Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

References

Key articles

Kim JYS, Kozlow JH, Mittal B, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Mar;78(3):560-78.Full text  Abstract

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: squamous cell skin cancer [Internet publication].Full text

Keohane SG, Botting J, Budny PG, et al. British Association of Dermatologists guidelines for the management of the people with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma 2020. Br J Dermatol 2021; 184:401-14.Full text  Abstract

Stratigos AJ, Garbe C, Dessinioti C, et al. European interdisciplinary guideline on invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: part 2. Treatment. Eur J Cancer. 2020 Feb 26;128:83-102.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Weimar VM, Ceilley RI, Goeken JA. Aggressive biologic behavior of basal- and squamous-cell cancers in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or chronic lymphocytic lymphoma. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1979 Aug;5(8):609-14. Abstract

2. Schwartz RA. Keratoacanthoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994 Jan;30(1):1-19; quiz 20-2. Abstract

3. Walder BK, Robertson MR, Jeremy D. Skin cancer and immunosuppression. Lancet. 1971 Dec 11;2(7737):1282-3. Abstract

4. Phillips TJ, Salman SM, Bhawan J, et al. Burn scar carcinoma. Diagnosis and management. Dermatol Surg. 1998 May;24(5):561-5. Abstract

5. Sánchez G, Nova J, Rodriguez-Hernandez AE, et al. Sun protection for preventing basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 25;(7):CD011161. Abstract

6. Rogers HW, Weinstock MA, Feldman SR, et al. Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer (keratinocyte carcinomas) in the US population, 2012. JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Oct;151(10):1081-6.Full text  Abstract

7. Gogia R, Binstock M, Hirose R, et al. Fitzpatrick skin phototype is an independent predictor of squamous cell carcinoma risk after solid organ transplantation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Apr;68(4):585-91. Abstract

8. Larese Filon F, Buric M, Fluehler C. UV exposure, preventive habits, risk perception, and occupation in NMSC patients: a case-control study in Trieste (NE Italy). Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2019 Jan;35(1):24-30. Abstract

9. Miller DL, Weinstock MA. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States: incidence. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994 May;30(5 pt 1):774-8.Full text  Abstract

10. Muzic JG, Schmitt AR, Wright AC, et al. Incidence and trends of basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 2000 to 2010. Mayo Clin Proc. 2017 Jun;92(6):890-8. Abstract

11. Johnson TM, Rowe DE, Nelson BR, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (excluding lip and oral mucosa). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992 Mar;26(3 Pt 2):467-84. Abstract

12. Massey PR, Schmults CD, Li SJ, et al. Consensus-based recommendations on the prevention of squamous cell carcinoma in solid organ transplant recipients: a Delphi consensus statement. JAMA Dermatol. 2021 Sep 1 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

13. Vitaliano PP, Urbach F. The relative importance of risk factors in nonmelanoma carcinoma. Arch Dermatol. 1980 Apr;116(4):454-6. Abstract

14. Kinlen LJ, Sheil AG, Peto J, et al. Collaborative United Kingdom-Australasian study of cancer in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Br Med J. 1979 Dec 8;2(6203):1461-6.Full text  Abstract

15. Paprottka FJ, Bontikous S, Lohmeyer JA, et al. Squamous-cell carcinoma arises in red parts of multicolored tattoo within months. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2014 Apr 7;2(3):e114.Full text  Abstract

16. Kripke ML. Immunological effects of ultraviolet radiation. J Dermatol. 1991 Aug;18(8):429-33. Abstract

17. de Gruijl FR, van Kranen HJ, Mullenders LH. UV-induced DNA damage, repair, mutations and oncogenic pathways in skin cancer. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2001 Oct;63(1-3):19-27. Abstract

18. Liang SB, Ohtsuki Y, Furihata M, et al. Sun-exposure- and aging-dependent p53 protein accumulation results in growth advantage for tumour cells in carcinogenesis of nonmelanocytic skin cancer. Virchows Arch. 1999 Mar;434(3):193-9. Abstract

19. Ming M, Feng L, Shea CR, et al. PTEN positively regulates UVB-induced DNA damage repair. Cancer Res. 2011 Aug 1;71(15):5287-95. Abstract

20. Ming M, Han W, Maddox J, et al. UVB-induced ERK/AKT-dependent PTEN suppression promotes survival of epidermal keratinocytes. Oncogene. 2010 Jan 28;29(4):492-502.Full text  Abstract

21. Tsai KY, Tsao H. The genetics of skin cancer. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2004 Nov 15;131C(1):82-92. Abstract

22. Han W, Ming M, He TC, et al. Immunosuppressive cyclosporin A activates AKT in keratinocytes through PTEN suppression: implications in skin carcinogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 9;285(15):11369-77.Full text  Abstract

23. Han W, Soltani K, Ming M, et al. Deregulation of XPC and CypA by cyclosporin A: an immunosuppression-independent mechanism of skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Sep;5(9):1155-62. Abstract

24. Kanitz A, Imig J, Dziunycz PJ, et al. The expression levels of microRNA-361-5p and its target VEGFA are inversely correlated in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49568.Full text  Abstract

25. Hu SC, Yu HS, Yen FL, et al. CXCR7 expression correlates with tumor depth in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma skin lesions and promotes tumor cell survival through ERK activation. Exp Dermatol. 2014 Dec;23(12):902-8. Abstract

26. Dong F, Wang Y, Li L, et al. CD109 expression is increased in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Dermatol. 2014 Oct;41(10):947-9. Abstract

27. Lee CS, Bhaduri A, Mah A, et al. Recurrent point mutations in the kinetochore gene KNSTRN in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Nat Genet. 2014 Oct;46(10):1060-2. Abstract

28. Fears TR, Scotto J. Estimating increases in skin cancer morbidity due to increases in ultraviolet radiation exposure. Cancer Invest. 1983;1(2):119-26. Abstract

29. Rundel RD. Promotional effects of ultraviolet radiation on human basal and squamous cell carcinoma. Photochem Photobiol. 1983 Nov;38(5):569-75. Abstract

30. Glover MT, Deeks JJ, Raftery MJ, et al. Immunosuppression and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients. Lancet. 1997 Feb 8;349(9049):398. Abstract

31. Hofbauer GF, Anliker M, Arnold A, et al. Swiss clinical practice guidelines for skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Swiss Med Wkly. 2009 Jul 25;139(29-30):407-15.Full text  Abstract

32. Bibee K, Swartz A, Sridharan S, et al. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the organ transplant recipient. Oral Oncol. 2020 Apr;103:104562. Abstract

33. Preciado DA, Matas A, Adams GL. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in solid organ transplant recipients. Head Neck. 2002 Apr;24(4):319-25. Abstract

34. Mattei PL, Alora-Palli MB, Kraft S, et al. Cutaneous effects of BRAF inhibitor therapy: a case series. Ann Oncol. 2013 Feb;24(2):530-7. Abstract

35. Belum VR, Rosen AC, Jaimes N, et al. Clinico-morphological features of BRAF inhibition-induced proliferative skin lesions in cancer patients. Cancer. 2015 Jan 1;121(1):60-8.Full text  Abstract

36. Keeler CE. Albinism, xeroderma pigmentosum, and skin cancer. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1963;10:349-59.

37. Kraemer KH, Lee MM, Scotto J. Xeroderma pigmentosum: cutaneous, ocular, and neurologic abnormalities in 830 published cases. Arch Dermatol. 1987 Feb;123(2):241-50. Abstract

38. Yarbro JW, Page DL, Fielding LP, et al. American Joint Committee on Cancer prognostic factors consensus conference. Cancer. 1999 Dec 1;86(11):2436-46. Abstract

39. Lichter MD, Karagas MR, Mott LA, et al; The New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study Group. Therapeutic ionizing radiation and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol. 2000 Aug;136(8):1007-11.Full text  Abstract

40. Wagner SL, Maliner JS, Morton WE, et al. Skin cancer and arsenical intoxication from well water. Arch Dermatol. 1979 Oct;115(10):1205-7. Abstract

41. Wong ST, Chan HL, Teo SK. The spectrum of cutaneous and internal malignancies in chronic arsenic toxicity. Singapore Med J. 1998 Apr;39(4):171-3. Abstract

42. Glogau RG. The risk of progression to invasive disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jan;42(1 Pt 2):23-4. Abstract

43. Ahmady S, Jansen MHE, Nelemans PJ, et al. Risk of invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma after different treatments for actinic keratosis: a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Dermatol. 2022 Jun 1;158(6):634-40. Abstract

44. Jackson S, Storey A. E6 proteins from diverse cutaneous HPV types inhibit apoptosis in response to UV damage. Oncogene. 2000 Jan 27;19(4):592-8.Full text  Abstract

45. Bouwes Bavinck JN, Feltkamp M, Struijk L, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and skin cancer risk in organ transplant recipients. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2001 Dec;6(3):207-11. Abstract

46. Shamanin V, zur Hausen H, Lavergne D, et al. Human papillomavirus infections in nonmelanoma skin cancers from renal transplant recipients and nonimmunosuppressed patients. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996 Jun 19;88(12):802-11. Abstract

47. Harwood CA, Surentheran T, McGregor JM, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and non-melanoma skin cancer in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals. J Med Virol. 2000 Jul;61(3):289-97. Abstract

48. Meyer T, Arndt R, Christophers E, et al. Importance of human papillomaviruses for the development of skin cancer. Cancer Detect Prev. 2001;25(6):533-47. Abstract

49. de Villiers EM, Lavergne D, McLaren K, et al. Prevailing papillomavirus types in non-melanoma carcinomas of the skin in renal allograft recipients. Int J Cancer. 1997 Nov 4;73(3):356-61. Abstract

50. Viac J, Chardonnet Y, Chignol MC, et al. Papilloma viruses, warts, carcinoma and Langerhans cells. In Vivo. 1993 May-Jun;7(3):207-12. Abstract

51. Leonardi-Bee J, Ellison T, Bath-Hextall F. Smoking and the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dermatol. 2012 Aug;148(8):939-46. Abstract

52. Song F, Qureshi AA, Gao X, et al. Smoking and risk of skin cancer: a prospective analysis and a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2012 Dec;41(6):1694-705. Abstract

53. Traianou A, Ulrich M, Apalla Z,et al; EPIDERM Group. Risk factors for actinic keratosis in eight European centres: a case-control study. Br J Dermatol. 2012 Aug;167 Suppl 2:36-42. Abstract

54. Kluger N, Koljonen V. Tattoos, inks, and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Apr;13(4):e161-8. Abstract

55. Farmer KC, Naylor MF. Sun exposure, sunscreens, and skin cancer prevention: a year-round concern. Ann Pharmacother. 1996 Jun;30(6):662-73. Abstract

56. Gordon LG, Scuffham PA, van der Pols JC, et al. Regular sunscreen use is a cost-effective approach to skin cancer prevention in subtropical settings. J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Dec;129(12):2766-71.Full text  Abstract

57. Lin JS, Eder M, Weinmann S. Behavioral counseling to prevent skin cancer: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Feb 1;154(3):190-201. Abstract

58. Green A, Williams G, Neale R, et al. Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinoma of the skin: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999 Aug 28;354(9180):723-9. Abstract

59. Thompson SC, Jolley D, Marks R. Reduction of solar keratoses by regular sunscreen use. N Engl J Med. 1993 Oct 14;329(16):1147-51.Full text  Abstract

60. Darlington S, Williams G, Neale R, et al. A randomized controlled trial to assess sunscreen application and beta carotene supplementation in the prevention of solar keratoses. Arch Dermatol. 2003 Apr;139(4):451-5.Full text  Abstract

61. Hirst NG, Gordon LG, Scuffham PA, et al. Lifetime cost-effectiveness of skin cancer prevention through promotion of daily sunscreen use. Value Health. 2012 Mar-Apr;15(2):261-8. Abstract

62. Elmets CA, Viner JL, Pentland AP, et al. Chemoprevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer with celecoxib: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010 Dec 15;102(24):1835-44.Full text  Abstract

63. Weinstock MA, Bingham SF, Digiovanna JJ, et al; Veterans Affairs Topical Tretinoin Chemoprevention Trial Group. Tretinoin and the prevention of keratinocyte carcinoma (Basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin): a veterans affairs randomized chemoprevention trial. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 Jun;132(6):1583-90. Abstract

64. Sadeghi R, Gholami H, Zakavi SR, et al. Accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for diagnosing inguinal lymph node involvement in penile squamous cell carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Clin Nucl Med. 2012 May;37(5):436-41. Abstract

65. Mogensen M, Jemec GB. Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: a review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies. Dermatol Surg. 2007 Oct;33(10):1158-74. Abstract

66. Marcil I, Stern RS. Risk of developing a subsequent nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients with a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer: a critical review of the literature and meta-analysis. Arch Dermatol. 2000 Dec;136(12):1524-30. Abstract

67. Lupu M, Caruntu A, Caruntu C, et al. Non-invasive imaging of actinic cheilitis and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. Mol Clin Oncol. 2018 May;8(5):640-646.Full text  Abstract

68. Barr RJ. Classification of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol. 1991 Aug;18(4):225-6. Abstract

69. Cassarino DS, Derienzo DP, Barr RJ. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive clinicopathologic classification. Part one. J Cutan Pathol. 2006 Mar;33(3):191-206. Abstract

70. Broders AC. Squamous-cell epithelioma of the skin: a study of 256 cases. Ann Surg. 1921 Feb;73(2):141-60.Full text  Abstract

71. Amin MB, Edge S, Greene F, et al. (eds); American Joint Committee on Cancer. AJCC cancer staging manual. 8th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2017.

72. Schmults CD, Karia PS, Carter JB, et al. Factors predictive of recurrence and death from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a 10-year, single-institution cohort study. JAMA Dermatol. 2013 May;149(5):541-7.Full text  Abstract

73. Karia PS, Jambusaria-Pahlajani A, Harrington DP, et al. Evaluation of American Joint Committee on Cancer, International Union Against Cancer, and Brigham and Women's Hospital tumor staging for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Feb 1;32(4):327-34. Abstract

74. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for skin cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2016 Jul 26;316(4):429-35.Full text  Abstract

75. Kim JYS, Kozlow JH, Mittal B, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Mar;78(3):560-78.Full text  Abstract

76. Mittal A, Colegio OR. Skin cancers in organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2017 Oct;17(10):2509-30.Full text  Abstract

77. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: squamous cell skin cancer [Internet publication].Full text

78. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: vulvar cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) [internet publication].Full text

79. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: penile cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) [Internet publication].Full text

80. Keohane SG, Botting J, Budny PG, et al. British Association of Dermatologists guidelines for the management of the people with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma 2020. Br J Dermatol 2021; 184:401-14.Full text  Abstract

81. Stratigos AJ, Garbe C, Dessinioti C, et al. European interdisciplinary guideline on invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: Part 1. epidemiology, diagnostics and prevention. Eur J Cancer. 2020 Mar;128:60-82.Full text  Abstract

82. Behshad R, Garcia-Zuazaga J, Bordeaux JS. Systemic treatment of locally advanced nonmetastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the literature. Br J Dermatol. 2011 Dec;165(6):1169-77. Abstract

83. Feldman SR, Fleischer AB Jr, Williford PM, et al. Destructive procedures are the standard of care for treatment of actinic keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Jan;40(1):43-7. Abstract

84. Kuflik EG, Gage AA. The five-year cure rate achieved by cryosurgery for skin cancer. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991 Jun;24(6 Pt 1):1002-4. Abstract

85. Williamson GS, Jackson R. Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin by electrodesiccation and curettage. Can Med Assoc J. 1964 Feb 8;90:408-13.Full text  Abstract

86. Morton CA, Brown SB, Collins S, et al. Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy: report of a workshop of the British Photodermatology Group. Br J Dermatol. 2002 Apr;146(4):552-67. Abstract

87. Wong TH, Morton CA, Collier N, et al. British Association of Dermatologists and British Photodermatology Group guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy 2018. Br J Dermatol. 2019 Apr;180(4):730-739.Full text  Abstract

88. Goette DK. Topical chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil. A review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981 Jun;4(6):633-49. Abstract

89. Kaur RR, Alikhan A, Maibach HI. Comparison of topical 5-fluorouracil formulations in actinic keratosis treatment. J Dermatolog Treat. 2010 Sep;21(5):267-71. Abstract

90. Love WE, Bernhard JD, Bordeaux JS. Topical imiquimod or fluorouracil therapy for basal and squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review. Arch Dermatol. 2009 Dec;145(12):1431-8. Abstract

91. Zygogianni A, Kouvaris J, Tolia M, et al. The potential role of radiation therapy in Bowen's disease: a review of the current literature. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2012 Feb;7(1):42-6.Full text  Abstract

92. Shimizu I, Cruz A, Chang KH, et al. Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in situ: a review. Dermatol Surg. 2011 Oct;37(10):1394-411. Abstract

93. Bath-Hextall FJ, Matin RN, Wilkinson D, et al. Interventions for cutaneous Bowen's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 24;(6):CD007281.Full text  Abstract

94. Brodland DG, Zitelli JA. Surgical margins for excision of primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992 Aug;27(2 Pt 1):241-8. Abstract

95. Lambert DR, Siegle RJ. Skin cancer: a review with consideration of treatment options including Mohs micrographic surgery. Ohio Med. 1990 Oct;86(10):745-7. Abstract

96. Robinson JK. Mohs micrographic surgery. Clin Plast Surg. 1993 Jan;20(1):149-56. Abstract

97. Connolly SM, Baker DR, Coldiron BM, et al; Ad Hoc Task Force. AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery. Dermatol Surg. 2012 Oct;38(10):1582-603. Abstract

98. Jambusaria-Pahlajani A, Miller CJ, Quon H, et al. Surgical monotherapy versus surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy in high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review of outcomes. Dermatol Surg. 2009 Apr;35(4):574-85. Abstract

99. Han A, Ratner D. What is the role of adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with perineural invasion? Cancer. 2007 Mar 15;109(6):1053-9. Abstract

100. Ansink A, van der Velden J. Surgical interventions for early squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD002036.Full text  Abstract

101. Burtness B, Harrington KJ, Greil R, et al. Pembrolizumab alone or with chemotherapy versus cetuximab with chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (KEYNOTE-048): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2019 Nov 23;394(10212):1915-28. Abstract

102. Migden MR, Rischin D, Schmults CD, et al. PD-1 blockade with cemiplimab in advanced cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 26;379(4):341-51. Abstract

103. Stratigos AJ, Garbe C, Dessinioti C, et al. European interdisciplinary guideline on invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: part 2. Treatment. Eur J Cancer. 2020 Feb 26;128:83-102.Full text  Abstract

104. Veness MJ. Treatment recommendations in patients diagnosed with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Australas Radiol. 2005 Oct;49(5):365-76. Abstract

105. Martinez JC, Otley CC, Okuno SH, et al. Chemotherapy in the management of advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in organ transplant recipients: theoretical and practical considerations. Dermatol Surg. 2004 Apr;30(4 Pt 2):679-86. Abstract

106. Young NR, Liu J, Pierce C, et al. Molecular phenotype predicts sensitivity of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition. Mol Oncol. 2013 Jun;7(3):359-68. Abstract

107. Markovic A, Chung CH. Current role of EGF receptor monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2012 Sep;12(9):1149-59. Abstract

108. Niles RM. Recent advances in the use of vitamin A (retinoids) in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Nutrition. 2000 Nov-Dec;16(11-12):1084-9. Abstract

109. Kurundkar D, Srivastava RK, Chaudhary SC, et al. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Jan 15;266(2):233-44. Abstract

110. Chen AC, Martin AJ, Choy B, et al. A phase 3 randomized trial of nicotinamide for skin-cancer chemoprevention. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 22;373(17):1618-26.Full text  Abstract

111. Rowe DE, Carroll RJ, Day CL Jr. Prognostic factors for local recurrence, metastasis, and survival rates in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, ear, and lip. Implications for treatment modality selection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992 Jun;26(6):976-90. Abstract

112. Epstein E, Epstein NN, Bragg K, et al. Metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Arch Dermatol. 1968 Mar;97(3):245-51. Abstract

113. Jones TP, Boiko PE, Piepkorn MW. Skin biopsy indications in primary care practice: a population-based study. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1996 Nov-Dec;9(6):397-404. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer