Cirrhosis

References

Key articles

Child CG, Turcotte JG. Surgery and portal hypertension. Major Probl Clin Surg. 1964;1:1-85. Abstract

Talwalkar JA, Kurtz DM, Schoenleber SJ, et al. Ultrasound-based transient elastography for the detection of hepatic fibrosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Oct;5(10):1214-20. Abstract

Chavez-Tapia NC, Barrientos-Gutierrez T, Tellez-Avila FI, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Sep 8;(9):CD002907.Full text  Abstract

Sharma BC, Sharma P, Lunia MK, et al. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing rifaximin plus lactulose with lactulose alone in treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep;108(9):1458-63. Abstract

D'Amico G, Garcia-Tsao G, Pagliaro L. Natural history and prognostic indicators of survival in cirrhosis: a systematic review of 118 studies. J Hepatol. 2006 Jan;44(1):217-31. Abstract

Reference articles

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29. Vadera S, Yong CWK, Gluud LL, et al. Band ligation versus no intervention for primary prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in adults with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jun 20;6:CD012673.Full text  Abstract

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33. West J, Card TR. Reduced mortality rates following elective percutaneous liver biopsies. Gastroenterology. 2010 Oct;139(4):1230-7. Abstract

34. Child CG, Turcotte JG. Surgery and portal hypertension. Major Probl Clin Surg. 1964;1:1-85. Abstract

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36. Jepsen P, Vilstrup H, Lash TL. Development and validation of a comorbidity scoring system for patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jan;146(1):147-56; quiz e15-6. Abstract

37. Kim WR, Biggins SW, Kremers WK, et al. Hyponatremia and mortality among patients on the liver-transplant waiting list. N Engl J Med. 2008 Sep 4;359(10):1018-26.Full text  Abstract

38. Kamath PS, Wiesner RH, Malinchoc M, et al. A model to predict survival in patients with end-stage liver disease. Hepatology. 2001 Feb;33(2):464-70. Abstract

39. Talwalkar JA, Kurtz DM, Schoenleber SJ, et al. Ultrasound-based transient elastography for the detection of hepatic fibrosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Oct;5(10):1214-20. Abstract

40. Friedrich-Rust M, Ong MF, Martens S, et al. Performance of transient elastography for the staging of liver fibrosis: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2008 Apr;134(4):960-74. Abstract

41. Stebbing J, Farouk L, Panos G, et al. A meta-analysis of transient elastography for the detection of hepatic fibrosis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Mar;44(3):214-9. Abstract

42. Chon YE, Choi EH, Song KJ, et al. Performance of transient elastography for the staging of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44930.Full text  Abstract

43. Takuma Y, Nouso K, Morimoto Y, et al. Measurement of spleen stiffness by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging identifies cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. Gastroenterology. 2013 Jan;144(1):92-101.e2.Full text  Abstract

44. Cassinotto C, Boursier J, de Lédinghen V, et al. Liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a comparison of supersonic shear imaging, FibroScan, and ARFI with liver biopsy. Hepatology. 2016 Jun;63(6):1817-27. Abstract

45. Hu X, Qiu L, Liu D, et al. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for non‑invasive evaluation of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and C patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Ultrason. 2017 Jan 31;19(1):23-31.Full text  Abstract

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48. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Cirrhosis in over 16s: assessment and management. July 2016 [internet publication].Full text

49. Wong F. Acute kidney injury in liver cirrhosis: new definition and application. Clin Mol Hepatol. 2016 Dec;22(4):415-22.Full text  Abstract

50. Angeli P, Gines P, Wong F, et al. Diagnosis and management of acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis: revised consensus recommendations of the International Club of Ascites. Gut. 2015 Apr;64(4):531-7.Full text  Abstract

51. Crabb DW, Im GY, Szabo G, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of alcohol-associated liver diseases: 2019 practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2020 Jan;71(1):306-33.Full text  Abstract

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53. Lim JK, Flamm SL, Singh S, et al. American Gastroenterological Association Institute guideline on the role of elastography in the evaluation of liver fibrosis. Gastroenterology. 2017 May;152(6):1536-43.Full text  Abstract

54. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of alcohol-related liver disease. J Hepatol. 2018 Jul;69(1):154-81.Full text  Abstract

55. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Liver disease. Quality standard QS152. June 2017 [internet publication].Full text

56. Newsome PN, Cramb R, Davison SM, et al. Guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests. Gut. 2018 Jan;67(1):6-19.Full text  Abstract

57. Bajaj JS, O'Leary JG, Lai JC, et al. Acute-on-chronic liver failure clinical guidelines. Am J Gastroenterol. 2022 Feb 1;117(2):225-52.Full text  Abstract

58. Perumpail BJ, Li AA, Cholankeril G, et al. Optimizing the nutritional support of adult patients in the setting of cirrhosis. Nutrients. 2017 Oct 13;9(10):E1114.Full text  Abstract

59. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

60. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines on the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2010 Sep;53(3):397-417.Full text  Abstract

61. Aithal GP, Palaniyappan N, China L, et al. Guidelines on the management of ascites in cirrhosis. Gut. 2021 Jan;70(1):9-29.Full text  Abstract

62. Wong CL, Holroyd-Leduc J, Thorpe KE, et al. Does this patient have bacterial peritonitis or portal hypertension? How do I perform a paracentesis and analyze the results? JAMA. 2008 Mar 12;299(10):1166-78.Full text  Abstract

63. Rimola A, Garcia-Tsao G, Navasa M, et al. Diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a consensus document. J Hepatol. 2000 Jan;32(1):142-53. Abstract

64. Bernardi M, Caraceni P, Navickis RJ, et al. Albumin infusion in patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Hepatology. 2012 Apr;55(4):1172-81.Full text  Abstract

65. Moore KP, Aithal GP. Guidelines on the management of ascites in cirrhosis. Gut. 2006 Oct;55 Suppl 6:vi1-12.Full text  Abstract

66. Bernardi M, Caraceni P, Navickis RJ, et al. Albumin infusion in patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Hepatology. 2012 Apr;55(4):1172-81. Abstract

67. Benmassaoud A, Freeman SC, Roccarina D, et al. Treatment for ascites in adults with decompensated liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jan 16;1:CD013123.Full text  Abstract

68. D'Amico G, Luca A, Morabito A, et al. Uncovered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for refractory ascites: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2005 Oct;129(4):1282-93. Abstract

69. Saab S, Nieto JM, Lewis SK, et al. TIPS versus paracentesis for cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD004889.Full text  Abstract

70. Albillos A, Bañares R, González M, et al. A meta-analysis of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus paracentesis for refractory ascites. J Hepatol. 2005 Dec;43(6):990-6. Abstract

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72. Chen RP, Zhu Ge XJ, Huang ZM, et al. Prophylactic use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt aids in the treatment of refractory ascites: metaregression and trial sequential meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2014 Mar;48(3):290-9. Abstract

73. Bai M, Qi XS, Yang ZP, et al. TIPS improves liver transplantation-free survival in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites: an updated meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Mar 14;20(10):2704-14.Full text  Abstract

74. Lebrec D, Giuily N, Hadengue A, et al. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts: comparison with paracentesis in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites: a randomized trial. French Group of Clinicians and a Group of Biologists. J Hepatol. 1996 Aug;25(2):135-44. Abstract

75. Dahl E, Gluud LL, Kimer N, et al. Meta-analysis: the safety and efficacy of vaptans (tolvaptan, satavaptan and lixivaptan) in cirrhosis with ascites or hyponatraemia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Oct;36(7):619-26. Abstract

76. Yan L, Xie F, Lu J, et al. The treatment of vasopressin V2-receptor antagonists in cirrhosis patients with ascites: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Gastroenterol. 2015 Jun 9;15:65.Full text  Abstract

77. Tripathi D, Stanley AJ, Hayes PC, et al. U.K. guidelines on the management of variceal haemorrhage in cirrhotic patients. Gut. 2015 Nov;64(11):1680-704.Full text  Abstract

78. Bossen L, Krag A, Vilstrup H, et al. Nonselective β-blockers do not affect mortality in cirrhosis patients with ascites: Post Hoc analysis of three randomized controlled trials with 1198 patients. Hepatology. 2016 Jun;63(6):1968-76. Abstract

79. Sinha R, Lockman KA, Mallawaarachchi N, et al. Carvedilol use is associated with improved survival in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. J Hepatol. 2017 Jul;67(1):40-46. Abstract

80. Leithead JA, Rajoriya N, Tehami N, et al. Non-selective beta-blockers are associated with improved survival in patients with ascites listed for liver transplantation. Gut. 2015 Jul;64(7):1111-9. Abstract

81. Zacharias AP, Jeyaraj R, Hobolth L, et al. Carvedilol versus traditional, non-selective beta-blockers for adults with cirrhosis and gastroesophageal varices. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Oct 29;10:CD011510.Full text  Abstract

82. Garcia-Pagán JC, Bosch J. Endoscopic band ligation in the treatment of portal hypertension. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Nov;2(11):526-35. Abstract

83. Kerbert AJ, Chiang FW, van der Werf M, et al. Hemodynamic response to primary prophylactic therapy with nonselective beta-blockers is related to a reduction of first variceal bleeding risk in liver cirrhosis: a meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Apr;29(4):380-7. Abstract

84. Sauerbruch T, Mengel M, Dollinger M, et al. Prevention of rebleeding from esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis receiving small-diameter stents versus hemodynamically controlled medical therapy. Gastroenterology. 2015 Sep;149(3):660-8.e1.Full text  Abstract

85. Odutayo A, Desborough MJ, Trivella M, et al. Restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion for gastrointestinal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 May;2(5):354-60. Abstract

86. Barkun AN, Almadi M, Kuipers EJ, et al. Management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: guideline recommendations from the international consensus group. Ann Intern Med. 2019 Dec 3;171(11):805-22. Abstract

87. Lau JYW, Yu Y, Tang RSY, et al. Timing of endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 2;382(14):1299-308.Full text  Abstract

88. Chavez-Tapia NC, Barrientos-Gutierrez T, Tellez-Avila FI, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Sep 8;(9):CD002907.Full text  Abstract

89. Maiwall R, Jamwal KD, Bhardwaj A, et al. SX-Ella Stent Danis effectively controls refractory variceal bleed in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. Dig Dis Sci. 2018 Feb;63(2):493-501. Abstract

90. Heimbach JK, Kulik LM, Finn RS, et al. AASLD guidelines for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2018 Jan;67(1):358-80.Full text  Abstract

91. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2018 Aug;69(2):406-60.Full text  Abstract

92. Sort P, Navasa M, Arroyo V, et al. Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. N Engl J Med. 1999 Aug 5;341(6):403-9.Full text  Abstract

93. Loomba R, Wesley R, Bain A, et al. Role of fluoroquinolones in the primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Apr;7(4):487-93. Abstract

94. Kamal F, Khan MA, Khan Z, et al. Rifaximin for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Oct;29(10):1109-17. Abstract

95. Iogna Prat L, Wilson P, Freeman SC, et al. Antibiotic treatment for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in people with decompensated liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Sep 16;9:CD013120.Full text  Abstract

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97. Baig MA, Majeed MB, Attar BM, et al. Efficacy and safety of indwelling pleural catheters in management of hepatic hydrothorax: a systematic review of literature. Cureus. 2018 Aug 6;10(8):e3110.Full text  Abstract

98. Jepsen P, Ott P, Andersen PK, et al. Clinical course of alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a Danish population-based cohort study. Hepatology. 2010 May;51(5):1675-82.Full text  Abstract

99. Sharma BC, Sharma P, Agrawal A, et al. Secondary prophylaxis of hepatic encephalopathy: an open-label randomized controlled trial of lactulose versus placebo. Gastroenterology. 2009 Sep;137(3):885-91, 891.e1.Full text  Abstract

100. Sharma BC, Sharma P, Lunia MK, et al. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing rifaximin plus lactulose with lactulose alone in treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep;108(9):1458-63. Abstract

101. Gluud LL, Vilstrup H, Morgan MY. Non-absorbable disaccharides versus placebo/no intervention and lactulose versus lactitol for the prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in people with cirrhosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 May 6;(5):CD003044.Full text  Abstract

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103. Gifford FJ, Morling JR, Fallowfield JA. Systematic review with meta-analysis: vasoactive drugs for the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome type 1. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Mar;45(5):593-603.Full text  Abstract

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105. Grilo-Bensusan I, Pascasio-Acevedo JM. Hepatopulmonary syndrome: what we know and what we would like to know. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jul 7;22(25):5728-41.Full text  Abstract

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108. Biggins SW, Angeli P, Garcia-Tsao G, et al. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome. Hepatology. 2021 May 3 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

109. Lebrec D, Thabut D, Oberti F, et al. Pentoxifylline does not decrease short-term mortality but does reduce complications in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2010 May;138(5):1755-62. Abstract

110. Stine JG, Wang J, Cornella SL, et al. Treatment of type-1 hepatorenal syndrome with pentoxifylline: a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Ann Hepatol. 2018 Mar 1;17(2):300-6.Full text  Abstract

111. Tovoli F, Casadei-Gardini A, Benevento F, et al. Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a review of potential new drugs based on ongoing clinical studies as of 2019. Dig Liver Dis. 2019 Aug;51(8):1067-73. Abstract

112. Squires RH, Ng V, Romero R, et al. Evaluation of the pediatric patient for liver transplantation: 2014 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American Society of Transplantation and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. Hepatology. 2014 Jul;60(1):362-98.Full text  Abstract

113. Martin P, DiMartini A, Feng S, et al; AASLD. Evaluation for liver transplantation in adults: 2013 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the American Society of Transplantation. Hepatology. 2014 Mar;59(3):1144-65. Abstract

114. D'Amico G, Garcia-Tsao G, Pagliaro L. Natural history and prognostic indicators of survival in cirrhosis: a systematic review of 118 studies. J Hepatol. 2006 Jan;44(1):217-31. Abstract

115. Pinter M, Trauner M, Peck-Radosavljevic M, et al. Cancer and liver cirrhosis: implications on prognosis and management. ESMO Open. 2016;1(2):e000042.Full text  Abstract

116. Macken L, Joshi D, Messenger J, et al. Palliative long-term abdominal drains in refractory ascites due to end-stage liver disease: a case series. Palliat Med. 2017 Jul;31(7):671-5. Abstract

117. Segarra-Newnham M, Henneman A. Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients without gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Dec;44(12):1946-54. Abstract

118. O'Leary JG, Greenberg CS, Patton HM, et al. AGA clinical practice update: coagulation in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2019 Jul;157(1):34-43.e1. Abstract

119. Brustia R, Savier E, Scatton O. Physical exercise in cirrhotic patients: towards prehabilitation on waiting list for liver transplantation. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2018 Jun;42(3):205-15. Abstract

120. Locklear CT, Golabi P, Gerber L, et al. Exercise as an intervention for patients with end-stage liver disease: systematic review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Oct;97(42):e12774.Full text  Abstract

121. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B questions and answers for health professionals. July 2020 [internet publication].Full text

122. Villanueva C, Albillos A, Genescà J, et al. Beta blockers to prevent decompensation of cirrhosis in patients with clinically significant portal hypertension (PREDESCI): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2019 Apr 20;393(10181):1597-608. Abstract

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