Soft-tissue sarcoma

References

Key articles

World Health Organization. WHO classification of tumours: soft tissue and bone tumours. 5th ed (Vol 3). Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2020.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: soft tissue sarcoma [internet publication].Full text

Gronchi A, Miah AB, Dei Tos AP, et al. Soft tissue and visceral sarcomas: ESMO-EURACAN-GENTURIS Clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up*. Ann Oncol. 2021 Nov;32(11):1348-65.Full text  Abstract

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) [internet publication].Full text

Casali PG, Blay JY, Abecassis N, et al. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: ESMO-EURACAN-GENTURIS Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. Sep 2021 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: soft tissue sarcoma [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

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11. American Cancer Society. Key statistics for soft tissue sarcomas. Jan 2021 [internet publication].Full text

12. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Sarcomas, soft tissue: statistics. Feb 2021 [internet publication].Full text

13. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: soft tissue sarcoma [internet publication].Full text

14. Sullivan RJ, Pantanowitz L, Casper C, et al. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus disease: Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 1;47(9):1209-15.Full text  Abstract

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22. Gronchi A, Miah AB, Dei Tos AP, et al. Soft tissue and visceral sarcomas: ESMO-EURACAN-GENTURIS Clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up*. Ann Oncol. 2021 Nov;32(11):1348-65.Full text  Abstract

23. Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging:., Kransdorf MJ, Murphey MD, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria<sup>®</sup> Soft-Tissue Masses. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 May;15(5s):S189-S197.Full text  Abstract

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25. Litzky LA. Pulmonary sarcomatous tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008;132:1104-1117.Full text  Abstract

26. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness criteria: malignant or aggressive primary musculoskeletal tumor-staging and surveillance. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

27. Rawat PS, Jaiswal A, Khurana A, et al. Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: an update on the molecular mechanism and novel therapeutic strategies for effective management. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Jul;139:111708.Full text  Abstract

28. Jain D, Russell RR, Schwartz RG, et al. Cardiac complications of cancer therapy: pathophysiology, identification, prevention, treatment, and future directions. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017 May;19(5):36. Abstract

29. Awadalla M, Hassan MZO, Alvi RM, et al. Advanced imaging modalities to detect cardiotoxicity. Curr Probl Cancer. 2018 Jul;42(4):386-96.Full text  Abstract

30. Moussa E, Zamzam M, Kamel A, et al. Risk stratification and pattern of cardiotoxicity in pediatric Ewing sarcoma. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2017 Mar;29(1):53-6.Full text  Abstract

31. Chow EJ, Leger KJ, Bhatt NS, et al. Paediatric cardio-oncology: epidemiology, screening, prevention, and treatment. Cardiovasc Res. 2019 Apr 15;115(5):922-34.Full text  Abstract

32. Krishnan B, Khanna G, Clohisy D. Gene translocations in musculoskeletal neoplasms. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 Sep;466(9):2131-46. Abstract

33. Katenkamp D, Katenkamp K. Modern morphological diagnosis and current classification of soft tissue sarcomas [in German]. Chirurg. 2009;80:186-193. Abstract

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35. Expert Panel on Vascular Imaging., Verma N, Steigner ML, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Suspected Retroperitoneal Bleed. J Am Coll Radiol. 2021 Nov;18(11s):S482-S487.Full text  Abstract

36. Jones NB, Iwenofu H, Scharschmidt T, et al. Prognostic factors and staging for soft tissue sarcomas: an update. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2012 Apr;21(2):187-200. Abstract

37. Casali PG, Blay JY, Abecassis N, et al. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: ESMO-EURACAN-GENTURIS Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. Sep 2021 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

38. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: soft tissue sarcoma [internet publication].Full text

39. Tanaka K, Kawano M, Iwasaki T, et al. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compare standard doxorubicin with other first-line chemotherapies for advanced/metastatic soft tissue sarcomas. PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0210671.Full text  Abstract

40. Zer A, Prince RM, Amir E, et al. Multi-agent chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) - A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Treat Rev. 2018 Feb;63:71-78.Full text  Abstract

41. Pervaiz N, Colterjohn N, Farrokhyar F, et al. A systematic meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adjuvant chemotherapy for localized resectable soft-tissue sarcoma. Cancer. 2008;113:573-581. Abstract

42. Sarcoma Meta-analysis Collaboration (SMAC). Adjuvant chemotherapy for localised resectable soft tissue sarcoma in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD001419.Full text  Abstract

43. Ghosh J, Bhowmick A, Baguneid M. Oncovascular surgery. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2011 Dec;37(12):1017-24. Abstract

44. Mendenhall WM, Indelicato DJ, Scarborough MT, et al. The management of adult soft tissue sarcomas. Am J Clin Oncol. 2009 Aug;32(4):436-42. Abstract

45. Choong PF, Petersen IA, Nascimento AG, et al. Is radiotherapy important for low-grade soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2001 Jun;(387):191-9. Abstract

46. Bui-Nguyen B, Italiano A, Delva F, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy of adults soft tissue sarcomas [in French]. Bull Cancer. 2010 Jun;97(6):673-8. Abstract

47. Pervaiz N, Colterjohn N, Farrokhyar F, et al. A systematic meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adjuvant chemotherapy for localized resectable soft-tissue sarcoma. Cancer. 2008 Aug 1;113(3):573-81. Abstract

48. Gronchi A, Frustaci S, Mercuri M, et al. Short, full-dose adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk adult soft tissue sarcomas: a randomized clinical trial from the Italian Sarcoma Group and the Spanish Sarcoma Group. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 10;30(8):850-6.Full text  Abstract

49. Woll PJ, Reichardt P, Le Cesne A, et al; EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group and the NCIC Clinical Trials Group Sarcoma Disease Site Committee. Adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and lenograstim for resected soft-tissue sarcoma (EORTC 62931): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Oct;13(10):1045-54. Abstract

50. Italiano A, Delva F, Mathoulin-Pelissier S, et al. Effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on survival in FNCLCC grade 3 soft tissue sarcomas: a multivariate analysis of the French Sarcoma Group Database. Ann Oncol. 2010 Dec;21(12):2436-41.Full text  Abstract

51. Santoro A, Tursz T, Mouridsen H, et al. Doxorubicin versus CYVADIC versus doxorubicin plus ifosfamide in first-line treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcomas: a randomized study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group. J Clin Oncol. 1995 Jul;13(7):1537-45. Abstract

52. Edmonson JH, Ryan LM, Blum RH, et al. Randomized comparison of doxorubicin alone versus ifosfamide plus doxorubicin or mitomycin, doxorubicin, and cisplatin against advanced soft tissue sarcomas. J Clin Oncol. 1993 Jul;11(7):1269-75. Abstract

53. Borden EC, Amato DA, Edmonson JH, et al. Randomized comparison of doxorubicin and vindesine to doxorubicin for patients with metastatic soft-tissue sarcomas. Cancer. 1990 Sep 1;66(5):862-7. Abstract

54. Judson I, Verweij J, Gelderblom H, et al. Doxorubicin alone versus intensified doxorubicin plus ifosfamide for first-line treatment of advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Apr;15(4):415-23. Abstract

55. van der Graaf WT, Blay JY, Chawla SP, et al; EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group; PALETTE study group. Pazopanib for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma (PALETTE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 May 19;379(9829):1879-86. Abstract

56. Demetri GD, von Mehren M, Jones RL, et al. Efficacy and safety of trabectedin or dacarbazine for metastatic liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma after failure of conventional chemotherapy: results of a phase III randomized multicenter clinical trial. 2016 Mar 10;34(8):786-93.Full text  Abstract

57. Schöffski P, Chawla S, Maki RG, et al. Eribulin versus dacarbazine in previously treated patients with advanced liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma: a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2016 Apr 16;387(10028):1629-37. Abstract

58. Van De Voorde L, Delrue L, van Eijkeren M, et al. Radiotherapy and surgery - an indispensable duo in the treatment of retroperitoneal sarcoma. Cancer. 2011 Oct 1;117(19):4355-64. Abstract

59. Cohen MH, Johnson JR, Justice R, et al. Approval summary: imatinib mesylate for one or three years in the adjuvant treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Oncologist. 2012;17(7):992-7Full text  Abstract

60. Joensuu H, Eriksson M, Sundby Hall K, et al. One vs three years of adjuvant imatinib for operable gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2012 Mar 28;307(12):1265-72.Full text  Abstract

61. Dasanu CA. Length of adjuvant imatinib therapy in GIST: weighing benefits, side effects and costs. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2012 Sep;18(3):379-80. Abstract

62. Pandey R, Kochar R. Management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: looking beyond the knife. An update on the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant imatinib therapy. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2012 Dec;43(4):547-52. Abstract

63. Blesius A, Cassier PA, Bertucci F, et al. Neoadjuvant imatinib in patients with locally advanced non metastatic GIST in the prospective BFR14 trial. BMC Cancer. 2011 Feb 15;11:72.Full text  Abstract

64. Heinrich MC, Corless CL, Demetri GD, et al. Kinase mutations and imatinib response in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor. J Clin Oncol. 2003 Dec 1;21(23):4342-9.Full text  Abstract

65. Heinrich MC, Jones RL, von Mehren M, et al. Avapritinib in advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour (NAVIGATOR): a multicentre, open-label, phase 1 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2020 Jul;21(7):935-46. Abstract

66. Demetri GD, van Oosterom AT, Garrett CR, et al. Efficacy and safety of sunitinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour after failure of imatinib: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Oct 14;368(9544):1329-38. Abstract

67. Demetri GD, Garrett CR, Schöffski P, et al. Complete longitudinal analyses of the randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of sunitinib in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor following imatinib failure. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Jun 1;18(11):3170-9.Full text  Abstract

68. Demetri GD, Reichardt P, Kang YK, et al; GRID study investigators. Efficacy and safety of regorafenib for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib (GRID): an international, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2013 Jan 26;381(9863):295-302.Full text  Abstract

69. Reichardt P, Blay JY, Gelderblom H, et al. Phase III study of nilotinib versus best supportive care with or without a TKI in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors resistant to or intolerant of imatinib and sunitinib. Ann Oncol.2012 Jul;23(7):1680-7.Full text  Abstract

70. Blay JY, Serrano C, Heinrich MC, et al. Ripretinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours (INVICTUS): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2020 Jul;21(7):923-34.Full text  Abstract

71. Maurel J, Lopez-Pousa A, de Las Penas R, et al. Efficacy of sequential high-dose doxorubicin and ifosfamide compared with standard-dose doxorubicin in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: an open-label randomized phase II study of the Spanish group for research on sarcomas. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Apr 10;27(11):1893-8. Abstract

72. Sarcoma Meta-analysis Collaboration. Adjuvant chemotherapy for localised resectable soft-tissue sarcoma of adults: meta-analysis of individual data. Lancet. 1997 Dec 6;350(9092):1647-54. Abstract

73. Hawkins DS, Chi YY, Anderson JR, et al. Addition of vincristine and irinotecan to vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide does not improve outcome for intermediate-risk rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Sep 20;36(27):2770-7.Full text  Abstract

74. Maki RG, D'Adamo DR, Keohan ML, et al. Phase II study of sorafenib in patients with metastatic or recurrent sarcomas. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:3133-3140.Full text  Abstract

75. von Mehren M, Rankin C, Goldblum JR, et al. Phase 2 Southwest Oncology Group-directed intergroup trial (S0505) of sorafenib in advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Cancer. 2012;118:770-776.Full text  Abstract

76. Montemurro M, Gelderblom H, Bitz U, et al. Sorafenib as third- or fourth-line treatment of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour and pretreatment including both imatinib and sunitinib, and nilotinib: a retrospective analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Mar;49(5):1027-31. Abstract

77. Ferrari A, Merks JHM, Chisholm JC, et al. Outcomes of metastatic non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) treated within the BERNIE study: a randomised, phase II study evaluating the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2020 May;130:72-80.Full text  Abstract

78. Cassier PA, Labidi-Galy SI, Heudel P, et al. Therapeutic pipeline for soft-tissue sarcoma. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:2479-2491. Abstract

79. Chawla SP, Papai Z, Mukhametshina G, et al. First-line aldoxorubicin vs doxorubicin in metastatic or locally advanced unresectable soft-tissue sarcoma: a phase 2b randomized clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2015;1:1272-1280. Abstract

80. ClinicalTrials.org. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of nirogacestat versus placebo in adult patients with progressing desmoid tumors/aggressive fibromatosis (DT/AF). Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

81. Gounder M, Schöffski P, Jones RL, et al. Tazemetostat in advanced epithelioid sarcoma with loss of INI1/SMARCB1: an international, open-label, phase 2 basket study. Lancet Oncol. 2020 Nov;21(11):1423-1432.Full text  Abstract

82. ClinicalTrials.gov. A phase II, multicenter study of the EZH2 inhibitor tazemetostat in adult subjects with INI1-negative tumors or relapsed/refractory synovial sarcoma. Aug 2021 [internet publication].Full text

83. ClinicalTrials.gov. A Study of NOX66 Plus Doxorubicin in Anthracycline-naïve, Adult Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma. Oct 2021 [internet publication].Full text

84. ClinicalTrials.gov. To Evaluate Maximally Tolerated Dose (MTD), Safety and Efficacy of CPI-613® (Devimistat) Plus Hydroxychloroquine in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Clear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Tissue. Oct 2020 [internet publication].Full text

85. ClinicalTrials.gov. Study of Liposomal Annamycin for the Treatment of Subjects With Soft-Tissue Sarcomas (STS) With Pulmonary Metastases. Sep 2021 [internet publication].Full text

86. ClinicalTrials.gov. ENVASARC: Envafolimab And Envafolimab With Ipilimumab In Patients With Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma Or Myxofibrosarcoma (ENVASARC). Jul 2020 [internet publication].Full text

87. ClinicalTrials.gov. APX005M and Doxorubicin in Advanced Sarcoma. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

88. Defachelles AS, Bogart E, Casanova M, et al. Randomized phase II trial of vincristine-irinotecan with or without temozolomide, in children and adults with relapsed or refractory rhabdomyosarcoma: A european paediatric soft tissue sarcoma study group and innovative therapies for children with cancer trial. J Clin Oncol. 2021 Sep 20;39(27):2979-2990.Full text  Abstract

89. Schmoll HJ, Lindner LH, Reichardt P, et al. Efficacy of pazopanib with or without gemcitabine in patients with anthracycline- and/or ifosfamide-refractory soft tissue sarcoma: Final results of the PAPAGEMO phase 2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2021 Feb 1;7(2):255-262.Full text  Abstract

90. Naghavi AO, Fernandez DC, Mesko N, et al. American Brachytherapy Society consensus statement for soft tissue sarcoma brachytherapy. Brachytherapy. 2017 May - Jun;16(3):466-89. Abstract

91. Cancer Care Ontario. Sunitinib malate for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) in imatinib mesylate-resistant patients. Jan 2014 [internet publication].Full text

92. SEER. Cancer stat facts: Soft tissue including heart cancer. 2020 [internet publication].Full text

93. Pacelli F, Tortorelli AP, Rosa F, et al. Retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma: prognostic factors and therapeutic approaches. Tumori. 2008 Jul-Aug;94(4):497-504. Abstract

94. Levy AD, Manning MA, Al-Refaie WB, et al. Soft-tissue sarcomas of the abdomen and pelvis: Radiologic-pathologic features, part 1-common sarcomas: From the radiologic pathology archives. Radiographics. 2017 Mar-Apr;37(2):462-483.Full text  Abstract

95. Koscielniak E, Morgan M, Treuner J. Soft tissue sarcoma in children: prognosis and management. Paediatr Drugs. 2002;4:21-28. Abstract

96. Lim SM, Yoo CJ, Han JW, et al. Incidence and survival of pediatric soft tissue sarcomas: Comparison between adults and children. Cancer Res Treat. 2015 Jan;47(1):9-17.Full text  Abstract

97. Terenziani M, Piva L, Meazza C, et al. Oophoropexy: a relevant role in preservation of ovarian function after pelvic irradiation. Fertil Steril. 2009 Mar;91(3):935.e15-6. Abstract

98. Orphanos GS, Ioannidis GN, Ardavanis AG. Cardiotoxicity induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Acta Oncol. 2009;48(7):964-70. Abstract

99. Fernebro J, Bladstrom A, Rydholm A, et al. Increased risk of malignancies in a population-based study of 818 soft-tissue sarcoma patients. Br J Cancer. 2006 Oct 23;95(8):986-90.Full text  Abstract

100. Puri A, Gulia A, Hawaldar R, et al. Does intensity of surveillance affect survival after surgery for sarcomas? Results of a randomized noninferiority trial. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014 May;472(5):1568-75. Abstract

101. Kumar R, Chauhan A, Vellimana AK, et al. Role of PET/PET-CT in the management of sarcomas. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2006 Aug;6(8):1241-50.Full text  Abstract

102. Treglia G, Salsano M, Stefanelli A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET and PET/CT in patients with Ewing sarcoma family tumours: a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Skeletal Radiol. 2012 Mar;41(3):249-56. Abstract

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