Type 1 diabetes mellitus

References

Key articles

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. 2022;45(1 suppl):S1-2.Full text

Norris JM, Johnson RK, Stene LC. Type 1 diabetes-early life origins and changing epidemiology. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Mar;8(3):226-38.Full text  Abstract

Chiang JL, Maahs DM, Garvey KC, et al. Type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: a position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2018 Aug 9;41(9):2026-44.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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11. EURODIAB ACE Study Group. Variation and trends in incidence of childhood diabetes in Europe. Lancet. 2000 Mar 11;355(9207):873-6. Abstract

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16. Norris JM, Johnson RK, Stene LC. Type 1 diabetes-early life origins and changing epidemiology. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Mar;8(3):226-38.Full text  Abstract

17. Atkinson MA, Maclaren NK. The pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 24;331(21):1428-36. Abstract

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19. Hyöty H. Viruses in type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2016 Jul;17 Suppl 22:56-64. Abstract

20. Devendra D, Liu E, Eisenbarth GS. Type 1 diabetes: recent developments. BMJ. 2004 Mar 27;328(7442):750-4.Full text  Abstract

21. Hober D, Sauter P. Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus: interplay between enterovirus and host. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010 May;6(5):279-89. Abstract

22. Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, et al. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet. 2001 Nov 3;358(9292):1500-3. Abstract

23. Wolden-Kirk H, Overbergh L, Christesen HT, et al. Vitamin D and diabetes: its importance for beta cell and immune function. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Aug 26;347(1-2):106-20. Abstract

24. Hyytinen M, Savilahti E, Virtanen SM, et al; FInnish TRIGR Pilot Study Group. Avoidance of cow's milk-based formula for at-risk infants does not reduce development of celiac disease: a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology. 2017 Jul 5;153(4):961-70.e3.Full text  Abstract

25. Uusitalo U, Lee HS, Andrén Aronsson C, et al; TEDDY Study Group. Early infant diet and islet autoimmunity in the TEDDY Study. Diabetes Care. 2018 Jan 17;41(3):522-30.Full text  Abstract

26. Silvis K, Aronsson CA, Liu X, et al; TEDDY Study Group. Maternal dietary supplement use and development of islet autoimmunity in the offspring: TEDDY study. Pediatr Diabetes. 2018 Dec 9;20(1):86-92.Full text  Abstract

27. Kakleas K, Karayianni C, Critselis E, et al. The prevalence and risk factors for coeliac disease among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Nov;90(2):202-8. Abstract

28. Hagopian W, Lee HS, Liu E, et al; TEDDY Study Group. Co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes and celiac disease autoimmunity. Pediatrics. 2017 Oct 10;140(5):e20171305.Full text  Abstract

29. Ludvigsson JF, Ludvigsson J, Ekbom A, et al. Celiac disease and risk of subsequent type 1 diabetes: a general population cohort study of children and adolescents. Diabetes Care. 2006 Nov;29(11):2483-8.Full text  Abstract

30. Ziegler AG, Hummel M, Schenker M, et al. Autoantibody appearance and risk for development of childhood diabetes in offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes: the 2-year analysis of the German BABYDIAB study. Diabetes. 1999 Mar;48(3):460-8. Abstract

31. Wenzlau JM, Juhl K, Yu L, et al. The cation efflux transporter ZnT8 (Slc30A8) is a major autoantigen in human type 1 diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007 Oct 23;104(43):17040-5.Full text  Abstract

32. Niskanen L, Tuomi T, Karjalainen J, et al. GAD antibodies in NIDDM. Ten-year follow-up from the diagnosis. Diabetes Care. 1995 Dec;18(12):1557-65. Abstract

33. Garg R, Chaudhuri A, Munschauer F, et al. Hyperglycemia, insulin, and acute ischemic stroke: a mechanistic justification for a trial of insulin infusion therapy. Stroke. 2006 Jan;37(1):267-73.Full text  Abstract

34. Pociot F, Lernmark Å. Genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes. Lancet. 2016 Jun 4;387(10035):2331-9.Full text  Abstract

35. Hyttinen V, Kaprio J, Kinnunen L, et al. Genetic liability of type 1 diabetes and the onset age among 22,650 young Finnish twin pairs: a nationwide follow-up study. Diabetes. 2003 Apr;52(4):1052-5.Full text  Abstract

36. Gillespie KM, Bain SC, Barnett AH, et al. The rising incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes and reduced contribution of high-risk HLA haplotypes. Lancet. 2004 Nov 6-12;364(9446):1699-700. Abstract

37. Lund-Blix NA, Dydensborg Sander S, Størdal K, et al. Infant feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes in two large Scandinavian birth cohorts. Diabetes Care. 2017 May 9;40(7):920-7.Full text  Abstract

38. Usher-Smith JA, Thompson MJ, Zhu H, et al. The pathway to diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children: a questionnaire study. BMJ Open. 2015 Mar 17;5(3):e006470.Full text  Abstract

39. Cherubini V, Grimsmann JM, Åkesson K, et al. Temporal trends in diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of paediatric type 1 diabetes between 2006 and 2016: results from 13 countries in three continents. Diabetologia. 2020 Aug;63(8):1530-41.Full text  Abstract

40. Usher-Smith JA, Thompson MJ, Sharp SJ, et al. Factors associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of diabetes in children and young adults: a systematic review. BMJ. 2011 Jul 7;343:d4092.Full text  Abstract

41. Fayfman M, Pasquel FJ, Umpierrez GE. Management of Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State. Med Clin North Am. 2017 May;101(3):587-606.Full text  Abstract

42. O'Neal KS, Johnson JL, Panak RL. Recognizing and appropriately treating latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Diabetes Spectr. 2016 Nov;29(4):249-52.Full text  Abstract

43. Gale EA. The discovery of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2001 Feb;50(2):217-26. Abstract

44. Chiang JL, Maahs DM, Garvey KC, et al. Type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: a position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2018 Aug 9;41(9):2026-44.Full text  Abstract

45. Pihoker C, Gilliam LK, Ellard S, et al; SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group. Prevalence, characteristics and clinical diagnosis of maturity onset diabetes of the young due to mutations in HNF1A, HNF4A, and glucokinase: results from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jun 14;98(10):4055-62.Full text  Abstract

46. Peixoto-Barbosa R, Reis AF, Giuffrida FMA. Update on clinical screening of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2020;12:50.Full text  Abstract

47. Sanyoura M, Philipson LH, Naylor R. Monogenic diabetes in children and adolescents: recognition and treatment options. Curr Diab Rep. 2018 Jun 22;18(8):58. Abstract

48. Delvecchio M, Pastore C, Giordano P. Treatment options for MODY patients: a systematic review of literature. Diabetes Ther. 2020 Aug;11(8):1667-85.Full text  Abstract

49. Greeley SA, Naylor RN, Philipson LH, et al. Neonatal diabetes: an expanding list of genes allows for improved diagnosis and treatment. Curr Diab Rep. 2011 Dec;11(6):519-32.Full text  Abstract

50. Bingley PJ. Clinical applications of diabetes antibody testing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;95(1):25-33.Full text  Abstract

51. Diabetes Canada (Canadian Diabetes Association). Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada. 2020 [internet publication].Full text

52. World Health Organization. Classification of diabetes mellitus. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019.Full text

53. International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes. ISPAD clinical practice consensus guidelines 2018. Aug 2018 [internet publication].Full text

54. Fullerton B, Jeitler K, Seitz M, et al. Intensive glucose control versus conventional glucose control for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 14;(2):CD009122.Full text  Abstract

55. Lachin JM, Bebu I, Nathan DM, et al. The beneficial effects of earlier versus later implementation of intensive therapy in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2021 Aug 11;44(10):2225-30. Abstract

56. Misso ML, Egberts KJ, Page M, et al. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple insulin injections for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD005103.Full text  Abstract

57. Beck RW, Buckingham B, Miller K, et al; Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring Study Group. Factors predictive of use and of benefit from continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 Nov;32(11):1947-53.Full text  Abstract

58. Tricco AC, Ashoor HM, Antony J, et al. Safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of long acting versus intermediate acting insulin for patients with type 1 diabetes: systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2014 Oct 1;349:g5459.Full text  Abstract

59. Laranjeira FO, de Andrade KR, Figueiredo AC, et al. Long-acting insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes: an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 2018 Apr 12;13(4):e0194801.Full text  Abstract

60. Fullerton B, Siebenhofer A, Jeitler K, et al. Short-acting insulin analogues versus regular human insulin for adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jun 30;(6):CD012161.Full text  Abstract

61. Avgerinos I, Papanastasiou G, Karagiannis T, et al. Ultra-rapid-acting insulins for adults with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2021 Oct;23(10):2395-401. Abstract

62. Monami M, Lamanna C, Marchionni N, et al. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily insulin injections in type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Acta Diabetol. 2010 Dec;47(1 suppl):77-81. Abstract

63. Li XL. Multiple daily injections versus insulin pump therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta analysis. J Clin Rehabil Tissue Eng Res. 2010;14(46):8722-5.

64. Cummins E, Royle P, Snaith A, et al. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for diabetes: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2010 Feb;14(11):iii-iv;xi-xvi;1-181.Full text  Abstract

65. Benkhadra K, Alahdab F, Tamhane SU, et al. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections in individuals with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Endocrine. 2016 Aug 1;55(1):77-84. Abstract

66. Kordonouri O, Hartmann R, Danne T. Treatment of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents using modern insulin pumps. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Aug;93(1 suppl):S118-24. Abstract

67. REPOSE Study Group. Relative effectiveness of insulin pump treatment over multiple daily injections and structured education during flexible intensive insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised trial (REPOSE). BMJ. 2017 Mar 30;356:j1285.Full text  Abstract

68. Burdick P, Cooper S, Horner B, et al. Use of a subcutaneous injection port to improve glycemia control in children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Apr;10(2):116-9. Abstract

69. Kaiserman K, Rodriguez H, Stephenson A, et al. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin lispro in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract. 2012 May-Jun;18(3):418-24. Abstract

70. Weisman A, Bai JW, Cardinez M, et al. Effect of artificial pancreas systems on glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of outpatient randomised controlled trials. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 May 19;5(7):501-12. Abstract

71. Phillip M, Battelino T, Atlas E, et al. Nocturnal glucose control with an artificial pancreas at a diabetes camp. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 28;368(9):824-33.Full text  Abstract

72. Bergenstal RM, Tamborlane WV, Ahmann A, et al. Effectiveness of sensor-augmented insulin-pump therapy in type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 22;363(4):311-20.Full text  Abstract

73. Brown SA, Kovatchev BP, Raghinaru D, et al. Six-month randomized, multicenter trial of closed-loop control in type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2019 Oct 31;381(18):1707-17.Full text  Abstract

74. Teo E, Hassan N, Tam W, et al. Effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring in maintaining glycaemic control among people with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2022 Apr;65(4):604-19.Full text  Abstract

75. Akturk HK, Snell-Bergeon JK, Rewers A, et al. Improved postprandial glucose with inhaled technosphere insulin compared with insulin aspart in patients with type 1 diabetes on multiple daily injections: the STAT study. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2018 Oct;20(10):639-47.Full text  Abstract

76. Gatto NM, Koralek DO, Bracken MB, et al. Lung cancer-related mortality with inhaled insulin or a comparator: follow-up study of patients previously enrolled in exubera controlled clinical trials (FUSE) final results. Diabetes Care. 2019 Sep;42(9):1708-15.Full text  Abstract

77. Thabit H, Prabhu JN, Mubita W, et al. Use of factory-calibrated real-time continuous glucose monitoring improves time in target and HbA1c in a multiethnic cohort of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes: the MILLENNIALS study. Diabetes Care. 2020 Oct;43(10):2537-43.Full text  Abstract

78. Laffel LM, Kanapka LG, Beck RW, et al. Effect of continuous glucose monitoring on glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020 Jun 16;323(23):2388-96.Full text  Abstract

79. Agarwal S, Cappola AR. Continuous glucose monitoring in adolescent, young adult, and older patients with type 1 diabetes. JAMA. 2020 Jun 16;323(23):2384-5.Full text  Abstract

80. Šoupal J, Petruželková L, Grunberger G, et al. Glycemic outcomes in adults with T1D are impacted more by continuous glucose monitoring than by insulin delivery method: 3 years of follow-up from the COMISAIR study. Diabetes Care. 2020 Jan;43(1):37-43.Full text  Abstract

81. Oliver N, Gimenez M, Calhoun P, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring in people with type 1 diabetes on multiple-dose injection therapy: the relationship between glycemic control and hypoglycemia. Diabetes Care. 2020 Jan;43(1):53-8.Full text  Abstract

82. Beck RW, Riddlesworth T, Ruedy K, et al; DIAMOND Study Group. Effect of continuous glucose monitoring on glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes using insulin injections: the DIAMOND randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Jan 24;317(4):371-8.Full text  Abstract

83. Benkhadra K, Alahdab F, Tamhane S, et al. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017 Mar;86(3):354-60. Abstract

84. Roussel R, Riveline JP, Vicaut E, et al. Important drop in rate of acute diabetes complications in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes after initiation of flash glucose monitoring in France: the RELIEF study. Diabetes Care. 2021 Jun;44(6):1368-76. Abstract

85. Chatterjee S, Davies MJ, Heller S, et al. Diabetes structured self-management education programmes: a narrative review and current innovations. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018 Feb;6(2):130-42. Abstract

86. Christie D, Thompson R, Sawtell M, et al. Structured, intensive education maximising engagement, motivation and long-term change for children and young people with diabetes: a cluster randomised controlled trial with integral process and economic evaluation - the CASCADE study. Health Technol Assess. 2014 Mar;18(20):1-202.Full text  Abstract

87. Ashwell SG, Gebbie J, Home PD. Twice-daily compared with once-daily insulin glargine in people with type 1 diabetes using meal-time insulin aspart. Diabet Med. 2006 Aug;23(8):879-86. Abstract

88. Evert AB, Dennison M, Gardner CD, et al. Nutrition therapy for adults with diabetes or prediabetes: a consensus report. Diabetes Care. 2019 May;42(5):731-54.Full text  Abstract

89. Chiavaroli L, Lee D, Ahmed A, et al. Effect of low glycaemic index or load dietary patterns on glycaemic control and cardiometabolic risk factors in diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2021 Aug 4;374:n1651.Full text  Abstract

90. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Yardley JE, et al. Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2016 Nov;39(11):2065-79.Full text  Abstract

91. Riddell MC, Gallen IW, Smart CE, et al. Exercise management in type 1 diabetes: a consensus statement. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 May;5(5):377-90. Abstract

92. Aronson R, Brown RE, Li A, et al. Optimal insulin correction factor in post-high-intensity exercise hyperglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes: the FIT Study. Diabetes Care. 2018 Nov 19;42(1):10-6. Abstract

93. Raju B, Arbelaez AM, Breckenridge SM, et al. Nocturnal hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: an assessment of preventive bedtime treatments. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;91(6):2087-92.Full text  Abstract

94. McCance DR, Casey C. Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2019 Sep;48(3):495-509.Full text  Abstract

95. Feldman AZ, Brown FM. Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy. Curr Diab Rep. 2016 Aug;16(8):76.Full text  Abstract

96. Tinker SC, Gilboa SM, Moore CA, et al. Specific birth defects in pregnancies of women with diabetes: National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2011. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Feb;222(2):176.e1-176.Full text  Abstract

97. Food and Drug Administration. Statins: drug safety communication - FDA requests removal of strongest warning against using cholesterol-lowering statins during pregnancy. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

98. Farrar D, Tuffnell DJ, West J, et al. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections of insulin for pregnant women with diabetes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jun 7;(6):CD005542.Full text  Abstract

99. Feig DS, Corcoy R, Donovan LE, et al. Pumps or multiple daily injections in pregnancy involving type 1 diabetes: a prespecified analysis of the CONCEPTT randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2018 Oct 16;41(12):2471-9.Full text  Abstract

100. Mathiesen ER, Hod M, Ivanisevic M, et al; Detemir in Pregnancy Study Group. Maternal efficacy and safety outcomes in a randomized, controlled trial comparing insulin detemir with NPH insulin in 310 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012 Oct;35(10):2012-7.Full text  Abstract

101. Feig DS, Donovan LE, Corcoy R, et al; CONCEPTT Collaborative Group. Continuous glucose monitoring in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (CONCEPTT): a multicentre international randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2017 Nov 25;390(10110):2347-59. [Erratum in: Lancet. 2017 Nov 25;390(10110):2346.]Full text  Abstract

102. Lv S, Wang J, Xu Y. Safety of insulin analogs during pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015 Oct;292(4):749-56.Full text  Abstract

103. Sturt J, Dennick K, Due-Christensen M, McCarthy K. The detection and management of diabetes distress in people with type 1 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep. 2015 Nov;15(11):101.Full text  Abstract

104. Rey Velasco E, Pals RAS, Skinner TC, Grabowski D. Pre-empting the challenges faced in adolescence: A systematic literature review of effects of psychosocial interventions for preteens with type 1 diabetes. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2020 Mar 3;3(2):e00120.Full text  Abstract

105. Kodama S, Morikawa S, Horikawa C, et al. Effect of family-oriented diabetes programs on glycemic control: a meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 2019 Jul 31;36(4):387-94.Full text  Abstract

106. Pullman J, Darsow T, Frias JP. Pramlintide in the management of insulin-using patients with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2006;2(3):203-12.Full text  Abstract

107. Ludvigsson J, Faresjö M, Hjorth M, et al. GAD treatment and insulin secretion in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Oct 30;359(18):1909-20.Full text  Abstract

108. Xin GLL, Khee YP, Ying TY, et al. Current Status on Immunological Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Curr Diab Rep. 2019 Mar 23;19(5):22.Full text  Abstract

109. Rewers M, Gottlieb P. Immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes: human trials and a look into the future. Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct;32(10):1769-82.Full text  Abstract

110. Sherry N, Hagopian W, Ludvigsson J, et al. Teplizumab for treatment of type 1 diabetes (Protégé study): 1-year results from a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011 Aug 6;378(9790):487-97.Full text  Abstract

111. Hagopian W, Ferry RJ Jr, Sherry N, et al. Teplizumab preserves C-peptide in recent-onset type 1 diabetes: two-year results from the randomized, placebo-controlled Protégé trial. Diabetes. 2013 Nov;62(11):3901-8.Full text  Abstract

112. Herold KC, Bundy BN, Long SA, et al. An anti-CD3 antibody, teplizumab, in relatives at risk for type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2019 Aug 15;381(7):603-13.Full text  Abstract

113. Vantyghem MC, de Koning EJP, Pattou F, Rickels MR. Advances in β-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Lancet. 2019 Oct 5;394(10205):1274-85.Full text  Abstract

114. Shapiro AM, Ricordi C, Hering BJ, et al. International trial of the Edmonton protocol for islet transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2006 Sep 28;355(13):1318-30.Full text  Abstract

115. Ryan EA, Paty BW, Senior PA, et al. Five-year follow-up after clinical islet transplantation. Diabetes. 2005 Jul;54(7):2060-9.Full text  Abstract

116. Krentz NAJ, Shea LD, Huising MO, et al. Restoring normal islet mass and function in type 1 diabetes through regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021 Oct;9(10):708-24. Abstract

117. Vella S, Buetow L, Royle P, et al. The use of metformin in type 1 diabetes: a systematic review of efficacy. Diabetologia. 2010 May;53(5):809-20.Full text  Abstract

118. DeGeeter M, Williamson B. Alternative agents in type 1 diabetes in addition to insulin therapy: metformin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, pioglitazone, GLP-1 agonists, DPP-IV inhibitors, and SGLT-2 inhibitors. J Pharm Pract. 2016 Apr;29(2):144-59. Abstract

119. Petrie JR, Chaturvedi N, Ford I, et al; REMOVAL Study Group. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of metformin in patients with type 1 diabetes (REMOVAL): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Aug;5(8):597-609.Full text  Abstract

120. Garg SK, Henry RR, Banks P, et al. Effects of sotagliflozin added to insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017 Dec 14;377(24):2337-48.Full text  Abstract

121. Hampp C, Swain RS, Horgan C, et al. Use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in patients with type 1 diabetes and rates of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care. 2020 Jan;43(1):90-7.Full text  Abstract

122. Danne T, Cariou B, Buse JB, et al. Improved time in range and glycemic variability with sotagliflozin in combination with insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes: a pooled analysis of 24-week continuous glucose monitoring data from the inTandem Program. Diabetes Care. 2019 May;42(5):919-30. Abstract

123. Buse JB, Garg SK, Rosenstock J, et al. Sotagliflozin in combination with optimized insulin therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes: the North American inTandem1 Study. Diabetes Care. 2018 Jun 24;41(9):1970-80.Full text  Abstract

124. Danne T, Cariou B, Banks P, et al. HbA1c and hypoglycemia reductions at 24 and 52 weeks with sotagliflozin in combination with insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes: the European inTandem2 Study. Diabetes Care. 2018 Jun 24;41(9):1981-90.Full text  Abstract

125. Musso G, Gambino R, Cassader M, et al. Efficacy and safety of dual SGLT 1/2 inhibitor sotagliflozin in type 1 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2019 Apr 9;365:l1328.Full text  Abstract

126. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sotagliflozin with insulin for treating type 1 diabetes – guidance (TA622). February 2020 [internet publication].Full text

127. Palanca A, van Nes F, Pardo F, et al. Real-world Evidence of Efficacy and Safety of SGLT2 Inhibitors as Adjunctive Therapy in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A European Two-Center Experience. Diabetes Care. 2022 Mar 1;45(3):650-8.Full text  Abstract

128. Janzen KM, Steuber TD, Nisly SA. GLP-1 agonists in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Ann Pharmacother. 2016 Aug;50(8):656-65. Abstract

129. Matschinsky FM. Assessing the potential of glucokinase activators in diabetes therapy. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2009 May;8(5):399-416.Full text  Abstract

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