Melanoma

References

Key articles

Breslow A. Thickness, cross-sectional areas and depth of invasion in the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. Ann Surg. 1970 Nov;172(5):902-8.Full text  Abstract

Robert C, Schachter J, Long GV, et al. Pembrolizumab versus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jun 25;372(26):2521-32. Abstract

Robert C, Long GV, Brady B, et al. Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 22;372(4):320-30.Full text  Abstract

Long GV, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, et al. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition versus BRAF inhibition alone in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1877-88.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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2. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: melanoma: cutaneous [internet publication].Full text

3. World Health Organization. ICD-11 for mortality and morbidity statistics. 2C30 melanoma of skin. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

4. El Sharouni MA, van Diest PJ, Witkamp AJ, et al. Subtyping cutaneous melanoma matters. JNCI Cancer Spectr. 2020 Dec;4(6):pkaa097.Full text  Abstract

5. Cress RD, Holly EA, Ahn DK, et al. Cutaneous melanoma in women: anatomic distribution in relation to sun exposure and phenotype. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995 Dec;4(8):831-6.Full text  Abstract

6. Singh P, Kim HJ, Schwartz RA. Superficial spreading melanoma: an analysis of 97702 cases using the SEER database. Melanoma Res. 2016 Aug;26(4):395-400. Abstract

7. Menzies SW, Moloney FJ, Byth K, et al. Dermoscopic evaluation of nodular melanoma. JAMA Dermatol. 2013 Jun;149(6):699-709.Full text  Abstract

8. Shaikh WR, Xiong M, Weinstock MA. The contribution of nodular subtype to melanoma mortality in the United States, 1978 to 2007. Arch Dermatol. 2012 Jan;148(1):30-6.Full text  Abstract

9. Bradford PT, Goldstein AM, McMaster ML, et al. Acral lentiginous melanoma: incidence and survival patterns in the United States, 1986-2005. Arch Dermatol. 2009 Apr;145(4):427-34.Full text  Abstract

10. National Cancer Institute. SEER. Cancer stat facts: melanoma of the skin [internet publication].Full text

11. Cancer Research UK. Melanoma skin cancer incidence statistics [internet publication].Full text

12. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Cancer data in Australia. Jun 2021 [internet publication].Full text

13. World Cancer Research Fund. Skin cancer statistics [internet publication].Full text

14. Soura E, Eliades PJ, Shannon K, et al. Hereditary melanoma: update on syndromes and management: genetics of familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Mar;74(3):395-407; quiz 408-10.Full text  Abstract

15. Colantonio S, Bracken MB, Beecker J. The association of indoor tanning and melanoma in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 May;70(5):847-57. Abstract

16. Khan AQ, Travers JB, Kemp MG. Roles of UVA radiation and DNA damage responses in melanoma pathogenesis. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2018 Jun;59(5):438-60.Full text  Abstract

17. Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, et al. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: III. Family history, actinic damage and phenotypic factors. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Sep;41(14):2040-59. Abstract

18. Greene MH, Clark WH Jr, Tucker MA, et al. Acquired precursors of cutaneous malignant melanoma: the familial dysplastic nevus syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1985 Jan 10;312(2):91-7. Abstract

19. Weatherhead SC, Haniffa M, Lawrence CM. Melanomas arising from naevi and de novo melanomas - does origin matter? Br J Dermatol. 2007 Jan;156(1):72-6. Abstract

20. Shitara D, Nascimento MM, Puig S, et al. Nevus-associated melanomas: clinicopathologic features. Am J Clin Pathol. 2014 Oct;142(4):485-91.Full text  Abstract

21. Pandeya N, Kvaskoff M, Olsen CM, et al. Factors related to nevus-associated cutaneous melanoma: a case-case study. J Invest Dermatol. 2018 Aug;138(8):1816-24.Full text  Abstract

22. Radhi JM. Malignant melanoma arising from nevi, p53, p16, and Bcl-2: expression in benign nevus versus malignant components. J Cutan Med Surg. 1999 Oct;3(6):293-7. Abstract

23. Cancer Genome Atlas Network. Genomic classification of cutaneous melanoma. Cell. 2015 Jun 18;161(7):1681-96.Full text  Abstract

24. Lee JH, Choi JW, Kim YS. Frequencies of BRAF and NRAS mutations are different in histological types and sites of origin of cutaneous melanoma: a meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2011 Apr;164(4):776-84. Abstract

25. Long GV, Menzies AM, Nagrial AM, et al. Prognostic and clinicopathologic associations of oncogenic BRAF in metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 1;29(10):1239-46.Full text  Abstract

26. Jakob JA, Bassett RL Jr, Ng CS, et al. NRAS mutation status is an independent prognostic factor in metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2012 Aug 15;118(16):4014-23.Full text  Abstract

27. Menzies AM, Haydu LE, Visintin L, et al. Distinguishing clinicopathologic features of patients with V600E and V600K BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Jun 15;18(12):3242-9.Full text  Abstract

28. Hocker T, Tsao H. Ultraviolet radiation and melanoma: a systematic review and analysis of reported sequence variants. Hum Mutat. 2007 Jun;28(6):578-88. Abstract

29. Bogenrieder T, Herlyn M. The molecular pathology of cutaneous melanoma. Cancer Biomark. 2010;9(1-6):267-86. Abstract

30. High WA, Robinson WA. Genetic mutations involved in melanoma: a summary of our current understanding. Adv Dermatol. 2007;23:61-79. Abstract

31. Alonso SR, Ortiz P, Pollan M, et al. Progression in cutaneous malignant melanoma is associated with distinct expression profiles: a tissue microarray-based study. Am J Pathol. 22004 Jan;164(1):193-203. Abstract

32. Hemminki K, Zhang H, Czene K. Familial and attributable risks in cutaneous melanoma: effects of proband and age. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Feb;120(2):217-23.Full text  Abstract

33. Goldstein AM, Chan M, Harland M, et al. Features associated with germline CDKN2A mutations: a GenoMEL study of melanoma-prone families from three continents. J Med Genet. 2007 Feb;44(2):99-106.Full text  Abstract

34. van der Leest RJ, Liu L, Coebergh JW, et al. Risk of second primary in situ and invasive melanoma in a Dutch population-based cohort: 1989-2008. Br J Dermatol. 2012 Dec;167(6):1321-30. Abstract

35. Greene MH, Clark WH Jr, Tucker MA, et al. High risk of malignant melanoma in melanoma-prone families with dysplastic nevi. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Apr;102(4):458-65. Abstract

36. Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, et al. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: I. Common and atypical naevi. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Jan;41(1):28-44.Full text  Abstract

37. English DR, Armstrong BK, Kricker A, et al. Sunlight and cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1997 May;8(3):271-83. Abstract

38. Gilchrest BA, Eller MS, Geller AC, et al. The pathogenesis of melanoma induced by ultraviolet radiation. N Engl J Med. 1999 Apr 29;340(17):1341-8. Abstract

39. Elwood JM, Jospson J. Melanoma and sun exposure: an overview of published studies. Int J Cancer. 1997 Oct 9;73(2):198-203. Abstract

40. Kanzler MH, Mraz-Gernhard S. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma and its precursor lesions: diagnostic and therapeutic overview. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Aug;45(2):260-76. Abstract

41. Swerdlow AJ, English JS, Qiao Z. The risk of melanoma in patients with congenital nevi: a cohort study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995 Apr;32(4):595-9. Abstract

42. Olsen CM, Knight LL, Green AC. Risk of melanoma in people with HIV/AIDS in the pre- and post-HAART eras: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 16;9(4):e95096.Full text  Abstract

43. Robbins HA, Clarke CA, Arron ST, et al. Melanoma risk and survival among organ transplant recipients. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Nov;135(11):2657-65.Full text  Abstract

44. Kraemer KH, Lee MM, Scotto J. Xeroderma pigmentosum. Cutaneous, ocular, and neurologic abnormalities in 830 published cases. Arch Dermatol. 1987 Feb;123(2):241-50. Abstract

45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing melanoma: communities play a vital role. Jun 2015 [internet publication].Full text

46. Abbasi NR, Shaw HM, Rigel DS, et al. Early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma: revisiting the ABCD criteria. JAMA. 2004 Dec 8;292(22):2771-6. Abstract

47. Psaty EL, Scope A, Halpern AC, et al. Defining the patient at high risk for melanoma. Int J Dermatol. 2010 Apr;49(4):362-76.Full text  Abstract

48. McGovern TW, Litaker MS. Clinical predictors of malignant pigmented lesions. A comparison of the Glasgow seven-point checklist and the American Cancer Society's ABCDs of pigmented lesions. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1992 Jan;18(1):22-6. Abstract

49. Grob JJ, Bonerandi JJ. The ugly duckling sign: identification of the common characteristics of nevi in an individual as a basis for melanoma screening. Arch Dermatol. 1998 Jan;134(1):103-4. Abstract

50. Kalkhoran S, Milne O, Zalaudek I, et al. Historical, clinical, and dermoscopic characteristics of thin nodular melanoma. Arch Dermatol. 2010 Mar;146(3):311-8.Full text  Abstract

51. Ronger S, Touzet S, Ligeron C, et al. Dermoscopic examination of nail pigmentation. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Oct;138(10):1327-33. Abstract

52. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: melanoma: cutaneous. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

53. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Melanoma: assessment and management. Jul 2015 [internet publication].Full text

54. Vestergaard ME, Macaskill P, Holt PE, et al. Dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination for the diagnosis of primary melanoma: A meta-analysis of studies performed in a clinical setting. Br J Dermatol. 2008 Sep;159(3):669-76. Abstract

55. Menzies SW, Zalaudek I. Why perform dermoscopy? The evidence for its role in the routine management of pigmented skin lesions. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Sep;142(9):1211-2. Abstract

56. Amin MB, Edge S, Greene F, et al, eds. AJCC cancer staging manual. 8th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2017.

57. Breslow A. Thickness, cross-sectional areas and depth of invasion in the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. Ann Surg. 1970 Nov;172(5):902-8.Full text  Abstract

58. Davis LE, Shalin SC, Tackett AJ. Current state of melanoma diagnosis and treatment. Cancer Biol Ther. 2019;20(11):1366-79.Full text  Abstract

59. Dinehart MS, Dinehart SM, Sukpraprut-Braaten S, et al. Immunohistochemistry utilization in the diagnosis of melanoma. J Cutan Pathol. 2020 May;47(5):446-50. Abstract

60. Ivan D, Prieto VG. Use of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions: applications and pitfalls. Future Oncol. 2010 Jul;6(7):1163-75. Abstract

61. Garbe C, Amaral T, Peris K, et al. European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline for melanoma. Part 1: diagnostics - update 2019. Eur J Cancer. 2020 Feb;126:141-58.Full text  Abstract

62. Long GV, Wilmott JS, Capper D, et al. Immunohistochemistry is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of V600E BRAF mutation in melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013 Jan;37(1):61-5. Abstract

63. Chapman PB, Hauschild A, Robert C, et al. Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 30;364(26):2507-16.Full text  Abstract

64. Gutiérrez-Castañeda LD, Nova JA, Tovar-Parra JD. Frequency of mutations in BRAF, NRAS, and KIT in different populations and histological subtypes of melanoma: a systemic review. Melanoma Res. 2020 Feb;30(1):62-70.Full text  Abstract

65. Xing Y, Bronstein Y, Ross MI, et al. Contemporary diagnostic imaging modalities for the staging and surveillance of melanoma patients: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Jan 19;103(2):129-42.Full text  Abstract

66. Valsecchi ME, Silbermins D, de Rosa N, et al. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with melanoma: a meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Apr 10;29(11):1479-87. Abstract

67. Morton DL, Thompson JF, Cochran AJ, et al. Final trial report of sentinel-node biopsy versus nodal observation in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 13;370(7):599-609. Abstract

68. Swetter SM, Tsao H, Bichakjian CK, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of primary cutaneous melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Jan;80(1):208-50.Full text  Abstract

69. Thai KE, Young R, Sinclair RD. Nail apparatus melanoma. Australas J Dermatol. 2001 May;42(2):71-81. Abstract

70. Smoller BR. Histologic criteria for diagnosing primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Mod Pathol. 2006 Feb;19 Suppl 2:S34-40.Full text  Abstract

71. Clark WH Jr, From L, Bernardino EA, et al. The histogenesis and biologic behavior of primary human malignant melanomas of the skin. Cancer Res. 1969 Mar;29(3):705-27.Full text  Abstract

72. US Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement. Skin cancer: screening. Jul 2016 [internet publication].Full text

73. Martin RA, Weinstock MA, Risica PM, et al. Factors associated with thorough skin self-examination for the early detection of melanoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Sep;21(8):1074-81. Abstract

74. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. Dec 2021 [internet publication].Full text

75. Cancer Council Australia Melanoma Guidelines Working Party. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of melanoma. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

76. Michielin O, van Akkooi ACJ, Ascierto PA, et al. Cutaneous melanoma: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2019 Dec 1;30(12):1884-901.Full text  Abstract

77. Garbe C, Amaral T, Peris K, et al. European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline for melanoma. Part 2: treatment - update 2019. Eur J Cancer. 2020 Feb;126:159-77.Full text  Abstract

78. Lens MB, Nathan P, Bataille V. Excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma: updated pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Surg. 2007 Sep;142(9):885-91. Abstract

79. Utjés D, Malmstedt J, Teras J, et al. 2-cm versus 4-cm surgical excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm: long-term follow-up of a multicentre, randomised trial. Lancet. 2019 Aug 10;394(10197):471-7. Abstract

80. Cohn-Cedermark G, Rutqvist LE, Andersson R, et al. Long term results of a randomized study by the Swedish Melanoma Study Group on 2-cm versus 5-cm resection margins for patients with cutaneous melanoma with a tumor thickness of 0.8-2.0 mm. Cancer. 2000 Oct 1;89(7):1495-501. Abstract

81. Wong E, Axibal E, Brown M. Mohs micrographic surgery. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2019 Feb;27(1):15-34. Abstract

82. Cheraghlou S, Christensen SR, Agogo GO, et al. Comparison of survival after Mohs micrographic surgery vs wide margin excision for early-stage invasive melanoma. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 Nov 1;155(11):1252-9.Full text  Abstract

83. Nosrati A, Berliner JG, Goel S, et al. Outcomes of melanoma in situ treated with Mohs micrographic surgery compared with wide local excision. JAMA Dermatol. 2017 May 1;153(5):436-41.Full text  Abstract

84. Luke JJ, Rutkowski P, Queirolo P, et al. LBA3_PR - Pembrolizumab versus placebo after complete resection of high-risk stage II melanoma: efficacy and safety results from the KEYNOTE-716 double-blind phase III trial. Ann Oncol. 2021 Sep;32(suppl 5):S1283-346.Full text

85. ClinicalTrials.gov. Safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab compared to placebo in resected high-risk stage II melanoma (MK-3475-716/KEYNOTE-716). Aug 2021 [internet publication].Full text

86. Ollila DW. Complete metastasectomy in patients with stage IV metastatic melanoma. Lancet Oncol. 2006 Nov;7(11):919-24. Abstract

87. Kroon BB. Surgery for distant metastatic melanoma improves survival. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012 Aug;19(8):2426-7.Full text  Abstract

88. Faries MB, Thompson JF, Cochran AJ, et al. Completion dissection or observation for sentinel-node metastasis in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jun 8;376(23):2211-22.Full text  Abstract

89. Leiter U, Stadler R, Mauch C, et al. Complete lymph node dissection versus no dissection in patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy positive melanoma (DeCOG-SLT): a multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jun;17(6):757-67. Abstract

90. Burmeister BH, Henderson MA, Ainslie J, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy versus observation alone for patients at risk of lymph-node field relapse after therapeutic lymphadenectomy for melanoma: a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Jun;13(6):589-97. Abstract

91. Weber J, Mandala M, Del Vecchio M, et al. Adjuvant nivolumab versus ipilimumab in resected stage III or IV melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 9;377(19):1824-35.Full text  Abstract

92. Eggermont AMM, Blank CU, Mandala M, et al. Adjuvant pembrolizumab versus placebo in resected stage III melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2018 May 10;378(19):1789-801.Full text  Abstract

93. Eggermont AMM, Blank CU, Mandala M, et al. Prognostic and predictive value of AJCC-8 staging in the phase III EORTC1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial of pembrolizumab vs placebo in resected high-risk stage III melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 2019 Jul;116:148-57. Abstract

94. Eggermont AMM, Blank CU, Mandalà M, et al. Adjuvant pembrolizumab versus placebo in resected stage III melanoma (EORTC 1325-MG/KEYNOTE-054): distant metastasis-free survival results from a double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 May;22(5):643-54. Abstract

95. Long GV, Hauschild A, Santinami M, et al. Adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib in stage III BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 9;377(19):1813-23.Full text  Abstract

96. Hauschild A, Dummer R, Schadendorf D, et al. Longer follow-up confirms relapse-free survival benefit with adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with resected BRAF V600-mutant stage III melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Dec 10;36(35):3441-9.Full text  Abstract

97. Dummer R, Hauschild A, Santinami M, et al. Five-year analysis of adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib in stage III melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 17;383(12):1139-48.Full text  Abstract

98. Maio M, Lewis K, Demidov L, et al. Adjuvant vemurafenib in resected, BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma (BRIM8): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 Apr;19(4):510-20. Abstract

99. Andtbacka RHI, Collichio F, Harrington KJ, et al. Final analyses of OPTiM: a randomized phase III trial of talimogene laherparepvec versus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in unresectable stage III-IV melanoma. J Immunother Cancer. 2019 Jun 6;7(1):145.Full text  Abstract

100. Andtbacka RH, Kaufman HL, Collichio F, et al. Talimogene laherparepvec improves durable response rate in patients with advanced melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Sep 1;33(25):2780-8.Full text  Abstract

101. Caracò C, Mozzillo N, Marone U, et al. Long-lasting response to electrochemotherapy in melanoma patients with cutaneous metastasis. BMC Cancer. 2013 Dec 1;13:564.Full text  Abstract

102. Kunte C, Letulé V, Gehl J, et al. Electrochemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma: a prospective cohort study by InspECT. Br J Dermatol. 2017 Jun;176(6):1475-85. Abstract

103. Robert C, Schachter J, Long GV, et al. Pembrolizumab versus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jun 25;372(26):2521-32. Abstract

104. Robert C, Long GV, Brady B, et al. Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 22;372(4):320-30.Full text  Abstract

105. Robert C, Long GV, Brady B, et al. Five-year outcomes with nivolumab in patients with wild-type BRAF advanced melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Nov 20;38(33):3937-46.Full text  Abstract

106. Ivashko IN, Kolesar JM. Pembrolizumab and nivolumab: PD-1 inhibitors for advanced melanoma. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016 Feb 15;73(4):193-201. Abstract

107. Schachter J, Ribas A, Long GV, et al. Pembrolizumab versus ipilimumab for advanced melanoma: final overall survival results of a multicentre, randomised, open-label phase 3 study (KEYNOTE-006). Lancet. 2017 Oct 21;390(10105):1853-62. Abstract

108. Thompson JA, Schneider BJ, Brahmer J, et al. Management of immunotherapy-related toxicities, version 1.2019. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2019 Mar 1;17(3):255-89.Full text  Abstract

109. Qian DC, Kleber T, Brammer B, et al. Effect of immunotherapy time-of-day infusion on overall survival among patients with advanced melanoma in the USA (MEMOIR): a propensity score-matched analysis of a single-centre, longitudinal study. Lancet Oncol. 2021 Dec;22(12):1777-86. Abstract

110. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab for treating advanced melanoma. Jul 2016 [internet publication].Full text

111. Larkin J, Chiarion-Sileni V, Gonzalez R, et al. Combined nivolumab and ipilimumab or monotherapy in untreated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):23-34. Abstract

112. Larkin J, Chiarion-Sileni V, Gonzalez R, et al. Five-year survival with combined nivolumab and ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2019 Oct 17;381(16):1535-46.Full text  Abstract

113. Wolchok JD, Chiarion-Sileni V, Gonzalez R, et al. Long-term outcomes with nivolumab plus ipilimumab or nivolumab alone versus ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2022 Jan 10;40(2):127-37.Full text  Abstract

114. Keilholz U, Ascierto PA, Dummer R, et al. ESMO consensus conference recommendations on the management of metastatic melanoma: under the auspices of the ESMO Guidelines Committee. Ann Oncol. 2020 Nov;31(11):1435-48.Full text  Abstract

115. Robert C, Karaszewska B, Schachter J, et al. Improved overall survival in melanoma with combined dabrafenib and trametinib. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 1;372(1):30-9.Full text  Abstract

116. Long GV, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, et al. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition versus BRAF inhibition alone in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1877-88.Full text  Abstract

117. Larkin J, Ascierto PA, Dréno B, et al. Combined vemurafenib and cobimetinib in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 13;371(20):1867-76.Full text  Abstract

118. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Dabrafenib with trametinib for adjuvant treatment of resected BRAF V600 mutation-positive melanoma. Oct 2018 [internet publication].Full text

119. Robert C, Grob JJ, Stroyakovskiy D, et al. Five-year outcomes with dabrafenib plus trametinib in metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 15;381(7):626-36.Full text  Abstract

120. Dummer R, Ascierto PA, Gogas HJ, et al. Overall survival in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma receiving encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2018 Oct;19(10):1315-27. Abstract

121. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Encorafenib with binimetinib for unresectable or metastatic BRAF V600 mutation-positive melanoma. Feb 2019 [internet publication].Full text

122. Gutzmer R, Stroyakovskiy D, Gogas H, et al. Atezolizumab, vemurafenib, and cobimetinib as first-line treatment for unresectable advanced BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma (IMspire150): primary analysis of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2020 Jun 13;395(10240):1835-44. Abstract

123. Nathan P, Dummer R, Long GV, et al. LBA43 Spartalizumab plus dabrafenib and trametinib (Sparta-DabTram) in patients (pts) with previously untreated BRAF V600–mutant unresectable or metastatic melanoma: Results from the randomized part 3 of the phase III COMBI-i trial. Ann Oncol. 2020;31(suppl 4):S1172.Full text

124. Hodi FS, O'Day SJ, McDermott DF, et al. Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2010 Aug 19;363(8):711-23.Full text  Abstract

125. Margolin K, Ernstoff MS, Hamid O, et al. Ipilimumab in patients with melanoma and brain metastases: an open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 May;13(5):459-65. Abstract

126. Middelton MR, Grob JJ, Aaaronson N, et al. Randomized phase III study of temozolomide versus dacarbazine in the treatment of patients with advanced metastatic malignant melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2000 Jan;18(1):158-66. Abstract

127. Eggermont AM, Kirkwood JM. Re-evaluating the role of dacarbazine in metastatic melanoma: what have we learned in 30 years? Eur J Cancer. 2004 Aug;40(12):1825-36. Abstract

128. Flaherty KT, Lee SJ, Zhao F, et al. Phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel with or without sorafenib in metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jan 20;31(3):373-9.Full text  Abstract

129. Hersh E, Del Vecchio M, Brown M, et al. Phase 3, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of nab-paclitaxel (nab-P) vs dacarbazine (DTIC) in previously untreated patients with metastatic malignant melanoma (MMM). Society of Melanoma Research Meeting. Los Angeles. 2012.

130. Atkins MB, Lotze MT, Dutcher JP, et al. High-dose recombinant interleukin 2 therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma: analysis of 270 patients treated between 1985 and 1993. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Jul;17(7):2105-16. Abstract

131. Atkins MB, Hsu J, Lee S, et al. Phase III trial comparing concurrent biochemotherapy with cisplatin, vinblastine, dacarbazine, interleukin-2, and interferon alfa-2b with cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine alone in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma (E3695): a trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Dec 10;26(35):5748-54.Full text  Abstract

132. D'Angelo SP, Larkin J, Sosman JA, et al. Efficacy and safety of nivolumab alone or in combination with ipilimumab in patients with mucosal melanoma: a pooled analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jan 10;35(2):226-35.Full text  Abstract

133. Seegenschmiedt MH, Keilholz L, Altendorf-Hofmann A, et al. Palliative radiotherapy for recurrent and metastatic malignant melanoma: prognostic factors for tumor response and long-term outcome: a 20-year experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999 Jun 1;44(3):607-18. Abstract

134. Young RF. Radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases. Semin Surg Oncol. 1998 Jan;14(1):70-8. Abstract

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