment of childhood-onset Graves' disease in Japan, 2016. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol. 2017;26(2):29-62.Full text  Abstract

88. Abraham-Nordling M, Torring O, Hamberger B, et al. Graves' disease: a long-term quality-of-life follow up of patients randomized to treatment with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine, or surgery. Thyroid. 2005 Nov;15(11):1279-86. Abstract

89. Abraham P, Avenell A, McGeoch SC, et al. Antithyroid drug regimen for treating Graves' hyperthyroidism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD003420.Full text  Abstract

90. Razvi S, Vaidya B, Perros P, et al. What is the evidence behind the evidence-base? The premature death of block-replace antithyroid drug regimens for Graves' disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Jun;154(6):783-6.Full text  Abstract

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97. Otsuka F, Noh JY, Chino T, et al. Hepatotoxicity and cutaneous reactions after antithyroid drug administration. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Aug;77(2):310-5. Abstract

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99. Robinson J, Richardson M, Hickey J, et al. Patient knowledge of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis. Eur Thyroid J. 2014 Dec;3(4):245-51.Full text  Abstract

100. Balavoine AS, Glinoer D, Dubucquoi S, et al. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive small-vessel vasculitis associated with antithyroid drug therapy: how significant is the clinical problem? Thyroid. 2015 Dec;25(12):1273-81. Abstract

101. Ma C, Xie J, Wang H, et al. Radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Feb 18;(2):CD010094.Full text  Abstract

102. Fatourechi V. Medical treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2000;13:683-91.

103. Tallstedt L, Lundell G, Blomgren H, et al. Does early administration of thyroxine reduce the development of Graves' ophthalmopathy after radioiodine treatment? Eur J Endocrinol. 1994 May;130(5):494-7. Abstract

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106. Li HX, Xiang N, Hu WK, et al. Relation between therapy options for Graves' disease and the course of Graves' ophthalmopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2016 Nov;39(11):1225-33. Abstract

107. Bartalena L. The dilemma of how to manage Graves' hyperthyroidism in patients with associated orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):592-9. Abstract

108. Perros P, Kendall-Taylor P, Neoh C, et al. A prospective study of the effects of radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism in patients with minimally active graves' ophthalmopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Sep;90(9):5321-3.Full text  Abstract

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114. Zhang Y, Dong Z, Li J, et al. Comparison of endoscopic and conventional open thyroidectomy for Graves' disease: a meta-analysis. Int J Surg. 2017 Apr;40:52-9. Abstract

115. Miccoli P, Fregoli L, Rossi L, et al. Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT). Gland Surg. 2020 Jan;9(suppl 1):S1-S5.Full text  Abstract

116. Stålberg P, Svensson A, Hessman O, et al. Surgical treatment of Graves' disease: evidence-based approach. World J Surg. 2008 Jul;32(7):1269-77. Abstract

117. Barczynski M, Konturek A, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, et al. Randomized clinical trial of bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy versus total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease with a 5-year follow-up. Br J Surg. 2012 Apr;99(4):515-22. Abstract

118. Wiersinga WM, Perros P, Kahaly GJ, et al; European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO). Clinical assessment of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy: the European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy recommendations to generalists, specialists and clinical researchers. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Sep;155(3):387-9. Abstract

119. Perros P, Dayan CM, Dickinson AJ, et al. Management of patients with Graves' orbitopathy: initial assessment, management outside specialised centres and referral pathways. Clin Med (Lond). 2015 Apr;15(2):173-8.Full text  Abstract

120. Marcocci C, Kahaly GJ, Krassas GE, et al. Selenium and the course of mild Graves' orbitopathy. N Engl J Med. 2011 May 19;364(20):1920-31.Full text  Abstract

121. Bednarczuk T, Schomburg L. Challenges and perspectives of selenium supplementation in Graves' disease and orbitopathy. Hormones (Athens). 2020 Mar;19(1):31-9.Full text  Abstract

122. Zang S, Ponto KA, Kahaly GJ. Clinical review: intravenous glucocorticoids for Graves' orbitopathy: efficacy and morbidity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):320-32. Abstract

123. Bartalena L, Krassas GE, Wiersinga W, et al. Efficacy and safety of three different cumulative doses of intravenous methylprednisolone for moderate to severe and active Graves' orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;97(12):4454-63.Full text  Abstract

124. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Thyroid Eye Disease. July 2021 [internet publication].Full text

125. Men CJ, Kossler AL, Wester ST. Updates on the understanding and management of thyroid eye disease. Ther Adv Ophthalmol. 2021 Jan-Dec;13:25158414211027760.Full text  Abstract

126. Chundury RV, Weber AC, Perry JD. Orbital radiation therapy in thyroid eye disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Mar-Apr;32(2):83-9. Abstract

127. Rajendram R, Bunce C, Lee RW, et al. Orbital radiotherapy for adult thyroid eye disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jul 11;(7):CD007114.Full text  Abstract

128. Tanda ML, Bartalena L. Efficacy and safety of orbital radiotherapy for Graves' orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Nov;97(11):3857-65. Abstract

129. Boboridis KG, Bunce C. Surgical orbital decompression for thyroid eye disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Dec 7;(12):CD007630.Full text  Abstract

130. Szczapa-Jagustyn J, Gotz-Więckowska A, Kocięcki J. An update on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Oct 1;29(10):1115-22.Full text  Abstract

131. Vannucchi G, Campi I, Covelli D, et al. Treatment of pretibial myxedema with dexamethazone injected subcutaneously by mesotherapy needles. Thyroid. 2013 May;23(5):626-32. Abstract

132. Azizi F, Amouzegar A. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jun;164(6):871-6. Abstract

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